Laurent Azoulay

Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Montréal, Quebec, Canada

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Publications (105)637.72 Total impact

  • Marco Tuccori · Kristian B. Filion · Laurent Azoulay

    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute
  • Vicky Tagalakis · Maria Eberg · Susan Kahn · Laurent Azoulay
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    ABSTRACT: We aimed to determine whether statin use is associated with a decreased risk of recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) in older patients. We used a pre-assembled cohort of patients at least 65 years of age diagnosed with incident VTE between January 1, 1994 and December 31, 2004 in the province of Québec, Canada and followed until December 31, 2005. Time-dependent Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) of recurrent VTE associated with current and past use of statins, compared with non-use. The cohort included 25,681 patients with incident VTE. During a mean follow-up of 3.0 years, there were 2343 recurrent VTE events (rate: 3.1 per 100 person-years). Compared with non-use, current use of statins was associated with a decreased risk of VTE recurrence (rates: 1.55 vs 3.47 per 100 per year, respectively; HR: 0.74, 95 % CI: 0.61-0.89), while no association was observed with past use (HR: 0.98, 95 % CI: 0.76-1.25). In a secondary analysis, longer durations of statin use were associated with greater risk reductions (0-6 months, HR 0.82, 95 % CI: 0.67-1.01; 6-12 months, HR 0.62, 95 % CI: 0.43-0.90; ≥ 12 months, HR: 0.50, 95 % CI: 0.33-0.74; p-value for trend ≤ 0.001). The use of statin was associated with a decreased risk of recurrent VTE in older patients. This study supports the need for randomised controlled trials to assess the efficacy and safety of statins in the long-term treatment of VTE.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Thrombosis and Haemostasis
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    Full-text · Dataset · Jan 2016
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: While bleeding is a well-known complication of warfarin use and is thought to be a contributory cause of treatment discontinuation, studies quantifying this association are limited. The objective of this study was to quantify the association between bleeding events and subsequent warfarin discontinuation in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). Methods: A nested case-control analysis was conducted within a cohort of patients with NVAF newly treated with warfarin. All patients who discontinued warfarin (at least 60 days from last day of warfarin supply) during follow-up were identified as cases, and matched with up to 10 controls on age, sex, and duration of follow-up. The index date was defined as the date of warfarin treatment discontinuation of the cases. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of warfarin treatment discontinuation associated with a bleeding event in the 60 days before the index date. Results: The cohort included 24,243 patients who initiated warfarin treatment, of whom 13,482 discontinued treatment during follow-up (cases). Bleeding was associated with an increased risk of warfarin treatment discontinuation (3.55% vs 0.85%; OR, 4.31; 95% CI, 3.87-4.81). When including only bleeds as the first listed diagnosis, the unadjusted OR was 4.64 (95% CI, 4.10-5.26), and the adjusted OR was 4.65 (95% CI, 4.10-5.27). Conclusions: Bleeding was significantly associated with warfarin discontinuation, and thus the selection of an effective treatment regimen associated with a lower bleeding rate could be a desirable treatment approach. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Cardiovascular Therapeutics
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    Full-text · Dataset · Jan 2016
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Observational studies examining the association between long-acting insulin analogs and cancer incidence have produced inconsistent results. We conducted a systematic review of these studies, focusing on their methodological strengths and weaknesses. Research design and methods: We systematically searched MEDLINE and EMBASE from 2000 to 2014 to identify all observational studies evaluating the relationship between the long-acting insulin analogs and the risk of any and site-specific cancers (breast, colorectal, prostate). We included cohort and case-control studies published in English on insulin glargine and detemir and any cancer incidence among patients with type 1 or 2 diabetes. The methodological assessment involved the inclusion of prevalent users, inclusion of lag periods, time-related biases, and duration of follow-up between insulin initiation and cancer incidence. Results: A total of 16 cohort and 3 case-control studies met our inclusion criteria. All studies evaluated insulin glargine, and four studies also examined insulin detemir. Follow-up ranged from 0.9 to 7.0 years. Thirteen of fifteen studies reported no association between insulin glargine and detemir and any cancer. Four of thirteen studies reported an increased risk of breast cancer with insulin glargine. In the quality assessment, 7 studies included prevalent users, 11 did not consider a lag period, 6 had time-related biases, and 16 had short (<5 years) follow-up. Conclusions: The observational studies examining the risk of cancer associated with long-acting insulin analogs have important methodological shortcomings that limit the conclusions that can be drawn. Thus, uncertainty remains, particularly for breast cancer risk.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Diabetes care
  • T.M. Niazi · N. Awj · L. Azoulay · B. Bahoric · Y. Hui · T. Vuong

    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
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    Marco Tuccori · Jennifer W Wu · Hui Yin · Agnieszka Majdan · Laurent Azoulay
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether the use of glyburide is associated with an increased risk of cancer compared with the use of other second-generation sulfonylureas among patients with type 2 diabetes. The U.K. Clinical Practice Research Datalink was used to conduct a cohort study among 52,600 patients newly prescribed glyburide or other second-generation sulfonylureas between 1 January 1988 and 31 July 2013. A time-dependent Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs of any cancer associated with the use of glyburide compared with the use of second-generation sulfonylureas. Secondary analyses were conducted to determine whether the association varied with cumulative duration of use and cumulative dose (expressed as defined daily dose [DDD]). During 280,288 person-years of follow-up, 4,105 patients were given a new diagnosis of cancer (incidence rate 14.6 per 1,000 person-years). Overall, when compared with the use of other second-generation sulfonylureas, the use of glyburide was associated with a nonsignificant increased risk of any cancer (HR 1.09 [95% CI 0.98-1.22]). In secondary analyses, duration- and dose-response relationships were observed, with longer cumulative durations and cumulative doses associated with an increased risk of any cancer (>36 months: HR 1.21 [95% CI: 1.03-1.42]; >1,096 DDDs: HR 1.27 [95% CI 1.06-1.51]). In this population-based cohort study, longer cumulative durations and higher cumulative doses of glyburide were associated with an increased risk of cancer. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · Diabetes care
  • Adi Klil-Drori · Laurent Azoulay

    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · JAMA Internal Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Few observational studies have investigated the association between androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with prostate cancer (PCa). To determine whether the use of different types of ADT in patients with PCa is associated with an increased incidence of VTE. A population-based cohort study was conducted using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink linked to the Hospital Episode Statistics repository. The cohort consisted of men newly diagnosed with PCa between April 1, 1998, and March 31, 2014. Cox proportional hazards models with a time-varying exposure definition were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of patients hospitalized for VTE associated with current and past ADT use compared with nonuse. A secondary analysis was conducted to assess the risk with current use of specific types of ADT. The cohort included 21 729 patients, of whom 609 were hospitalized for VTE during follow-up. Current ADT use was associated with an 84% increased risk of VTE (incidence rates: 10.1 vs 4.8 per 1000 person-years; HR: 1.84; 95% CI, 1.50-2.26), whereas there was no association with past use (HR: 1.07; 95% CI, 0.81-1.42). In the secondary analysis, most types of ADT were associated with a high risk of VTE. Residual confounding is possible given the observational nature of the study. The use of ADT was associated with an overall 84% increased risk of VTE, with the risk elevated for most ADT types. In this study, we investigated whether androgen deprivation therapy was associated with the risk of blood clots in a cohort of patients with prostate cancer. We observed that the risk was nearly doubled in patients who used ADT compared with those who never used it. This treatment should be reserved for patients for whom the benefits outweigh the risks. Copyright © 2015 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · European Urology
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    Laurent Azoulay
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    ABSTRACT: Over the past few years, substantial clinical data have been presented showing that incretin-based therapies are effective glucose-lowering agents. Specifically, glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists demonstrate an efficacy comparable to insulin treatment with minimal hypoglycemia and have favorable effects on body weight. Thus, many of the unmet clinical needs noted from prior therapies are addressed by these agents. However, even after many years of use, many continue to raise concerns about the long-term safety of these agents and, in particular, the concern with pancreatitis. This clearly remains a complicated topic. Thus, in this issue of Diabetes Care, we continue to update our readers on this very important issue by presenting two studies evaluating incretin-based medications and risk of pancreatitis. Both have undergone significant revisions based on peer review that provided significant clarification of the data. We applaud both author groups for being extremely responsive in providing the additional data and revisions requested by the editorial team. As such, because of the critical peer review, we feel both articles achieve the high level we require for Diabetes Care and are pleased to now present them to our readers. In keeping with our aim to comprehensively evaluate this topic, we asked for additional commentaries to be prepared. In the narrative outlined below, Dr. Laurent Azoulay provides a commentary about the remaining uncertainty in this area and also discusses the results from a nationwide population-based case-control study. In the narrative preceding Dr. Azoulay's contribution, Prof. Edwin A.M. Gale provides a commentary on the report that focuses on clinical trials of liraglutide in the treatment of diabetes. From the journal's perspective, both of the articles on pancreatitis and incretin-based therapies reported in this issue have been well vetted, and we feel both of the commentaries are insightful.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Diabetes care
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    Laurent Azoulay · Maria Eberg · Serge Benayoun · Michael Pollak
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    ABSTRACT: 5α-Reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs) are widely used in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. However, randomized clinical trials have raised concerns that their use may be associated with an increased risk of high-grade prostate cancer tumors that would ultimately lead to worse prostate cancer outcomes. To date, few observational studies have addressed this important safety concern. To determine whether the use of 5-ARIs before prostate cancer diagnosis is associated with an increased risk of cancer-specific and all-cause mortality in men with a new diagnosis of prostate cancer in the real-world setting. A retrospective cohort study was conducted in a cohort of 13 892 men with a new diagnosis of prostate cancer between January 1, 1999, and December 31, 2009, who were followed up until October 1, 2012. Patients were individually linked across 4 databases from the United Kingdom: National Cancer Data Repository, Clinical Practice Research Datalink, Hospital Episodes Statistics database, and Office for National Statistics database. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs of prostate cancer-specific and all-cause mortality associated with prediagnostic use of 5-ARIs. For each outcome, 2 models were constructed, one adjusted for predefined covariates (conventional model) and another adjusted for high-dimensional propensity score (HD-PS) deciles. During a mean (SD) of 4.5 (3.1) years, 5001 deaths occurred, including 2429 from prostate cancer (crude incidence rate of 3.86 per 100 person-years [95% CI, 3.71-4.02]). In the conventional model, use of 5-ARIs before prostate cancer diagnosis was not associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality (crude incidence rates, 3.76 [95% CI, 3.04-4.59] [use] vs 3.87 [95% CI, 3.71-4.03] [nonuse] per 100 person-years; adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.86 [95% CI, 0.69-1.06]) and all-cause mortality (crude incidence rates, 8.42 [95% CI, 7.32-9.64] [use] vs 7.93 [95% CI, 7.71-8.16] [nonuse] per 100 person-years; aHR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.75-1.00). Similar results were observed with the HD-PS adjusted model (prostate cancer-specific mortality: aHR, 0.90 [95% CI, 0.73-1.13]; and all-cause mortality: aHR, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.80-1.07]). The use of 5-ARIs was not associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer-specific and all-cause mortality in men with a new diagnosis of prostate cancer. While these results provide reassurance, additional studies are needed to replicate these findings.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015

  • No preview · Article · May 2015 · Revue d Épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
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    ABSTRACT: Aim High-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRBT) appears to be associated with less treatment-related toxicity compared with external beam radiotherapy in patients with rectal cancer. The present study compared the effect of preoperative treatment strategies on overall survival, cancer-specific deaths, and local recurrences between a Dutch and Canadian expert center with different preoperative treatment strategies. Patients and methods We included 145 Dutch and 141 Canadian patients with cT3, non-metastasized rectal cancer. All patients from Canada were preoperatively treated with HDRBT. The preoperative treatment strategy for Dutch patients consisted of either no preoperative treatment, short-course radiotherapy, or chemoradiotherapy. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) comparing overall survival. We adjusted for age, cN stage, (y)pT stage, comorbidity, and type of surgery. Primary endpoint was overall survival. Secondary endpoints were cancer-specific deaths and local recurrences. Results Five-year overall survival was 70.9% (95% CI 62.6%-77.7%) in Dutch patients compared with 86.9% (80.1%-91.6%) in Canadian patients, resulting in an adjusted HR of 0.70 (95% CI 0.39-1.26; p = 0.233). Of 145 Dutch patients, 6.9% (95% CI 2.8%-11.0%) had a local recurrence and 17.9% (95% CI 11.7%-24.2%) patients died of rectal cancer, compared with 4.3% (95% CI 0.9%-7.5%) local recurrences and 10.6% (95% CI 5.5%-15.7%) rectal cancer deaths out of 141 Canadian patients. Conclusion We did not detect statistically significant differences in overall survival between a Dutch and Canadian expert center with different treatment strategies. This finding needs to be further investigated in a randomized controlled trial.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · European Journal of Surgical Oncology
  • Oriana Hoi Yun Yu · Hui Yin · Laurent Azoulay
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether the combination of dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors vs. sulfonylureas with metformin after failure of first-line treatment is associated with a decreased risk for major adverse cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction and stroke) and for all-cause mortality. Using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink, a cohort of patients newly treated with metformin or sulfonylurea monotherapy between January 1, 1988, and December 31, 2011, was identified and was followed until December 31, 2012. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models to compare the DPP-4 inhibitor-metformin combination to the sulfonylurea-metformin combination so as to study the risk for a composite endpoint consisting of myocardial infarction, stroke and all-cause mortality. The models were adjusted for high-dimensional propensity score deciles. The cohort consisted of 11,807 patients that included 2286 on a DPP-4 inhibitor-metformin combination and 9521 on a sulfonylurea-metformin combination. The crude incidence rates (95% CIs) of the composite endpoint were 1.2% (0.8% to 1.7%) and 2.2% (1.9% to 2.5%) per year for the DPP-4 inhibitor-metformin and sulfonylurea-metformin combinations, respectively. In the high-dimensional propensity score-adjusted model, the use of the DPP-4 inhibitor-metformin combination was associated with a 38% decreased risk for the composite endpoint (adjusted HR: 0.62; 95% CI 0.40 to 0.98), compared with the sulfonylurea-metformin combination. The use of a DPP-4 inhibitor combination with metformin, compared with a sulfonylurea-metformin combination, was associated with decreased risks for major cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015
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    ABSTRACT: AimDipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors may alter the immune response and increase the risk of infections, but evidence for this association is limited. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine whether the use of DPP-4 inhibitors is associated with an increased risk of community-acquired pneumonia.Materials and methodsThe United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) and the Hospital Episodes Statistics (HES) database were used to conduct a nested case-control analysis within a cohort of new users of anti-diabetic drugs between 2007 and 2012. Incident cases of hospitalized community-acquired pneumonia were matched with up to 20 controls on age, duration of treated diabetes, calendar year, and duration of follow-up. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of hospitalized community-acquired pneumonia associated with current use of DPP-4 inhibitors compared with current use of two or more oral anti-diabetic drugs.ResultsThe cohort included 49,653 patients, of whom 562 were hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia during follow-up (incidence rate: 5.2/1000 person-years). Compared with current use of two or more oral anti-diabetic drugs, current use of DPP-4 inhibitors was not associated with an increased risk of hospitalized community-acquired pneumonia overall (adjusted OR: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.50–1.29) or according to duration of use (p-trend = 0.57).Conclusions The use of DPP-4 inhibitors was not associated with an increased risk of hospitalization for community-acquired pneumonia. Additional research is needed to assess the association between these drugs and other serious infections.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Diabetes Obesity and Metabolism
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    ABSTRACT: Tramadol is a weak opioid analgesic whose use has increased rapidly, and it has been associated with adverse events of hypoglycemia. To assess whether tramadol use, when compared with codeine use, is associated with an increased risk of hospitalization for hypoglycemia. A nested case-control analysis was conducted within the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink linked to the Hospital Episodes Statistics database of all patients newly treated with tramadol or codeine for noncancer pain between 1998 and 2012. Cohort and case-crossover analyses were also conducted to assess consistency of the results. Cases of hospitalization for hypoglycemia were matched with up to 10 controls on age, sex, and duration of follow-up. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated comparing use of tramadol with codeine. A cohort analysis, with high-dimensional propensity score-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs, was performed comparing tramadol with codeine in the first 30 days after treatment initiation. Finally, a case-crossover analysis was also performed, in which exposure to tramadol in a 30-day risk period immediately before the hospitalization for hypoglycemia was compared with 11 consecutive 30-day control periods. Odds ratios and 95% CIs were estimated using conditional logistic regression analysis. The cohort included 334 034 patients, of whom 1105 were hospitalized for hypoglycemia during follow-up (incidence, 0.7 per 1000 per year) and matched to 11 019 controls. Compared with codeine, tramadol use was associated with an increased risk of hospitalization for hypoglycemia (OR, 1.52 [95% CI, 1.09-2.10]), particularly elevated in the first 30 days of use (OR, 2.61 [95% CI, 1.61-4.23]). This 30-day increased risk was confirmed in the cohort (HR, 3.60 [95% CI, 1.56-8.34]) and case-crossover analyses (OR, 3.80 [95% CI, 2.64-5.47]). The initiation of tramadol therapy is associated with an increased risk of hypoglycemia requiring hospitalization. Additional studies are needed to confirm this rare but potentially fatal adverse event.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · JAMA Internal Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Serotonin has been implicated in the development of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). Drugs modulating serotonin pathways, including antidepressants, have been associated with the incidence of IPAH, with conflicting reports as to the direction of the effect. We aimed to determine whether antidepressant exposure is associated with the incidence of IPAH. A nested case-control study was conducted using the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink and the Hospital Episodes Statistics repository between January 1, 1988 and September 30, 2011. Incident cases of IPAH were identified and matched to all controls in the case's risk set on age, sex, general practice, and date of registration with the practice. Rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for the use of antidepressants on the risk of IPAH, with an 18-month lag period before the diagnosis. One hundred ninety-five IPAH cases were identified (incidence 3.84/million per year). Use of any antidepressant was associated with a 67% increased risk of IPAH (RR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.17-2.37). The rate of IPAH was similar across antidepressant classes, whether with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) (RR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.09-2.57) or non-SSRI antidepressants (RR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.07-2.59). In sensitivity and exploratory analyses, no change in risk was observed with different lag times, serotonin transporter affinities, or durations of exposure. The use of antidepressants was associated with a significantly increased risk of IPAH. However, the consistency of this risk across all antidepressants and absence of a dose-response relationship suggests a noncausal association. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · The Canadian journal of cardiology
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    ABSTRACT: Case reports have signaled a possible association between tramadol, a weak opioid analgesic, and hyponatremia. The objective of this study was to determine whether the use of tramadol is associated with an increased risk of hyponatremia, when compared with codeine.Methods Using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink and Hospital Episodes Statistics database, a population-based cohort of 332,880 patients initiating tramadol or codeine was assembled between 1998 through 2012. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of hospitalization for hyponatremia associated with the use of tramadol, compared with codeine, in the first 30 days after initiation. A similar analysis was conducted within a highly-restricted sub-cohort, which additionally excluded patients with any serum sodium level abnormality in the year before cohort entry. All models were adjusted for propensity score quintiles.ResultsThe incidence rates of hospitalization for hyponatremia were 4.6 (95% CI: 2.4-8.0) and 1.9 (95% CI: 1.4-2.5) per 10,000 person-months for tramadol and codeine users, respectively. In the adjusted model, the use of tramadol was associated with a 2-fold increased risk of hospitalization for hyponatremia, compared with codeine (adjusted HR: 2.05; 95% CI: 1.08-3.86). In the highly-restricted sub-cohort, the use of tramadol was associated with an over 3-fold increased risk of hospitalization for hyponatremia, compared with codeine (adjusted HR: 3.54; 95% CI: 1.32-9.54).Conclusions In this first population-based study, the use of tramadol was associated with an increased risk of hyponatremia requiring hospitalization.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · The American Journal of Medicine
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    Jonathan Assayag · Michael N Pollak · Laurent Azoulay
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    ABSTRACT: The association between the use of aspirin and mortality in patients with prostate cancer remains uncertain. The objective of this study was to determine whether the use of aspirin in patients with prostate cancer is associated with a decreased risk of prostate cancer mortality and all-cause mortality. Using the United Kingdom National Cancer Data Repository, Clinical Practice Research Datalink, and associated databases, we identified a cohort of men with non-metastatic prostate cancer between 1998 and 2009, followed until 2012. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of mortality outcomes associated with post-diagnostic use of aspirin defined as a time-varying exposure. Effect modification by pre-diagnostic aspirin use was also assessed. The cohort included 11,779 men followed for 5.4 years (SD: 2.9). Post-diagnostic aspirin use was associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer mortality (HR: 1.46, 95% CI: 1.29-1.65) and all-cause mortality (HR: 1.37, 95% CI: 1.26-1.50). These increased risks were restricted to patients initiating aspirin after the prostate cancer diagnosis (HR: 1.84, 95% CI: 1.59-2.12, and HR: 1.70, 95% CI: 1.53-1.88, respectively), and not in patients who were already exposed to aspirin before the diagnosis (HR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.81-1.16 and HR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.87-1.18, respectively). The post-diagnostic use of aspirin is not associated with a decreased risk of prostate cancer outcomes; increased risks were restricted to patients initiating these drugs after their diagnosis, suggesting a non-causal association. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · The Journal of Urology

Publication Stats

1k Citations
637.72 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014-2016
    • Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research
      • Centre for Clinical Epidemiology (CCE)
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2009-2016
    • McGill University
      • • Department of Oncology
      • • Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2011-2013
    • Jewish General Hospital
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2005-2008
    • CHU Sainte-Justine
      • Department of Pharmacy
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
    • Université de Montréal
      • • Center for Mathematical Research
      • • Faculty of Pharmacy
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada