[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cell cycle re-entry during vertebrate oocyte maturation is mediated through translational activation of select target mRNAs, culminating in the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and cyclin B/cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) signaling. The temporal order of targeted mRNA translation is crucial for cell cycle progression and is determined by the timing of activation of distinct mRNA-binding proteins. We have previously shown in oocytes from Xenopus laevis that the mRNA-binding protein Musashi targets translational activation of early class mRNAs including the mRNA encoding the Mos proto-oncogene. However, the molecular mechanism by which Musashi function is activated is unknown. We report here that activation of Musashi1 is mediated by Ringo/CDK signaling, revealing a novel role for early Ringo/CDK function. Interestingly, Musashi1 activation is subsequently sustained through mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling, the downstream effector of Mos mRNA translation, thus establishing a positive feedback loop to amplify Musashi function. The identified regulatory sites are present in mammalian Musashi proteins, and our data suggest that phosphorylation may represent an evolutionarily conserved mechanism to control Musashi-dependent target mRNA translation.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · Journal of Biological Chemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Meiotic cell-cycle progression in progesterone-stimulated Xenopus oocytes requires that the translation of pre-existing maternal mRNAs occur in a strict temporal order. Timing of translation is regulated through elements within the mRNA 3' untranslated region (3' UTR), which respond to cell cycle-dependant signalling. One element that has been previously implicated in the temporal control of mRNA translation is the cytoplasmic polyadenylation element (CPE). In this study, we show that the CPE does not direct early mRNA translation. Rather, early translation is directed through specific early factors, including the Musashi-binding element (MBE) and the MBE-binding protein, Musashi. Our findings indicate that although the cyclin B5 3' UTR contains both CPEs and an MBE, the MBE is the critical regulator of early translation. The cyclin B2 3' UTR contains CPEs, but lacks an MBE and is translationally activated late in maturation. Finally, utilizing antisense oligonucleotides to attenuate endogenous Musashi synthesis, we show that Musashi is critical for the initiation of early class mRNA translation and for the subsequent activation of CPE-dependant mRNA translation.