Uma Maheswari Krishnan

SASTRA University, Tanjor, Tamil Nadu, India

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Publications (141)412.55 Total impact

  • Manasa Nune · Uma Maheswari Krishnan · Swaminathan Sethuraman
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    ABSTRACT: Electrospun nanofibers are attractive candidates for neural regeneration due to similarity to the extracellular matrix. Several synthetic polymers have been used but they lack in providing the essential biorecognition motifs on their surfaces. Self-assembling peptide nanofiber scaffolds (SAPNFs) like RADA16 and recently, designer SAPs with functional motifs RADA16-I-BMHP1 areexamples, which showed successful spinal cord regeneration. But these peptide nanofiber scaffolds have poor mechanical properties and faster degradation rates that limit their use for larger nerve defects. Hence, we have developed a novel hybrid nanofiber scaffold of polymer poly(l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and RADA16-I-BMHP1. The scaffolds were characterized for the presence of peptides both qualitatively and quantitatively using several techniques like SEM, EDX, FTIR, CHN analysis, Circular Dichroism analysis, Confocal and thermal analysis. Peptide self-assembly was retained post-electrospinning and formed rod-like nanostructures on PLGA nanofibers. In vitro cell compatibility was studied using rat Schwann cells and their adhesion, proliferation and gene expression levels on the designed scaffolds were evaluated. Our results have revealed the significant effects of the peptide blended scaffolds on promoting Schwann cell adhesion, extension and phenotypic expression. Neural development markers (SEM3F, NRP2 & PLX1) gene expression levels were significantly upregulated in peptide blended scaffolds compared to the PLGA scaffolds. Thus the hybrid blended novel designer scaffolds seem to be promising candidates for successful and functional regeneration of the peripheral nerve.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016
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    ABSTRACT: The rising incidence of head and neck cancer and the drawbacks of currently used therapeutic strategies such as salvage surgery followed by adjuvant chemo- or radiotherapy have encouraged pursuits for better therapeutic approaches. This work describes the development and characterization of a PEGylated liposomal nanocarrier encapsulated with trans-resveratrol (Res), a plant stilbenoid, and doxorubicin hydrochloride (Dox), a standard chemotherapeutic agent for treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma. The two drugs were loaded in liposomes prepared from egg phosphatidylcholine and DSPE-PEG with maximum encapsulation efficiencies of about 80% for each drug achieved at Res to Dox ratio of 2:1. The liposomal suspension was found to be stable with a zeta potential of -30.53 mV and size of approximately 250 nm. Thermal properties and release kinetics of the dual drug loaded liposomes were determined. The nanoformulation was evaluated for its in vitro anticancer efficacy on an oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line (NT8e). The cell uptake mechanism of the liposomal formulation was determined using pharmacological inhibitors for different endocytosis pathways. The combination effect of the two drugs was evaluated in free form and was found to have synergistic effects. The formulation was found to have a higher IC50 value than that of free doxorubicin hydrochloride but was found to have a superior effect on the signaling proteins involved in apoptosis and cell cycle.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Dietary agents and phytochemicals have been utilised for the management of cancer for many years. Hesperetin, a dietary flavonoid found abundantly in citrus fruits, was evaluated for its cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic activities in A431 human skin carcinoma cells. Effect of hesperetin in regulating MAPK (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase) signalling pathway and levels of various cyclins and other downstream apoptotic proteins were investigated. Its critical role in regulating other apoptotic proteins especially p21, Bcl-2 and Bax were also assessed. Hesperetin stimulated alterations in MAPK (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase) signalling pathway by modulating the expression levels of ERK (Extracellular signal Regulated Kinase), JNK (c-Jun NH2-terminal Kinase) and p38; thereby induced apoptosis in A431 cells. Hesperetin regulated the levels of cyclin A(2), B-1, D-1, D-3 and E-1. It also modulated the levels of various proteins involved in apoptotic pathway especially p21, Bcl-2 and Bax. The study revealed the efficiency of hesperetin against human skin carcinoma cells and proposed its mechanism of action; there by opens up new avenues for the use of this dietary flavonoid against skin malignancies.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Cellular and molecular biology
  • Rajesh Lakshmanan · Uma Maheswari Krishnan · Swaminathan Sethuraman
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: The aim of the study is to develop scaffolds that mimic native tissue properties for effective regeneration of the myocardium, which is affected by the gradual thinning of left ventricular tissue after an infarction. Materials & methods: Heterogenous nanofibrous scaffolds made of poly(lactide-co-caprolactone) and poly(ethyl oxazoline) were characterized for physico-chemical properties. The biocompatibility of the scaffolds was evaluated by studying the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of H9c2 cells. Results: The scaffolds mimic the cardiac extracellular matrix and showed enhanced tensile strength, improved cell compatibility along with the expression of cardiac marker proteins. Conclusion: Our experimental data confirmed the importance of native tissue architecture and mechanical strength for improved cell response in cardiac tissue engineering.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Nanomedicine
  • Banudevi Sivanantham · Swaminathan Sethuraman · Uma Maheswari Krishnan
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    ABSTRACT: Globally, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common cancer and represents about 6% of all diagnosed cancers. Use of anti-cancer drugs such as docetaxel, doxorubicin (DOX), 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and cisplatin (diammine dichloroplatinum (II) (CDDP) is limited due to their non-specificity, drug resistance and toxicity. A combinatorial approach may improve the efficacy of these chemotherapeutic drugs and reduce their non-specific toxicities. In the present study, curcumin, an anti-cancer phytochemical was used in combination with 5-FU, doxorubicin and cisplatin and their combinatorial effect on HNSCC cell line, NT8e was investigated. Our results showed that the combination of 5-FU or DOX with curcumin exhibited significant growth inhibition and enhanced apoptosis in NT8e cancer cell lines. Treatment with 5-FU or DOX in combination with curcumin induced apoptosis by inhibiting Bcl-2 and increasing Bax, Caspase-3, and poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) in NT8e cells. This was further confirmed through apoptotic characteristic features in cells such as membrane blebbing, nuclear condensation and cell shrinkage observed by DAPI staining and through decreased red/green fluorescence by JC-1. These two combinations also exhibited cell cycle growth arrest at G1/S phase, which was confirmed by down-regulation of cyclins (D1, E2, B1 and A2), CDK2 and increased p21 levels. In addition, curcumin exposure along with 5-FU or DOX inhibited cell proliferation through the down-regulation of EGFR-ERK1/2 signaling molecules. Overall, our data demonstrates the promising therapeutic potential and underlying mechanisms of curcumin with 5-FU/ DOX combinations as a new treatment modality for head and neck cancer management.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015
  • Manasa Nune · Uma Maheswari Krishnan · Swaminthan Sethuraman
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND Electrospun aligned nanofibers are attractive candidates for peripheral neural regeneration due to their progressive axonal guidance effects. Recently, self-assembling peptide nanofiber scaffolds (SAPNFs) with functional motifs have been shown to promote growth, proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cell cultures. However, SAPNF scaffolds lack adequate mechanical stretngth to support multiple layers of cells. Biomimetic scaffolds coupled with bioactive nanostructures would be an ideal peripheral neural substrate. Hence, in the present study we developed a novel aligned nanofibrous hybrid scaffold made of the polymer Poly (L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) that was either surface-coated or co-electrospun with RADA16-I-BMPH1, a designer self-assembling peptide. RESULTS Both surface-coated as well as co-electrospun peptides self-assembled on the PLGA nanofibrous scaffolds forming fibrous nanostructures and retained their secondary structure post electrospinning which was confirmed by circular dichroism spectroscopy. Both the peptide-blended scaffolds preserved the typical bipolar morphology of Schwann cells and promoted their extension. PLGA-peptide coated scaffolds exhibited significant increase in Schwann cell proliferation than pristine PLGA and PLGA-peptide co-spun scaffolds. However, peptide co-spun scaffolds have exhibited better cellular infiltration and promoted significantly higher gene expression levels of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and peripheral myelin protein22 (PMP22) compared to the PLGA and PLGA-peptide coated scaffolds. This difference may be attributed to the presence of peptide throughout the fiber in the co-spun scaffolds unlike the surface-coated scaffolds where the influence of the peptide remains confined to the surface. CONCLUSIONS Our results demonstrate for the first time the positive effects of aligned peptide co-electrospun scaffolds with biomimetic cell recognition nanostructures embedded in them towards functional proliferation of Schwann cells. These scaffolds could subsequently repair peripheral nerve defects by augmenting axonal regeneration and functional nerve recovery.
    No preview · Conference Paper · Oct 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Choline, a type of Vitamin B, is an important nutrient in the human body and is involved in key metabolic pathways. Abnormal levels of choline leads to diseased conditions. The levels of choline and its associated compounds are found to be elevated in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients. The choline level ranges from 0.4 to 4.9mmol/kg in TNBC. Thus the detection of choline levels in cells can aid in diagnosing breast cancer. The present work aims to develop a nano-interfaced electrochemical biosensor for the rapid detection of choline in cancer cells. For electrochemical detection, glassy carbon electrode coated with a zinc oxide nano-interface was used as the working electrode. Zinc oxide synthesized by hydrothermal method was characterized using SEM and XRD. The choline oxidase (ChOx) enzyme was immobilized on the nano-interface by drop-casting. Choline oxidase (ChOx) converts choline to betaine and H2O2 in the presence of oxygen. The H2O2 produced was determined amperometrically. The amount of H2O2 produced is directly proportional to concentration of choline present. The sensitivity, selectivity, stability and concentration studies were carried out and quantification of choline in TNBC was also carried out. The results demonstrate that this biosensor has the potential to be developed as a clinical tool for breast cancer detection.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
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    ABSTRACT: The need for a highly effective contrast agent that aids in distinguishing normal and affected cells is in great demand in clinics for accurate diagnosis. In this context, the present study attempts to utilize the metal ion complexation capacity of a pharmacologically relevant dietary flavonol, quercetin for development of a novel MRI contrast agent. The flavonoid-metal complex was synthesized using quercetin dihydrate and gadolinium acetate and characterized by elemental analysis, spectroscopy techniques, thermal analysis and powder XRD. The quercetin:gadolinium stoichiometry was determined to be 1:1 using Job's plot analysis and the equilibrium stability constant of metal binding to quercetin determined from fluorimetric analysis using Stern-Volmer equations indicated excellent stability. The magnetic properties of the complex were typical of a paramagnetic material as confirmed using vibrating sample magnetometry. The antioxidant property of the quercetin-gadolinium complex was greater than that of its parent ligand when evaluated by DPPH assay due to the structural changes. Cyclic voltammetry studies of both quercetin and its gadolinium complex were performed to confirm complexation and anti-oxidant potential. The viability of cancer cells, MCF7 and normal L929 cells remained unaffected after exposure to the complex. The efficacy of this complex as a positive contrast agent in MRI was evaluated using phantom agar gel assay and in vitro studies. It was found to exhibit superior positive contrast when compared with the commercially available contrast agent. This complex therefore may be evaluated further as a novel MR contrast agent for pre-clinical and clinical applications.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · RSC Advances
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    ABSTRACT: The proposed work delineates the chemometric analysis of the developed ceria-polyaniline (CeO2- PANI) core shell nano-interface based carbonic anhydrase electrochemical biosensor for the detection of carbonic acid in human blood samples. The statistical methods inter-correlate the electrochemical parameters such as the amount of charge consumed (Q), electron transfer rate constant (Ks), cathodic peak current (Ipc), surface coverage, full width at half maximum of cathodic peak height (FWHM) with the added carbonic acid concentrations (S) to the 0.1 M phosphate buffered saline, pH 7.4. Principal component and hierarchical cluster analysis show that FWHM and Ipc are influenced by S, whereas Q although being related to the substrate are not significantly influenced and Ks is independent of S. The linear regression, the higher-order polynomial and the nonlinear regression fits of current are single parameter dependent and they generally predict the carbonic acid concentrations with error. In this work, multiple linear regression model provides an equation for the estimation of carbonic acid concentration from the parameters FWHM and Ipc.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of Computational and Theoretical Nanoscience
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    ABSTRACT: A hybrid interface was developed using nano iron oxide and carbon nanotubes and this architecture offered an improved performance for the detection of hydrogen peroxide. Nano iron oxide was synthesized by a simple thermal co-precipitation technique and it was dispersed in nafionic solution. To this mixture added the catalase enzyme adsorbed multi-walled carbon nanotubes and this solution was used for the modification of the electrode. The morphology of the prepared nanocomposite was observed using FE-TEM and the electrochemical studies were carried out using cyclic voltammetry and amperometry. The linear range of the prepared amperometric sensor was found to be between 1.2 and 21.6 μM with a quick response time of less than 1 s. The interference, reproducibility and stability studies were carried out with satisfactory results. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were found to be 3.7 nM and 12.2 nM respectively. With the convincing results obtained in terms of the performance of the biosensor, this platform was successfully upgraded for the determination of hydrogen peroxide in the presence of milk samples.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Sensors and Actuators B Chemical
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    ABSTRACT: Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive form of cancer with poor survival rates. The increased mortality due to pancreatic cancer arises due to many factors such as development of multidrug resistance, presence of cancer stem cells, development of a stromal barrier and a hypoxic environment due to hypo-perfusion. The present study aims to develop a nanocarrier for a combination of drugs that can address these multiple issues. Quercetin and 5-fluorouracil were loaded in chitosan nanoparticles, individually as well as in combination. The nanoparticles were characterized for morphology, size, zeta potential, percentage encapsulation of drugs as well as their release profiles in different media. The dual drug-loaded carrier exhibited good entrapment efficiency (quercetin 95% and 5-fluorouracil 75%) with chitosan: quercetin: 5-fluorouracil in the ratio 3:1:2. The release profiles suggest that 5-fluorouracil preferentially localized in the periphery while quercetin was located towards the core of chitosan nanoparticles. Both drugs exhibited considerable association with the chitosan matrix. The dual drug-loaded carrier system exhibited significant toxicity towards pancreatic cancer cells both in the 2D as well as in the 3D cultures. We believe that the results from these studies can open up interesting options in the treatment of pancreatic cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Colloids and surfaces B: Biointerfaces
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    ABSTRACT: Electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds have gained momentum in regenerative medicine research due to their ECM-like architecture. The present study reports the fabrication of mesoporous silica nanofibers (MSF) and explores its potential to trigger osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) in presence and absence of biochemical (induction) factors. BM-MSCs were seeded on MSF and allowed to differentiate into osteogenic lineage. Osteogenic differentiation of BM-MSCs was confirmed by mineralization staining, reduction in the expression of the stem cell marker CD105 and increase in the osteogenic marker osteocalcin. Cells cultured in MSF in presence of induction media exhibited better adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. The phenotypic markers of osteoblasts such as mineralization and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were higher on MSF in presence of induction media when compared to MSF in presence of normal media (p<0.05). Upregulation of osteoblast specific genes (osteonectin, osteocalcin & alkaline phosphatase) suggest the potential of MSF to support osteogenic differentiation even in the absence of induction media (p<0.05). In vitro results indicate that the nanotopography of MSF provided a favorable milieu for adhesion and proliferation of BM-MSCs. Further, the combination of biomimetic nature of MSF, dissolution ions of silica (chemical cues) and biochemical cues presents a stable microenvironment for the differentiation of BM-MSCs into osteogenic lineage. In conclusion, the synergy of adhesion and proliferation cues in MSF along with a suitable biochemical cues could be a promising design strategy to develop scaffolds for orchestrated bone healing
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · RSC Advances
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    ABSTRACT: Electrochemical biosensor for acetylcholine (ACh) estimation in human blood samples was developed, and various electrochemical parameters like charge consumed (Q, full width at half maximum (FWHM), electron transfer rate (K s), cathodic peak potential (E pc), surface coverage (Γ) and cathodic peak current (I pc) were investigated to study their interdependence by performing principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) modified platinum (Pt) working electrode with ceria (CeO2) nanoparticles as an interface was used for electrochemical studies. Various regression models were analyzed in order to find the suitable model which can reduce the error and enhance the specificity of AChE modified Pt electrode towards ACh. The inter-parameter relationship study was utilized to improve the figure of merits of Pt/Nano-CeO2 at 773 K/AChE bioelectrode towards the quantification of ACh. The validation results implied that Q, and I pc have significant influence on the ACh concentration. And also, multiple linear regression model was efficient to predict the unknown concentration of ACh in human blood samples with high accuracy and specificity.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of Computational and Theoretical Nanoscience
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    ABSTRACT: Apart from nutritional value, fish food is considered as the high foreign exchange earners worldwide. Since fish food is highly perishable, histamine production in fish due to improper storage temperature causes allergic reactions like histamine toxicity (scromboid toxicity). Hence, accurate estimation of histamine in fish food has become a serious concern. In this context, to design a histamine biosensor with less error, high accuracy and specificity, the interdependent electrochemical parameters such as histamine concentration, cathodic peak current, electron transfer rate constant, amount of charge consumed, surface coverage and full width at half maximum of cathodic peak height were related to improve the efficiency of the GCE/CeO2-PANI/DAO modified electrode. The multivariate analysis such as principal component, hierarchical cluster analysis and multiple linear regression techniques were done with the estimated value of electrochemical parameters and it showed that the cathodic peak current, amount of charge consumed, surface coverage and full width at half maximum of cathodic peak height were highly related to the histamine concentration, whereas the electron transfer rate constant has no relationship with other electrochemical parameters. Finally, the combination of the Hill model with the multiple linear regression model effectively improved the specificity and accuracy of the histamine biosensor.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of Computational and Theoretical Nanoscience
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    ABSTRACT: Most of the metal ions are carcinogens and lead to serious health concerns by producing free radicals. Hence, fast and accurate detection of metal ions has become a critical issue. Among various metal ions arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury and chromium are considered to be highly toxic. To detect these metal ions, electrochemical biosensors with interfaces such as microorganisms, enzymes, microspheres, nano-materials like gold, silver nanoparticles, CNTs, and metal oxides have been developed. Among these, nanomaterials are considered to be most promising, owing to their strong adsorption, fast electron transfer kinetics, and biocompatibility, which are very apt for biosensing applications. The coupling of electrochemical techniques with nanomaterials has enhanced the sensitivity, limit of detection, and robustness of the sensors. In this review, toxicity mechanisms of various metal ions and their relationship towards the induction of oxidative stress have been summarized. Also, electrochemical biosensors employed in the detection of metal ions with various interfaces have been highlighted.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015 · Sensors and Actuators B Chemical
  • Priyadharshini Kumaraswamy · Swaminathan Sethuraman · Uma Maheswari maheswari Krishnan
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    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder affecting millions of people worldwide clinically manifested by the presence of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Senile plaques are composed of amyloid beta protein while neurofibrillary tangles are formed by the hyperphosphorylation of tau protein. A plethora of reports on the anti-oxidant and pro-oxidant properties of amyloid beta peptide are available. However the molecular candidates involved bringing about this therapeutic behaviour is not explored. To investigate this phenomenon we have used a pentapeptide sequence KLVFF, derived from the core-recognition motif of amyloid beta peptide to study the altered signaling cascade in neuronal cells. Our data showed the unique dual behaviour of KLVFF peptide as pro-oxidant and toxicant based on the dosage concentration. The peptide’s inherent ability to scavenge free radicals at low concentrations <100 μM to offset oxidative stress was proved by the down-regulation of SOD1, AP-1 and FoxO3a genes. However at concentrations > 100 μM, the cytotoxic effect of the peptide dominates, leading to apoptosis through activation of p53, ERK1 and p38 in a caspase-dependent mechanism accompanied by mitochondrial membrane depolarization. The therapeutic role of KLVFF peptide stems out from the regulation of SOD1 gene by AP-1 and NF-κB and Nrf2 gene to regulate the intracellular glutathione levels. Collectively our experimental findings revealed a threshold concentration of 100 μM beyond which KLVFF peptide mimics the amyloid beta of senile plaque, which can be used as a model system to understand the pathological role of amyloid beta peptide. While concentrations below 100 μM may be actively employ for therapeutic applications to prevent the further aggregation of amyloid beta.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · RSC Advances
  • Sathya Narayanan Vijayakumar · Swaminathan Sethuraman · Uma Maheswari maheswari Krishnan
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    ABSTRACT: Proliferation and self-sufficiency are two most important properties of cancer cells. Although genetic aberrations are believed to be the reason for cancer development, importance of metabolic alterations in cancer development have found the lime light lately. The most challenging aspect in cancer treatment has been their similarity to host cells. The discovery of various metabolic alterations that occur in cancers to attain and maintain proliferative state has resulted in new information on the metabolic differences between normal and cancer cells. One such alteration is the establishment of Warburg effect. This review elaborates on various changes that lead to establishment of Warburg effect in cancer cells and their consequences. Understanding the metabolic uniqueness of various cancers can aid in identification of novel molecular targets leading to more efficient strategies in cancer treatment.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · RSC Advances
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    ABSTRACT: The presence of captan residues in apples shows high toxicity, which often causes eye and skin irritation, dermatitis, conjunctivitis, and vomiting in humans. In this context, an electrochemical biosensor based on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) immobilized on a ZnO nanorod interface has been proposed. In this work, Hill, dose-response, and first-, second-, and third-order polynomial regression models were successfully applied and the prediction ability of these models was tested with the use of current density obtained from the cyclic voltammograms of appropriate captan solutions. The Pt/ZnO/AChE bioelectrode showed a high sensitivity of 0.538 μA cm(-2) μM(-1) in the linear range from 0.05 to 25.0 μM with a limit of detection of 107 nM. The recovery results were observed between 98.4 and 102.4 % from the apple sample. This work provides a new promising tool for the detection of captan in apple samples.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Linear sweep voltammetry was used as an analytical technique to measure methylglyoxal in blood samples by employing Pt/ZnO sepals/GLO 1 bio-electrode. In order to increase the specificity of glyoxalase towards methylglyoxal and to predict the non-linear relationship between added methylglyoxal concentrations and pairs of electrochemical parameters, non-linear logistic and gaussian cumulative response surface models were fitted to the experimental results using Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. An excellent correlation (r = 0.99) was observed between the predicted and added methylglyoxal concentrations. The accuracy of the proposed models was validated by calculating relative prediction error (RPE), percentage recovery and root mean square error for cross validation (RMSECV). Only the MG = f(FWHM, Jpc) logistic cumulative response model showed best results in validation (RPE = 2.07 × 10–5, Recovery = 98.726% and RMSECV = –0.004). The calibrated non-linear model was further validated on human blood samples. The attained relative standard deviation and percentage recovery values calculated for spiked methylglyoxal concentrations (3 measurements) were typically below 6.54% and 116.48% respectively.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Sensor Letters
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    ABSTRACT: Theoretical investigation for the estimation of surface coverage based on Michaelis-Menten constant (K M) and detection limit was carried out. The influence of theoretical linear ranges on the surface concentration of adsorbed biomolecules was also investigated. The [S] < K M boundary-conditioned surface coverage model results are consistent with the theoretical calculations and give a precise determination of surface coverage.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Sensor Letters