[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In rodents, weight reduction after peptide YY[3-36] (PYY[3-36]) administration may be due largely to decreased food consumption. Effects on other processes affecting energy balance (energy expenditure, fuel partitioning, gut nutrient uptake) remain poorly understood. We examined whether s.c. infusion of 1 mg/(kg x d) PYY[3-36] (for up to 7 d) increased metabolic rate, fat combustion, and/or fecal energy loss in obese mice fed a high-fat diet. PYY[3-36] transiently reduced food intake (e.g., 25-43% lower at d 2 relative to pretreatment baseline) and decreased body weight (e.g., 9-10% reduction at d 2 vs. baseline) in 3 separate studies. Mass-specific metabolic rate in kJ/(kg x h) in PYY[3-36]-treated mice did not differ from controls. The dark cycle respiratory quotient (RQ) was transiently decreased. On d 2, it was 0.747 +/- 0.008 compared with 0.786 +/- 0.004 for controls (P < 0.001); light cycle RQ was reduced throughout the study in PYY[3-36]-treated mice (0.730 +/- 0.006) compared with controls (0.750 +/- 0.009; P < 0.001). Epididymal fat pad weight in PYY[3-36]-treated mice was approximately 50% lower than in controls (P < 0.01). Fat pad lipolysis ex vivo was not stimulated by PYY[3-36]. PYY[3-36] decreased basal gallbladder emptying in nonobese mice. Fecal energy loss was negligible ( approximately 2% of ingested energy) and did not differ between PYY[3-36]-treated mice and controls. Thus, negative energy balance after PYY[3-36] administration in diet-induced obese mice results from reduced food intake with a relative maintenance of mass-specific energy expenditure. Fat loss and reduced RQ highlight the potential for PYY[3-36] to drive increased mobilization of fat stores to help meet energy requirements in this model.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2006 · Journal of Nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The gut-derived hormones peptide YY[3-36] (PYY[3-36]) and ghrelin are believed to influence similar hypothalamic circuits, albeit with opposing actions on energy balance. Thus, we carried out a series of studies to evaluate the interaction of these hormones on short-term food intake responses in mice. Intraperitoneal PYY[3-36] injection reduced short-term food intake by up to 50% in overnight-fasted mice and in postabsorptive animals during the early and late light cycle. This effect was not sensitive to the prevailing endogenous plasma acyl-ghrelin concentrations, which ranged from high physiological (overnight-fasted, 1252 +/- 108 pg/ml) to low levels (late light cycle, 402 +/- 33 pg/ml). PYY[3-36] administration did not reduce plasma total or acyl-ghrelin concentration in conjunction with its anorexigenic actions. Ghrelin increased short-term food intake by up to 1.8-fold in mice treated ip in the early light cycle, but was ineffective in animals treated after an overnight fast or during the late light cycle. Ghrelin did not increase food intake or GH secretion unless plasma levels were increased above high physiological fasting values. The anorexigenic effect of PYY[3-36] over a range of doses was not compromised by coinjection of ghrelin, and PYY[3-36] reduced food intake in agouti mice, which lack fully functional melanocortin signaling. These results in mice support a model in which 1) PYY[3-36] diminishes short-term food intake at least in part through mechanisms distinct from the neuropeptide Y/proopiomelanocortin neural circuits engaged by ghrelin; and 2) a reduction in circulating ghrelin is not requisite for the anorexigenic effects of PYY[3-36].