[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The stiffness of the myogenic stem cell microenvironment markedly influences the ability to regenerate tissue. We studied the effect of damaged myofibers on myogenic progenitor cell (MPC) proliferation and determined whether the structural integrity of the microenvironment contributes to phenotypic changes.
Individual myofibers were isolated and cultured for 6 days. During this period, the cytoskeleton of myofibers and transcription factors regulating MPC differentiation were characterized by immunostaining. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was performed to measure stiffness of cultured myofibers. Healthy and damaged myofibers, and their associated MPCs, were studied in skeletal muscle from dystrophic and tenotomy mouse models. MPCs were cultured on stiffness-tunable substrates, and their phenotypes were assessed by immunostaining of myogenic transcription factors.
We showed that individual myofibers tend to shrink or collapse when cultured ex vivo starting from day 1 and that this is associated with a marked increase in the number of proliferative MPCs (Pax7(+)MyoD(+)). The myofibers collapsed due to a loss of viability as shown by Evans blue dye uptake and the disorganization of their cytoskeletons. Interestingly, collapsed myofibers in mdx skeletal muscles were similar to damaged myofibers in that they lose their viability, have a disorganized cytoskeleton (actin and α-actinin), and display local MPC (MyoD(+)) proliferation at their periphery. In a tenotomy model that causes loss of muscle tension, the cytoskeletal disorganization of myofibers also correlated with the activation/proliferation of MPCs. A deeper analysis of collapsed myofibers revealed that they produce trophic factors that influence MPC proliferation. In addition, collapsed myofibers expressed several genes related to the basal lamina. Immunostaining revealed the presence of fibronectin in the basal lamina and the cytoplasm of damaged myofibers. Lastly, using atomic force microscopy (AFM), we showed that collapsed myofibers exhibit greater stiffness than intact myofibers. Growing MPCs on a 2-kPa polyacrylamide-based substrate, exempt of additional microenvironmental cues, recapitulated proliferation and reduced spontaneous differentiation compared to growth on a 0.5-kPa substrate.
Our results support the notion that collapsed or damaged myofibers increase the structural stiffness of the satellite cell microenvironment, which in addition to other cues such as trophic factors and changes in extracellular matrix composition, promotes the proliferation and maintenance of MPCs, required for myofiber repair.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Skeletal muscle atrophy is a serious concern for the rehabilitation of patients afflicted by prolonged limb restriction. This debilitating condition is associated with a marked activation of NFκB activity. The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway degrades the NFκB inhibitor IκBα, enabling NFκB to translocate to the nucleus and bind to the target genes that promote muscle atrophy. Although several studies showed that proteasome inhibitors are efficient to reduce atrophy, no studies have demonstrated the ability of these inhibitors to preserve muscle function under catabolic condition.
We recently developed a new hindlimb immobilization procedure that induces significant skeletal muscle atrophy and used it to show that an inflammatory process characterized by the up-regulation of TNFα, a known activator of the canonical NFκB pathway, is associated with the atrophy. Here, we used this model to investigate the effect of in vivo proteasome inhibition on the muscle integrity by histological approach. TNFα, IL-1, IL-6, MuRF-1 and Atrogin/MAFbx mRNA level were determined by qPCR. Also, a functional measurement of locomotors activity was performed to determine if the treatment can shorten the rehabilitation period following immobilization.
In the present study, we showed that the proteasome inhibitor MG132 significantly inhibited IκBα degradation thus preventing NFκB activation in vitro. MG132 preserved muscle and myofiber cross-sectional area by downregulating the muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases atrogin-1/MAFbx and MuRF-1 mRNA in vivo. This effect resulted in a diminished rehabilitation period.
These finding demonstrate that proteasome inhibitors show potential for the development of pharmacological therapies to prevent muscle atrophy and thus favor muscle rehabilitation.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2011 · BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heterotopic ossification (HO) is defined as the formation of bone inside soft tissue. Symptoms include joint stiffness, swelling, and pain. Apart from the inherited form, the common traumatic form generally occurs at sites of injury in damaged muscles and is often associated with brain injury. We investigated bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP-9), which possesses a strong osteoinductive capacity, for its involvement in muscle HO physiopathology. We found that BMP-9 had an osteoinductive influence on mouse muscle resident stromal cells by increasing their alkaline phosphatase activity and bone-specific marker expression. Interestingly, BMP-9 induced HO only in damaged muscle, whereas BMP-2 promoted HO in skeletal muscle regardless of its state. The addition of the soluble form of the ALK1 protein (the BMP-9 receptor) significantly inhibited the osteoinductive potential of BMP-9 in cells and HO in damaged muscles. BMP-9 thus should be considered a candidate for involvement in HO physiopathology, with its activity depending on the skeletal muscle microenvironment.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · Journal of Bone and Mineral Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are currently no curative treatments available for people suffering from one of the many prevalent disease- and trauma-related
muscle myopathies. One approach to ameliorate these conditions relies on the cell-based transplantation of myogenic stem cells
or, more optimistically, the transfer of engineered skeletal muscle tissue. To date, clinical trials with myogenic stem cell
transplantation have met with only modest success while engineered muscle tissue transplantation is at its earliest stages
of development. The many studies on muscle tissue engineering underscore the importance of the myogenic stem cell niche that
plays a pivotal role in transplantation success. More work is required to determine the components of the niche required for
improving the integration and function of transplanted cells and engineered tissues in host muscle.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous work has pointed to a role for the Wnt canonical pathway in fibrosis formation in aged skeletal muscles. In the present study, we studied the dystrophic mdx mouse, which displays skeletal muscle fibrosis. Our results indicated that the muscle resident stromal cell (mrSC) population in the muscles of dystrophic mice is higher than in the muscles of age-matched wild-type mice. Wnt3a promoted the proliferation of and collagen expression by cultured mrSCs but arrested the growth of and collagen expression by cultured myoblasts. Injections of Wnt3A in the tibialis anterior muscles of adult wild-type mice significantly enhanced the mrSC population and collagen deposition compared with the contralateral muscles. Conversely, an injection of the Wnt antagonist Dickkof protein (DKK1) into the skeletal muscles of mdx mice significantly reduced collagen deposition. These results suggested that the Wnt canonical pathway expands the population of mrSCs and stimulates their production of collagen as observed during aging and in various myopathies.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · AJP Cell Physiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Skeletal muscle ageing is characterized by faulty degenerative/regenerative processes that promote the decline of its mass, strength, and endurance. In this study, we used a transcriptional profiling method to better understand the molecular pathways and factors that contribute to these processes. To more appropriately contrast the differences in regenerative capacity of old muscle, we compared it with young muscle, where robust growth and efficient myogenic differentiation is ongoing. Notably, in old mice, we found a severe deficit in satellite cells activation. We performed expression analyses on RNA from the gastrocnemius muscle of young (3-week-old) and old (24-month-old) mice. The differential expression highlighted genes that are involved in the efficient functioning of satellite cells. Indeed, the greatest number of up-regulated genes in young mice encoded components of the extracellular matrix required for the maintenance of the satellite cell niche. Moreover, other genes included Wnt inhibitors (Wif1 and Sfrp2) and Notch activator (Dner), which are putatively involved in the interconnected signalling networks that control satellite cell function. The widespread expression differences for inhibitors of TGFbeta signalling further emphasize the shortcomings in satellite cell performance. Therefore, we draw attention to the breakdown of features required to maintain satellite cell integrity during the ageing process.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2010 · Mechanisms of ageing and development
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Skeletal muscle atrophy is a serious concern for patients afflicted by limb restriction due to surgery (e.g., arthrodesis), several articular pathologies (e.g., arthralgia), or simply following cast immobilization. To study the molecular events involved in this immobilization-induced debilitating condition, a convenient mouse model for atrophy is lacking. Here we provide a new immobilization procedure exploiting the normal flexion of the mouse hindlimb using a surgical staple to fix the ventral part of the foot to the distal part of the calf. Histological analysis revealed that our approach induced significant skeletal muscle atrophy by reducing the myofiber size of the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle by 36% compared with the untreated contralateral TA within a few days postimmobilization. Two molecular markers for atrophy, atrogin-1/muscle atrophy F-box (atrogin-1/MAFbx) and muscle ring finger 1 (MuRF-1) mRNAs, were significantly upregulated by 1.9- and 5.9-fold, respectively. Interestingly, our model also revealed the presence of an early inflammatory process during atrophy, characterized by the mRNA upregulation of TNF-alpha, IL-1, and IL-6 (1.9-, 2.4-, and 3.4-fold, respectively) simultaneously with the upregulation of the common leukocyte marker CD45 (6.1-fold). Moreover, muscle rapidly recovered on remobilization, an event associated with significantly increased levels of uncoupling protein-3 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha mRNA, key components of prooxidative muscle metabolism. This model offers unexpected new insights into the molecular events involved in immobilization atrophy.
Full-text · Article · May 2009 · Journal of Applied Physiology