[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We performed a trace analytical study covering nine hormonally active UV-filters by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS in river water and biota. Water was analysed at 10 sites above and below wastewater treatment plants in the river Glatt using polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS). Four UV-filters occurred in the following order of decreasing concentrations; benzophenone-4 (BP-4) > benzophenone-3 (BP-3) > 3-(4-methyl)benzylidene-camphor (4-MBC) > 2-ethyl-hexyl-4-trimethoxycinnamate (EHMC). BP-4 ranged from 0.27 to 24.0 microg/POCIS, BP-3, 4-MBC and EHMC up to 0.1 microg/POCIS. Wastewater was the most important source. Levels decreased with higher river water flow. No significant in-stream removal occurred. BP-3, 4-MBC and EHMC were between 6 and 68 ng/L in river water. EHMC was accumulated in biota. In all 48 macroinvertebrate and fish samples from six rivers lipid-weighted EHMC occurred up to 337 ng/g, and up to 701 ng/g in 5 cormorants, suggesting food-chain accumulation. UV-filters are found to be ubiquitous in aquatic systems.
No preview · Article · Dec 2009 · Environmental Pollution
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: UV-filters are increasingly used in cosmetics and in the protection of materials against UV-irradiation. The widespread occurrence of UV-filter residues in aquatic systems has been reported, but still little is known about their environmental effects. Some of these compounds negatively interact with the hormone system of fish, resulting in decreased fecundity and reproduction. Here we report on acute and chronic effects of UV-filters 3-(4-methylbenzylidene-camphor) (4MBC), 2-ethyl-hexyl-4-trimethoxycinnamate (EHMC), benzophenone-3 (BP3) and benzophenone-4 (BP4) on Daphnia magna. The acute toxicity increased with log Pow of the compound. The LC50 values (48h) of 4MBC, EHMC, BP3 and BP4 were 0.56, 0.29, 1.9 and 50mg/L, respectively. A tentative preliminary environmental risk assessment (ERA) based on a limited set of data indicates that individual UV-filters should undergo further ecotoxicological analysis, as an environmental risk cannot be ruled out. Consequently new data on the environmental occurrence and the effects of UV-filters are needed for a more accurate ERA. When regarded as a mixture occurring in surface waters they may pose a risk for sensitive aquatic organisms.
No preview · Article · Nov 2009 · Marine environmental research