[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Among pneumococcal serotypes, some serotypes are more prevalent in the nasopharynx than others; determining factors for higher prevalence remain to be fully explored. As non-vaccine serotypes have emerged after the introduction of 7-valent conjugate vaccines, study of serotype specific epidemiology is in need. When two or more serotypes co-colonize, they evolve rapidly to defend host's immune responses; however, a clear association of co-colonization with a clinical outcome is lacking.
Children less than 5 years old who were admitted to hospital due to acute respiratory infections (ARI) (n = 595) and healthy children (n = 350) were recruited. Carriage of pneumococcus was determined by culture and lytA PCR in the nasopharyngeal samples. Serotype/serogroup detection and its quantification were done by the nanofluidic real time PCR system. Spearman's correlation and logistic regression were used to examine a correlation of serotype/serogroup specific bacterial load with its prevalence and an association of co-colonization with ARI respectively.
Serotype/serogroup specific bacterial load was correlated with its prevalence, both in ARI cases (Spearman's rho = 0.44, n = 186; P<0.0001) and healthy children (Spearman's rho = 0.41, n = 115; P<0.0001). The prevalence of multiple serotypes was more common in ARI cases than in healthy children (18.5% vs 7.1%; aOR 2.92, 95% CI: 1.27–6.71; P = 0.01). The dominant serotype in the co-colonization had a 2 log10 higher bacterial load than the subdominant serotype, both in ARI cases (P<0.001) and healthy children (P<0.05).
High bacterial load in the nasopharynx may help transmit pneumococci among hosts, and increase the chance of successful acquisition and colonization. Co-colonization of multiple serotypes of pneumococci is linked with ARI, which infers the interactions of multiple serotypes may increase their pathogenicity; however, they may compete for growth in number.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: The interplay between nasopharyngeal bacterial carriage, viral coinfection, and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) is poorly understood. We explored this association in Vietnamese children aged less than 5 years.
Methods: A hospital-based case-control study of pediatric LRTIs was conducted in Nha Trang, Vietnam. A total of 550 hospitalized children (274 radiologically confirmed pneumonia [RCP] and 276 other LRTIs) were enrolled and 350 healthy controls were randomly selected from the community. Polymerase chain reaction-based methods were used to measure bacterial loads of Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP), Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis and to detect 13 respiratory viruses and bacterial serotypes in nasopharyngeal samples of study participants.
Results: The median nasopharyngeal bacterial load of SP was substantially higher in children with RCP compared with healthy controls or children with other LRTIs (P < 0.001). SP load was 15-fold higher in pneumonia children with viral coinfection compared with those children without viral coinfection (1.4 × 107/mL vs. 9.1 × 105/mL; P = 0.0001). SP load was over 200-fold higher in serotypeable SP compared with nontypeable SP (2.5 × 106/mL vs. 1 × 104/mL; P < 0.0001). These associations were independent of potential confounders in multiple regression models. No clear association was found between nasopharyngeal load of Haemophilus influenzae or Moraxella catarrhalis and viral coinfection in either RCP or other LRTIs groups.
Conclusions: An increased load of SP in the nasopharynx was associated with RCP, viral coinfection, and presence of pneumococcal capsule.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2010 · The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hospitalized Vietnamese children with acute respiratory infection were investigated for 13 viral pathogens using multiplex-polymerase chain reaction. We enrolled 958 children of whom 659 (69%) had documented viral infection: rhinovirus (28%), respiratory syncytial virus (23%), influenza virus (15%), adenovirus (5%), human metapneumo virus (4.5%), parainfluenza virus (5%), and bocavirus (2%). These Vietnamese children had a range of respiratory viruses which underscores the need for enhanced acute respiratory infection surveillance in tropical developing countries.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2009 · The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal