[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eighty-one patients treated with high-dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplantion (ASCT) as part of salvage therapy after a frontline ASCT were included in a retrospective analysis. The median time between the first and the salvage ASCT was 47 months. Following salvage ASCT, 75 patients (93%) achieved at least a PR, including 67% VGPR, and no toxic death was reported. Sixteen patients (20%) received consolidation therapy, while 30 (37%) received some form of maintenance therapy after salvage ASCT. For the whole groupe of patients, the median overall survival (OS) was 10 years from diagnosis and 4 years from salvage ASCT. The median progression free-survival from the date of the first ASCT to the date of the first relapse was 40 months, and the median PFS from the date of salvage ASCT to the date of subsequent progression was 18 months. In the multivariate analysis of prognostic factors, a short duration of response to the first ASCT (cut-off value of 24 months), a response less than a VGPR after salvage therapy and no maintenance treatment following salvage ASCT were the three independent factors unfavorably affecting PFS. Age over 60 years and a short duration of response following the first ASCT were the two factors adversely impacting OS from the time of diagnosis and OS from the time of salvage ASCT. Our data show that salvage ASCT is a feasible option that should be routinely considered at the time of relapse for those patients with a response duration of more than two years to frontline high-dose therapy.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · Biology of blood and marrow transplantation: journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This retrospective analysis investigated the prognostic value of del(13) and t(4;14) abnormalities and the impact of prior treatment on outcomes in 207 heavily pretreated patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (MM) treated with lenalidomide plus dexamethasone. Patients with relapsed or refractory MM who had either earlier received thalidomide or bortezomib, or for whom continuation of these agents was contraindicated, and who had fluorescence in situ hybridization data available were included in the analysis. Patients with relapsed or refractory MM who received treatment with lenalidomide plus dexamethasone in the presence of del(13) and t(4;14) chromosomal abnormalities had lower overall response rates (ORRs) and shorter median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) compared with those who did not have these abnormalities. The results also showed that prior treatment with bortezomib was associated with shorter median PFS and OS. Progression during thalidomide therapy was the only significant independent predictor for OS and that the presence of del(13) and hemoglobin levels <10 g per 100 ml were prognostic factors for ORR and PFS, but not OS, in these heavily pretreated relapsed or refractory MM patients treated with lenalidomide plus dexamethasone.
Preview · Article · Mar 2010 · Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is recommended for younger patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. Achieving complete response (CR) or at least very good partial response (VGPR) is a major prognostic factor for survival with 20% to 30% of patients achieving CR after ASCT. Bortezomib has shown synergistic effects with melphalan and no prolonged hematologic toxicity. In this Intergroupe Francophone du Myélome (IFM) phase 2 study, 54 untreated patients were enrolled between July and December 2007 to receive bortezomib (1 mg/m(2) x 4) and melphalan (200 mg/m(2)) as conditioning regimen (Bor-HDM). Overall, 70% of patients achieved at least VGPR, including 17 patients with CR (32%) after ASCT. No toxic deaths were observed. Bortezomib did not increase hematologic toxicity. Only 1 grade 3 to 4 peripheral neuropathy was reported. A matched control analysis was conducted comparing our cohort with patients from the IFM 2005-01 trial (HDM alone). Patients were matched for response to induction therapy and type of induction: CR was higher in the Bor-HDM group (35% vs 11%; P = .001), regardless of induction therapy. These results suggest that Bor-HDM is a safe and promising conditioning regimen. Randomized studies are needed to assess whether this conditioning regimen is superior to HDM alone. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00642395.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In multiple myeloma, combination chemotherapy with melphalan plus prednisone is still regarded as the standard of care in elderly patients. We assessed whether the addition of thalidomide to this combination, or reduced-intensity stem cell transplantation, would improve survival.
Between May 22, 2000, and Aug 8, 2005, 447 previously untreated patients with multiple myeloma, who were aged between 65 and 75 years, were randomly assigned to receive either melphalan and prednisone (MP; n=196), melphalan and prednisone plus thalidomide (MPT; n=125), or reduced-intensity stem cell transplantation using melphalan 100 mg/m2 (MEL100; n=126). The primary endpoint was overall survival. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00367185.
After a median follow-up of 51.5 months (IQR 34.4-63.2), median overall survival times were 33.2 months (13.8-54.8) for MP, 51.6 months (26.6-not reached) for MPT, and 38.3 months (13.0-61.6) for MEL100. The MPT regimen was associated with a significantly better overall survival than was the MP regimen (hazard ratio 0.59, 95% CI 0.46-0.81, p=0.0006) or MEL100 regimen (0.69, 0.49-0.96, p=0.027). No difference was seen for MEL100 versus MP (0.86, 0.65-1.15, p=0.32).
The results of our trial provide strong evidence to indicate that the use of thalidomide in combination with melphalan and prednisone should, at present, be the reference treatment for previously untreated elderly patients with multiple myeloma.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One hundred de novo multiple myeloma patients with t(4;14) treated with double intensive therapy according to IFM99 protocols were retrospectively analyzed. The median overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) were 41.4 and 21 months, respectively, as compared to 65 and 37 for patients included in the IFM99 trials without t(4;14) (P<10(-7)). We identified a subgroup of patients presenting at diagnosis with both low beta(2)-microglobulin <4 mg/l and high hemoglobin (Hb) >/=10 g/l (46% of the cases) with a median OS of 54.6 months and a median EFS of 26 months, respectively, which benefits from high-dose therapy (HDT); conversely patients with one or both adverse prognostic factor (high beta(2)-microglobulin and/or low Hb) had a poor outcome. The achievement of either complete response or very good partial response after HDT was also a powerful independent prognostic factor for both OS and EFS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acquired genomic aberrations have been shown to significantly impact survival in several hematologic malignancies. We analyzed the prognostic value of the most frequent chromosomal changes in a large series of patients with newly diagnosed symptomatic myeloma prospectively enrolled in homogeneous therapeutic trials. All the 1064 patients enrolled in the IFM99 trials conducted by the Intergroupe Francophone du Myélome benefited from an interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis performed on purified bone marrow plasma cells. They were systematically screened for the following genomic aberrations: del(13), t(11;14), t(4;14), hyperdiploidy, MYC translocations, and del(17p). Chromosomal changes were observed in 90% of the patients. The del(13), t(11;14), t(4;14), hyperdiploidy, MYC translocations, and del(17p) were present in 48%, 21%, 14%, 39%, 13%, and 11% of the patients, respectively. After a median follow-up of 41 months, univariate statistical analyses revealed that del(13), t(4;14), nonhyperdiploidy, and del(17p) negatively impacted both the event-free survival and the overall survival, whereas t(11;14) and MYC translocations did not influence the prognosis. Multivariate analyses on 513 patients annotated for all the parameters showed that only t(4;14) and del(17p) retained prognostic value for both the event-free and overall survivals. When compared with the currently used International Staging System, this prognostic model compares favorably. In myeloma, the genomic aberrations t(4;14) and del(17p), together with beta2-microglobulin level, are important independent predictors of survival. These findings have implications for the design of risk-adapted treatment strategies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dexamethasone alone increases life expectancy in patients with relapsed multiple myeloma (MM); however, no large randomized study has compared dexamethasone and dexamethasone-based regimens with standard melphalan-prednisone in newly diagnosed MM patients ineligible for high-dose therapy. In the Intergroupe Francophone du Myélome (IFM) 95-01 trial, 488 patients aged 65 to 75 years were randomized between 4 regimens of treatment: melphalan-prednisone, dexamethasone alone, melphalan-dexamethasone, and dexamethasone-interferon alpha. Response rates at 6 months (except for complete response) were significantly higher among patients receiving melphalan-dexamethasone, and progression-free survival was significantly better among patients receiving melphalan (P < .001, for both comparisons), but there was no difference in overall survival between the 4 treatment groups. Moreover, the morbidity associated with dexamethasone-based regimens was significantly higher than with melphalan-prednisone, especially for severe pyogenic infections in the melphalan-dexamethasone arm and hemorrhage, severe diabetes, and gastrointestinal and psychiatric complications in the dexamethasone arms. Overall, these results indicated that dexamethasone should not be routinely recommended as first-line treatment in elderly patients with MM. In the context of the IFM 95-01 trial, the standard melphalan-prednisone remained the best treatment choice when efficacy and patient comfort were both considered. These results might be useful in the context of future combinations with innovative drugs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate treatment by thalidomide and identify predictive factors of survival, event free survival and response among patients with advanced multiple myeloma treated with thalidomide as single agent therapy.
Patients with advanced multiple myeloma (n=83) were treated with an oral dose of thalidomide (median 400 mg/day). At start of treatment, all patients had active disease and 58 (69%) had received at least one autologous transplantation.
With a median follow-up of 338 days (range, 247-629 days), 52 patients are alive, whereas 31 died between 8 and 150 days after the first administration of thalidomide. The response to thalidomide was considered as major in 11 patients (13%), partial in 29 patients (35%) and minor in 15 patients (18%), giving a total response rate of 66% (54 out of 83 patients). Thirteen patients had stable disease and 15 patients progressed. In multivariable analysis, age greater than 60 years, short interval between diagnosis and onset of thalidomide, requirement for red blood cell transfusion, IgA isotype, platelets' count <80 x 10(9)/l and serum albumin level <30 g/l at the start of thalidomide were associated with poor outcome. These three last factors produced a simplified prognostic model for patients with advanced myeloma and treated with thalidomide. Thus, among the 38 patients without any of these unfavorable risk features, one-year overall survival and event free survival were 87% and 78%. By contrast, the 43 patients with at least one unfavorable feature had one-year overall survival and event free survival of 40% and 32%, respectively (Log-Rank, P=0.0002 for both). Patients who received > or =34.4 g of thalidomide in the first 90 days of treatment had a better outcome than those who received <34.4 g. However, the mean received daily dose of thalidomide in the first 90 days has not been found to influence survival, event free survival or response. Short-term side effects of thalidomide were generally moderate.
Thalidomide is an effective treatment for patients with advanced myeloma, in particular, who have no poor-risk features. The poor results achieved by the other patients emphasize the need for prospective protocols using thalidomide in combination, especially with dexamethasone. In addition, further studies are needed to determine the optimal thalidomide dose and duration.
No preview · Article · Aug 2002 · The Hematology Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: High-dose therapy has become a common treatment for myeloma. The objective of this study (Intergroupe Francophone du Myélome [IFM] 9502 trial) was to compare in a prospective and randomized trial the 2 most widely used conditioning regimens before autologous stem cell transplantation in newly diagnosed symptomatic patients younger than 65 years old: 8 Gy total body irradiation plus 140 mg/m(2) melphalan (arm A) versus 200 mg/m(2) melphalan (arm B). A total of 282 evaluable patients were compared--140 in arm A and 142 in arm B. Baseline characteristics and disease response to 4 cycles of the VAD regimen performed before randomization and autologous stem cell transplantation were identical in the 2 treatment arms. In arm B, hematologic recovery was significantly faster for both the duration of neutropenia and thrombocytopenia, transfusion requirements were also significantly lower, and the median duration of hospitalization was significantly shorter. In arm A, the incidence of severe mucositis was significantly increased. The median duration of event-free survival was similar in both arms (21 vs 20.5 months, P =.6), but the 45-month survival was 65.8% in arm B versus 45.5% in arm A (P =.05). This difference might be attributed in part to better salvage regimens after relapse in arm B compared with arm A. We conclude that 200 mg/m(2) melphalan is a less toxic and at least as effective conditioning regimen when compared with 8 Gy total body irradiation with 140 mg/m(2) melphalan. This regimen should be considered as the standard of care before autologous stem cell transplantation in multiple myeloma.