James D Callahan

Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States

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Publications (4)8.24 Total impact

  • Ha Son Nguyen · James D Callahan · Aaron A Cohen-Gadol
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), a well-known complication of diabetes mellitus, is associated with severe diffuse cerebral edema leading to brain herniation and death. Survival from an episode of symptomatic cerebral edema has been associated with debilitating neurological sequelae, including motor deficits, visual impairment, memory loss, seizures, and persistent vegetative states. A review of the literature reveals scant information regarding the potential surgical options for these cases. The authors present their case in which they used a craniectomy to treat this life-threatening condition. After reportedly suffering nausea and vomiting, a 12-year-old male presented to the emergency room with lethargy and was diagnosed with acute DKA. After appropriate treatment, the patient became comatose. A CT scan revealed diffuse cerebral edema. To decrease intracranial pressure and prevent further progression of brain herniation, a bifrontal decompressive craniectomy with duraplasty was performed. The patient's neurological function gradually improved, and he returned to school and his regular activities with only minimal cognitive deficits. Given the high mortality and morbidity associated with DKA-related edema, we believe decompressive craniectomy should be considered for malignant cerebral edema and herniation syndrome.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2011 · Child s Nervous System
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    ABSTRACT: Of the 15 cases of intradural extramedullary ependymomas in the literature, only 3 patients were male. The authors report the fourth case to be diagnosed in a male patient and discuss the pathogenesis, presentation, and treatment of this rare form of ependymoma. These cases most commonly show a similar clinical preoperative course to that of a benign meningioma. Although most instances have been reported in females, hormonal influence may not completely explain this neoplasm's pathogenesis. Close follow-up is warranted because of potential recurrence, metastasis, and anaplastic transformation. An ependymoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of intradural extramedullary tumors.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · Clinical neurology and neurosurgery
  • R Shane Tubbs · Marios Loukas · James D Callahan · Aaron A Cohen-Gadol
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    ABSTRACT: Surgical approaches to the upper anterior thoracic spine can be a challenge. Various techniques such as transsternal routes have been employed but access to the midthoracic vertebrae is limited due to the position of the heart and great vessels. In the present study the authors' goal was to evaluate in cadavers a novel approach to the upper anterior thoracic spine. In 12 adult cadavers the majority of the left first rib was removed following infraclavicular transection of the attachment of the anterior and middle scalene muscles from this bone. Inferior retraction of the parietal pleura and lung was performed and dissection was carried out inferior to the left subclavian artery and superior and posterior to the aorta, to the anterior aspect of the upper thoracic spine. The aforementioned approach and surgical corridor allowed a good access to the anterior aspect of the upper thoracic vertebrae and caudally to the inferior aspect of T-4 vertebral body in all cadavers. No obvious neurovascular injury was identified in any specimen. To the authors' knowledge, the method described herein has not been previously reported. Based on their cadaveric study, they believe such an approach can be used in the patients with pathology in this region of the thoracic spine. Surgical series are now needed to confirm our findings.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2010 · Journal of neurosurgery. Spine
  • Gregory M Helbig · James D Callahan · Aaron A Cohen-Gadol
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    ABSTRACT: Trigeminal neuralgia is often caused by compression, demyelination, and injury of the trigeminal nerve root entry zone by an adjacent artery and/or vein. Previously described variations of the nerve-vessel relationship note external nerve compression. We offer a detailed classification of intraneural vessels that travel through the trigeminal nerve and safe, effective surgical management. We report 3 microvascular decompression operations for medically refractory trigeminal neuralgia during which the surgeon encountered a vein crossing through the trigeminal nerve. Two types of intraneural veins are described: type 1, in which the vein travels between the motor and sensory branches of the trigeminal nerve (1 patient), and type 2, in which the vein bisects the sensory branch (portio major) (2 patients). We recommend sacrificing the intraneural vein between the motor and sensory branches if the vein is small (most likely type 1). If the intraneural vein is large and bisects the sensory branch (most likely type 2), vein mobilization can be achieved, but often requires extensive dissection through the nerve. Because this maneuver may lead to trigeminal nerve injury and result in uncomfortable neuropathy and numbness (including corneal hypoesthesia), we recommend against mobilization of the vein through the nerve, suggesting instead, consideration of a selective trigeminal nerve rhizotomy. Because aggressive dissection of intraneural vessels can lead to higher than normal complication rates, preoperative knowledge of vein-trigeminal nerve variants is crucial for intraoperative success.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2009 · Neurosurgery

Publication Stats

30 Citations
8.24 Total Impact Points


  • 2010-2011
    • Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis
      Indianapolis, Indiana, United States
  • 2009-2011
    • Indiana University East
      Indiana, United States