[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Abnormalities in blood inflammatory markers have been associated with clinical manifestations and the pathogenesis of the fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS); a relationship between inherited alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) and FMS has also been recently raised. In this study, plasma levels of inflammatory markers in FMS patients with and without AATD have been investigated. Blood samples from 138 age-matched females (79 FMS) and 59 general population (GP), with normal MM [n = 82 (59.4%)] and with MS, MZ, SZ, and ZZ AATD genotypes [n = 56 (40.6%)], were analyzed by ELISA for monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha), soluble TNFalpha receptors I and II, interleukin-8, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Plasma levels of MCP-1, VEGF, and TNFalpha were significantly lower in FMS and GP subjects with AATD compared with those with normal MM-AAT genotypes. Moreover, plasma levels of MCP-1, VEGF, and TNFalpha were lower in AATD subjects with FMS than in those without FMS (P = 0.000, 0.000, and 0.046, respectively). No statistical differences were found for the other substances measured. Furthermore, a logistic regression model based on plasma MCP-1 cutoff value of <or=130 pg/ml allowed us to discriminate between FMS and GP subjects with a sensitivity of about 93% and a specificity of 79%. Low plasma levels of MCP-1, VEGF, and TNFalpha are related to AATD, although more markedly in FMS patients. Thus, hypotheses considering FMS as an inflammatory condition related to high plasma levels of inflammatory biomarkers cannot be supported.