[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) have become a major problem for healthcare systems worldwide. While the first reports from European hospitals described the introduction of CPE from endemic countries, there is now a growing number of reports describing outbreaks of CPE in European hospitals. Here we report an outbreak of Carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae in a German University hospital which was in part associated to duodenoscopy.
Between December 6, 2012 and January 10, 2013, carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae (CRKP) was cultured from 12 patients staying on 4 different wards. The amplification of carbapenemase genes by multiplex PCR showed presence of the bla
OXA-48 gene. Molecular typing confirmed the identity of all 12 isolates. Reviewing the medical records of CRKP cases revealed that there was a spatial relationship between 6 of the cases which were located on the same wards. The remaining 6 cases were all related to endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) which was performed with the same duodenoscope. The outbreak ended after the endoscope was sent to the manufacturer for maintenance.
Though the outbreak strain was also disseminated to patients who did not undergo ERCP and environmental sources or medical personnel also contributed to the outbreak, the gut of colonized patients is the main source for CPE. Therefore, accurate and stringent reprocessing of endoscopic instruments is extremely important, which is especially true for more complex instruments like the duodenoscope (TJF Q180V series) involved in the outbreak described here.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
To describe the epidemiology of healthcare-associated infections (HAI) in hospitals participating in the German national nosocomial infections surveillance system (KISS).
The epidemiology of HAI was described for the surveillance components for intensive care units (ITS-KISS), non-ICUs (STATIONS-KISS), very low birth weight infants (NEO-KISS) and surgical site infections (OP-KISS) in the period from 2006 to 2013. In addition, risk factor analyses were performed for the most important infections of ICU-KISS, NEO-KISS and OP-KISS.
Data from a total of 3,454,778 ICU patients from 913 ICUs, 618,816 non-ICU patients from 142 non-ICU wards, 53,676 VLBW from 241 neonatal intensive care units (NICU) and 1,005,064 surgical patients from operative departments from 550 hospitals were used for analysis. Compared with baseline data, a significant reduction of primary bloodstream infections (PBSI) and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) was observed in ICUs with the maximum effect in year 5 (or longer participation) (incidence rate ratio 0.60 (CI95 0.50-0.72) and 0.61 (CI95 0.52-0.71) respectively). A significant reduction of PBSI and LRTI was also observed in NEO-KISS when comparing the baseline situation with the 5th year of participation (hazard ratio 0.70 (CI95 0.64-0.76) and 0.43 (CI95 0.35-0.52)). The effect was smaller in operative departments after the introduction of OP-KISS (OR 0.80; CI95 0.64-1.02 in year 5 or later for all procedure types combined). Due to the large database, it has not only been possible to confirm well-known risk factors for HAI, but also to identify some new interesting risk factors like seasonal and volume effects.
Participating in a national surveillance system and using surveillance data for internal quality management leads to substantial reduction of HAI. In addition, a surveillance system can identify otherwise not recognized risk factors which should - if possible - be considered for infection control management and for risk adjustment in the benchmarking process.
No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · International journal of medical microbiology: IJMM
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The Prevention of Hospital Infections by Intervention and Training (PROHIBIT) survey was initiated to investigate the status of healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) prevention across Europe.
This paper presents the methodology of the quantitative PROHIBIT survey and outlines the findings on infection control (IC) structure and organization including management's support at the hospital level.
Hospitals in 34 countries were invited to participate between September 2011 and March 2012. Respondents included IC personnel and hospital management.
Data from 309 hospitals in 24 countries were analysed. Hospitals had a median (interquartile range) of four IC nurses (2-6) and one IC doctor (0-2) per 1000 beds. Almost all hospitals (96%) had defined IC objectives, which mainly addressed hand hygiene (87%), healthcare-associated infection reduction (84%), and antibiotic stewardship (66%). Senior management provided leadership walk rounds in about half of hospitals, most often in Eastern and Northern Europe, 65% and 64%, respectively. In the majority of hospitals (71%), sanctions were not employed for repeated violations of IC practices. Use of sanctions varied significantly by region (P < 0.001), but not by countries' healthcare expenditure.
There is great variance in IC staffing and policies across Europe. Some areas of practice, such as hand hygiene, seem to receive considerably more attention than others that are equally important, such as antibiotic stewardship. Programmes in IC suffer from deficiencies in human resources and local policies, ubiquitous factors that negatively impact on IC effectiveness. Strengthening of IC policies in European hospitals should be a public health priority.
No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · The Journal of hospital infection
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hand hygiene is considered to be the most effective way of preventing microbial transmission and healthcare-associated infections. The use of alcohol-based hand rubs (AHRs) is the reference standard for effective hand hygiene. AHR consumption is a valuable surrogate parameter for hand hygiene performance, and it can be easily tracked in the healthcare setting. AHR availability at the point of care ensures access to optimal agents, and makes hand hygiene easier by overcoming barriers such as lack of AHRs or inconvenient dispenser locations. Data on AHR consumption and availability at the point of care in European hospitals were obtained as part of the Prevention of Hospital Infections by Intervention and Training (PROHIBIT) study, a framework 7 project funded by the European Commission. Data on AHR consumption were provided by 232 hospitals, and showed median usage of 21 mL (interquartile range (IQR) 9–37 mL) per patient-day (PD) at the hospital level, 66 mL/PD (IQR 33–103 mL/PD) at the intensive-care unit (ICU) level, and 13 mL/PD (IQR 6–25 mL/PD) at the non-ICU level. Consumption varied by country and hospital type. Most ICUs (86%) had AHRs available at 76–100% of points of care, but only approximately two-thirds (65%) of non-ICUs did. The availability of wall-mounted and bed-mounted AHR dispensers was significantly associated with AHR consumption in both ICUs and non-ICUs. The data show that further improvement in hand hygiene behaviour is needed in Europe. To what extent factors at the national, hospital and ward levels influence AHR consumption must be explored further.
No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Clinical Microbiology and Infection
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Health care-associated infections by multidrug-resistant bacteria constitute one of the greatest challenges to modern medicine. Bacterial pathogens devise various mechanisms to withstand the activity of a wide range of antimicrobial compounds, among which the acquisition of carbapenemases is one of the most concerning. In Klebsiella pneumoniae the dissemination of the carbapenemase KPC is tightly connected to the global spread of certain clonal lineages. Although antibiotic resistance is a key driver for the global distribution of epidemic high-risk clones, there seem to be other adaptive traits that may explain their success. Here, we exploited the power of deep transcriptome profiling (RNA-seq) to shed light on the transcriptomic landscape of 37 clinical K. pneumoniae isolates of diverse phylogenetic origins. We identified a large set of 3346 genes which was expressed in all isolates. While the core-transcriptome profiles varied substantially between groups of different sequence types, they were more homogenous among isolates of the same sequence type. We furthermore linked the detailed information on differentially expressed genes with the clinically relevant phenotypes of biofilm formation and bacterial virulence. This allowed for the identification of a diminished expression of biofilm-specific genes within the low biofilm producing ST258 isolates as a sequence type-specific trait.
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No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Environmental Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE To quantify the Hawthorne effect of hand hygiene performance among healthcare workers using direct observation. DESIGN Prospective observational study. SETTING Intensive care unit, university hospital. METHODS Direct observation of hand hygiene compliance over 48 audits of 2 hours each. Simultaneously, hand hygiene events (HHEs) were recorded using electronic alcohol-based handrub dispensers. Directly observed and electronically recorded HHEs during the 2 hours of direct observation were compared using Spearman correlations and Bland-Altman plots. To quantify the Hawthorne effect, we compared the number of electronically recorded HHEs during the direct observation periods with the re-scaled electronically recorded HHEs in the 6 remaining hours of the 8-hour working shift. RESULTS A total of 3,978 opportunities for hand hygiene were observed during the 96 hours of direct observation. Hand hygiene compliance was 51% (95% CI, 49%-53%). There was a strong positive correlation between directly observed compliance and electronically recorded HHEs (ρ=0.68 [95% CI, 0.49-0.81], P<.0001). In the 384 hours under surveillance, 4,180 HHEs were recorded by the electronic dispensers. Of those, 2,029 HHEs were recorded during the 96 hours in which direct observation was also performed, and 2,151 HHEs were performed in the remaining 288 hours of the same working shift that were not under direct observation. Healthcare workers performed 8 HHEs per hour when not under observation compared with 21 HHEs per hour during observation. CONCLUSIONS Directly and electronically observed HHEs were in agreement. We observed a marked influence of the Hawthorne effect on hand hygiene performance. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2015;00(0):1-6.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology