[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Barium esophagrams are a frequently performed test, and radiological observations about potential abnormal esophageal motility, such as tertiary contractions, are commonly reported. We sought to assess the correlation between tertiary waves, and in particular isolated tertiary waves, on esophagrams and findings on non-synchronous high-resolution esophageal manometry. We retrospectively reviewed reports of esophagrams performed at a tertiary referral center and identified patients in whom tertiary waves were observed and a high-resolution esophageal manometry had been performed. We defined two groups; group 1 was defined as patients with isolated tertiary waves, whereas group 2 had tertiary waves and evidence of achalasia or an obstructing structural abnormality on the esophagram. We collected data on demographics, dysphagia score, associated findings on esophagram, and need for intervention. We reviewed the reports of 2100 esophagrams of which tertiary waves were noted as an isolated abnormality in 92, and in association with achalasia or a structural obstruction in 61. High-resolution manometry was performed in 17 patients in group 1, and five had evidence of a significant esophageal motility disorder and 4 required any intervention. Twenty-one patients in group 2 underwent manometry, and 18 had a significant esophageal motility disorder. An isolated finding of tertiary waves on an esophagram is rarely associated with a significant esophageal motility disorder that requires intervention. All patients with isolated tertiary waves who required intervention had a dysphagia to liquids. Tertiary contractions, in the absence of dysphagia to liquids, indicate no significant esophageal motility disorder.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Diseases of the Esophagus
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Smaller studies have suggested seasonal variation of the diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis with more patients being diagnosed in the aeroallergen season. We evaluated a large group of adult patients for a seasonal variation of the diagnosis of symptomatic eosinophilic esophageal infiltration. We performed a retrospective review of adult patients from a large Eosinophilic esophagitis database at the Mayo Clinic Rochester. We only included patients from three states in the upper Midwest, who had 15 or more eosinophils per high-power field on esophageal biopsy, symptomatic dysphagia, and were seen, in our Gastroenterology Clinic between 2000 and 2008. Clinical data were abstracted and the month of diagnosis was determined. The Rayleigh circular test and the Chi-square goodness-of-fit test were used to detect seasonality of symptomatic esophageal eosinophilia diagnosis and seasonality corrected for esophagogastroduodenoscopy monthly volume. The diagnosis of symptomatic eosinophilic esophageal infiltration was made in 372 patients. The mean number of eosinophils was 39.6 per high-power field. The December/January and May/June periods seem to have an increased presentation rate (p = 0.014). Of those tested, reactions to any aeroallergen was present in 69 % (48/70), reactions to >4 aeroallergens in 47 % (33/70) and reactions to any food allergen in 63 % (50/80) of patients. There was no evidence of monthly concentration of symptomatic esophageal eosinophilia diagnosis in the subgroups of patients with any positive aeroallergen, >4 positive aeroallergens, or history of atopy. The diagnosis of symptomatic esophageal eosinophilia is not made more frequently in the summer months.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Morning dose or twice-daily proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use is often prescribed to heal severe reflux esophagitis.
Compare the effect of single dose morning (control arm) versus nighttime (experimental arm) omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate (Zegerid(®)) (IR-OME) on esophagitis and gastroesophageal reflux symptoms.
Adult outpatients with Los Angeles grade C or D esophagitis were allocated to open-label 40 mg IR-OME once a day for 8 weeks in a prospective, randomized, parallel design, single center study. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and validated self-report symptom questionnaires were completed at baseline and follow-up. Intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses were performed.
Ninety-two of 128 (72 %) eligible subjects participated [64 (70 %) male, mean age 58 (range 19-86), median BMI 29 (range 21-51), 58 C:34 D]. Overall, 81 (88 %) subjects healed [n = 70 (76 %)] or improved [n = 11 (12 %)] erosions. There was no significant difference (morning vs. night) in mucosal healing [81 vs. 71 %, (p = 0.44)] or symptom resolution [heartburn (77 vs. 65 %, p = 0.12), acid regurgitation (82 vs. 73 %, p = 0.28)]. Prevalence of newly identified Barrett's esophagus was 14 % with half diagnosed only after treatment.
Once-daily IR-OME (taken morning or night) effectively heals severe reflux esophagitis and improves GERD symptoms. Results support the clinical practice recommendation to repeat EGD after 8 weeks PPI therapy in severe esophagitis patients to assure healing and exclude Barrett's esophagus.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Digestive Diseases and Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a relatively new disease that is increasingly recognized as a chronic inflammatory condition with currently evolving diagnostic and therapeutic aspects. There is data to support the rising prevalence of EOE especially in western countries. EoE is an emerging cause of dysphagia and food bolus impaction in adults as well as abdominal pain, feeding disorders, and gastroesophageal reflux-like symptoms in younger patients. EoE is ever more recognized as a separate disease process that is more complicated than eosinophilic infiltration from gastroesophageal reflux disease. Food and environmental antigens both play significant roles in stimulating T-helper (Th-2) inflammatory response. Current therapeutic options include use of proton-pump inhibitors, immunosuppressive drugs, elimination diets, and esophageal dilatation. Simple elimination of food and environmental antigen exposure can be challenging in adults due to the difficulty in accurately identifying triggering antigens and adherence to restrictive diets from a wide range of putative food allergens. Novel therapeutic options are being presented as potential treatments that target chemokines and specific immunologic mechanisms for EoE. This review will aim to summarize the latest and evolving approaches to EoE diagnosis and management. In the future, biomarkers of inflammatory response may help diagnose, treat, and stratify individual patients for better treatment outcomes with this chronic disease.
No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · Minerva gastroenterologica e dietologica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
A prospective cohort study was conducted to analyze whether self-reported fatigue predicts overall survival in patients with esophageal cancer.
Patients enrolled in the Mayo Clinic Esophageal Adenocarcinoma and Barrett's Esophagus Registry between September 2001 and January 2009 who completed a baseline quality of life instrument were eligible for evaluation. The fatigue component was scored on a 0-10 scale, with 0 as extreme fatigue. Patients were categorized as having a decreased energy level if they reported a score of ≤ 5. Fatigue scores ≥ 6 reflect normal levels of energy.
Data from a total of 659 enrolled patients were analyzed. A total of 392 (59 %) and 267 (41 %) patients reported decreased and normal energy, respectively. Univariate analysis indicates patients with normal energy had improved 5-year survival compared to patients with decreased energy (37 vs 28 %, hazard ratio (HR) 0.74, p = 0.006). Among the patients with locally advanced disease, the same relationship was seen (28 vs 17 %, HR = 0.67, p = 0.003); this remained significant on multivariate analysis (HR = 0.71, p = 0.015).
A decreased energy level is associated with poor survival in patients with esophageal cancer. Thus, patients with high levels of fatigue should be referred for psychological support and be considered for therapy aimed at amelioration of fatigue symptoms.
No preview · Article · Jul 2012 · Supportive Care in Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A variety of medications have been reported to cause esophageal injury. Nearly 1000 cases have probably been described in
the past 30 years, and this is a vast under-representation. Pill-induced esophageal injury is also associated with many underlying
esophageal diseases. This review addresses the etiology, diagnosis, and clinical features of pill-induced esophageal injury
as well as the specific medications that have been reported to cause it. Ways to prevent esophageal injury, including better
instructions to patients who are prescribed such medications, are also discussed.
No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Current Gastroenterology Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the effect of aerosolized fluticasone therapy on symptomatic dysphagia and histologic eosinophilia in adults with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE).
We performed a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of fluticasone in 42 adult patients with a new diagnosis of EoE (30 men; mean age, 37.5 y). Participants were assigned randomly to groups that swallowed 880 μg of aerosolized fluticasone twice daily (n = 21), or took a placebo inhaler twice daily (n = 15) for 6 weeks. End points of the study were symptomatic and histologic response.
A complete histologic response (>90% decrease in mean eosinophil count) was observed in 11 of 15 subjects who received 6 weeks of fluticasone (62%), compared with none of the 15 subjects who received placebo (P < .001), based on intention-to-treat analysis; histologic responses were observed in 68% of subjects who received fluticasone (13 of 19) compared with none of those who received placebo (0 of 15) by per-protocol analysis (P < .001). Intracellular staining for eosinophil-derived neurotoxin was reduced in 81% of subjects who received fluticasone (13 of 16) compared with 8% who received placebo (1 of 13) (P < .001). Dysphagia was reduced in 57% of subjects who received fluticasone (12 of 21) compared with 33% who received placebo (7 of 21) (P = .22) by intention-to-treat analysis; dysphagia was reduced in 63% of patients who received fluticasone (12 of 19) and 47% of those who received placebo (7 of 15) (P = .49) based on per-protocol analysis. Esophageal candidiasis developed in 26% of subjects who received fluticasone (5 of 19), but in none of the subjects in the placebo group (P = .05).
Aerosolized, swallowed fluticasone leads to a histologic but not a symptomatic response in adults with EoE.
No preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology: the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The consensus statements for eosinophilic oesophagitis recommend that ambulatory pH monitoring is one means of determining if gastro-oesophageal reflux is the cause of oesophageal eosinophilia and should guide pharmacological therapy.
To evaluate prospectively the accuracy of pH monitoring as a predictor of endoscopic, histological and symptomatic response in patients with oesophageal eosinophilia.
We conducted a prospective trial in which patients with oesophageal eosinophilic infiltration with ≥15 eos/hpf underwent a 24-h pH study and were placed in one of two treatment arms for 6 weeks based on positive or negative results. Patients with abnormal acid exposure were treated with esomeprazole 40 mg twice daily and others were treated with oral viscous budesonide 1 g twice daily. Response to treatment was assessed by oesophageal histology (<5 eos/hpf) and symptoms.
A total of 51 patients were enrolled in the study. The average patient age was 39 years and 31 patients (61%) were male. The average number of eosinophils per hpf, prior to study enrolment was 41.2 (range 15-140, s.d. 27.7). Nineteen (37%) had positive pH studies and 32 (63%) had negative pH studies. Eighteen patients completed treatment with esomeprazole. Only eleven (61%) had histological response and, of these eleven, five (46%) had symptomatic improvement. A total of 28 patients with normal acid exposure completed treatment with budesonide. Only 16 (57%) had histological and 11 (69%) had symptomatic improvement.
In this prospective trial of pH-guided treatment, neither positive nor negative results of initial pH monitoring accurately predicted response to therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Achalasia secondary to neoplasia is an uncommon entity, but recognition is paramount given the concern of missing a cancer diagnosis. Most case series of secondary achalasia occurred in prior decades raising the question of whether the underlying neoplastic causes have changed. All cases of achalasia secondary to neoplasia were reviewed at the Mayo Clinic from 2000 to the present. Cases were assessed for underlying cause of achalasia, whether achalasia was the primary presentation and demographic and clinical factors. Seventeen patients with achalasia secondary to neoplasia were identified. This was 1.5% of all patients with achalasia seen. The most common causes were adenocarcinoma of the esophagus, followed by breast and non-small cell lung cancer. No cases of gastric cancer were identified. Most patients had weight loss and rapid onset of symptoms but could not clearly be distinguished from primary achalasia. Nine patients presented with achalasia, whereas eight patients had known neoplasia. Five of these patients had a positive paraneoplastic panel suggestive of a paraneoplastic syndrome. Prognosis was generally poor except for patients with esophageal leiomyomatosis. This case series demonstrates a changing differential diagnosis for achalasia secondary to neoplasia with a higher number of patients presenting with a known primary and with a paraneoplastic syndrome. Awareness of secondary achalasia and its differentiation from primary causes is still essential.
No preview · Article · Oct 2011 · Diseases of the Esophagus
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bloating, flatulence, early satiety, and dysphagia resolve in more than 90% of patients early after fundoplication. Gastric dysfunction can persist, however, and a small number of patients develop severe gastric dysfunction (gastroparesis). Management of gastroparesis after antireflux procedures is generally conservative, but gastroparesis can become refractory to medical therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the role of gastric resection in the management of the unusual patient with severe postfundoplication gastric dysfunction.
From January 1990 to October 2010, a total of 5,129 gastric resections were performed at our institution. From this cohort, we identified nine patients with postfundoplication gastric dysfunction managed with gastric resection. Clinical records were reviewed retrospectively for preoperative evaluation, perioperative course, and long-term outcomes.
Over 20 years, nine patients were treated with gastric resection for debilitating gastric dysfunction after antireflux surgery. Seven of the nine patients were female; the median preoperative body mass index was 25 kg/m(2) (18-31 kg/m(2)). Median follow-up was 23 months (1-97 months). Preoperatively, five patients required enteral feeding. Postoperatively, although there were no deaths, one patient required operative drainage of a subphrenic abscess, one developed temporary respiratory failure, and one was readmitted for partial small bowel obstruction. Six of the nine patients maintain their nutrition orally, but three are maintained with enteral nutrition. Only two patients are subjectively asymptomatic.
Outcomes after gastric resection for postfundoplication gastric dysfunction are poor, with three of the nine patients requiring supplemental nutrition and seven of the nine having persistent symptoms.
No preview · Article · Jun 2011 · World Journal of Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Upper abdominal pain (UAP) in patients with gallstones is often treated by cholecystectomy but it frequently persists. We aimed to identify symptoms associated with relief.
We followed 1008 patients who received cholecystectomy for gallstones and UAP at the Mayo Clinic (Rochester, Minnesota) or Kaiser Permanente (San Diego, California) for 12 months. A validated, self-completed biliary symptoms questionnaire identified features of UAP, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); the questionnaire was given initially and 3 and 12 months after cholecystectomy, to identify features that predicted sustained relief of UAP.
Five hundred ninety-four patients (59%) reported relief from UAP. Factors associated univariately (P < .05) with relief included frequency of UAP ≤1 per month, onset ≤1 year preoperatively, usual duration (30 minutes to 24 hours, most often in the evening or night), and severity >5/10. Compared to no features, multiple predictive features of UAP (frequency, onset, duration, or timing) were associated with increasing odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for relief: 1, 2, or 3 features (4.2 [1.1-16]; P = .03) and 4 features (6.3 [1.6-25]; P = .008). Negative univariate associations included lower abdominal pain (LAP), usual bowel pattern, nausea ≥1 per week, often feeling bloated or burpy, GERD, and/or IBS. There was an inverse association between relief and somatization; relief was not associated with postprandial UAP. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed independent associations (P < .05) with UAP frequency, onset, and nocturnal awakening, but inverse associations with lower abdominal pain, abnormal bowel pattern, and frequent bloated or burpy feelings.
UAP features and concomitant GERD, IBS, and somatization determine the odds for relief from UAP after cholecystectomy.
No preview · Article · May 2011 · Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology: the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is defined by a minimum of 15 eosinophils (eos) per high-powered field (HPF) on esophageal biopsy, along with esophageal symptoms and the exclusion of gastroesophageal reflux (GERD). The clinical significance of fewer eosinophils is unknown.
Fifty-nine adult patients without a previous diagnosis of EoE with esophageal biopsies containing 1-14 eos per HPF (low grade eosinophilia) and 418 adult patients with ≥15 eos per HPF were identified by retrospective review. Patients were divided into group A (1-9 eos per HPF), group B (10-14 eos per HPF), and group C (≥15 eos per HPF) with a chart review of clinical and demographic data.
While dysphagia and atopy (asthma and allergic rhinitis) were more common in patients with ≥15 eos per HPF (group C) than those with low grade esophageal eosinophilia (groups A and B) (93 vs. 88%, P = 0.02), food impaction and heartburn occurred at an equal frequency across all patient groups. Endoscopic findings were likewise similar between groups. Of the 14 patients with low grade esophageal eosinophilia who underwent repeat endoscopy a mean interval of 42 weeks (range 8-118 weeks) later, five (36%) met conventional diagnostic criteria for EoE of 15 or greater eos per HPF. Follow-up in ten patients treated with topical corticosteroids noted improvement in nine, with mean follow-up of 8 weeks (range 4-12 weeks).
Some adult patients with dysphagia and less than 15 eos per HPF have similar endoscopic findings and clinical course to patients meeting the consensus definition of EoE. Further evaluation of patients with low grade esophageal eosinophilia is needed.
No preview · Article · Feb 2011 · Digestive Diseases and Sciences