[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Vertigo/Dizziness in childhood is not a rare cause of visits to the emergency department (ED). We analyzed a selected group with vertigo/dizziness to identify signs and symptoms that may help to guide the diagnostic approach and management.
A total of 616 children admitted for vertigo to the ED over a five-year period were retrospectively reviewed. Their medical history, clinical characteristics, laboratory and neuroimaging tests, final diagnoses and management were analyzed.
Migraine and syncope were the most frequent causes. Two patients were affected by life-threatening cardiac syncope, while structural life-threatening central nervous system diseases were found in 15 patients, none of whom presented with vertigo as an isolated clinical finding.
Most cases of vertigo/dizziness in childhood that consist mainly of migraine and syncope are of benign origin. The prompt identification of neurological or cardiological signs or symptoms associated with vertigo in children is mandatory to rule out life-threatening conditions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess possible correlations between intelligence quotient (IQ) and attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) rating scale values and sleep (including cyclic alternating patterns analysis) and respiratory parameters in children with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB).
Thirteen children who satisfied the criteria for primary snoring and 31 children for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) underwent polysomnography in a standard laboratory setting and a neurocognitive assessment. Sixty normal controls recruited from two schools underwent the neurocognitive assessment.
The IQ estimates of controls were higher and the ADHD rating scale scores lower than those of children with SDB. Children with OSAS had a higher REM sleep latency and arousal index as well as a lower N3 and A mean duration than children who snored. In our sample of children with SDB, the percentage of wakefulness after sleep onset, of N1, of A2, of arousal and A2 index correlated positively with global intelligence. Total and hyperactivity scores correlated positively with the A2 index. Regression analysis mostly confirmed the correlations between neurocognitive measures and sleep parameters and further demonstrated a negative correlation between the hyperactivity rating score and oxygen saturation during the night.
Our results support the hypothesis that arousal is a defensive mechanism that may preserve cognitive function by counteracting the respiratory events, at the expense of sleep maintenance and NREM sleep instability.
We believe that our study makes an interesting contribution to research on the relationship between sleep fragmentation and cognitive function.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · Clinical neurophysiology: official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Overweight and obesity may be associated with cognitive problems and both may share "neuroendocrinobiological roots" in common cerebral areas. We investigated intellectual performances and a possible "specific cognitive profile" in overweight/obese children. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 898 school children (6 to 13 years) attending primary schools. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-revised (WISC-R) revealed significant differences in performance intelligence quotient (PIQ) scores between body mass index (BMI) subgroups (p < 0.01). Regression analysis identified BMI as the only variable significantly related to PIQ (p < 0.05). Gender (p < 0.05) and parental educational score (p < 0.001) were significantly related to verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ). Parental educational score was the only factor significantly related to total intelligence quotient (TIQ) (p < 0.05). Parental education seems to play a major role in TIQ and VIQ; a lower PIQ score is clearly related to a higher BMI. A routine neurocognitive assessment in overweight/obese children is recommended. Finally, we have added some reflections on common neuroendocrinobiological roots.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism: JPEM
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated whether children affected by tension-type headache and migraine without aura, compared with a healthy control
group that was matched by age, culturally and socioeconomically display a diverse intellectual functioning and have a separate
“cognitive profile”. A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2006 to November 2008 at “Sapienza University” in
Rome. A total of 134 children were diagnosed as being affected by either migraine without aura (93) or tension-type headache
(41). On the basis of our exclusion/inclusion criteria, we enrolled 82 of these 134 children, 63 of whom were affected by
migraine without aura and 19 by tension-type headache. On entry, cognitive functions were assessed in both the affected subjects
and the control group by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-revised. Significant differences were found between
the headache and control groups in the mean total intelligence quotient and verbal intelligence quotient scores (p<0.001). Significant negative correlations were found between the total intelligence quotient, verbal intelligence quotient,
performance intelligence quotient and the frequency of attacks (r=−0.55 and p<0.001, r=−0.61 and p<0.001, r=−0.29 and p<0.01, respectively), as well as between the total intelligence quotient score and the age at headache onset (r=0.234, p<0.05). Our results suggest that the cognitive profile of children affected by headache should be assessed at the first
child neurology outpatient observation. From a therapeutic point of view, although within a normal range, the abilities most
likely to be less brilliant in such children are verbal skills.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2010 · The Journal of Headache and Pain