David M Hwang

University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

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Publications (46)195.18 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Reprint requests: Shaf Keshavjee MD, Director, Toronto Lung Transplant Program, Toronto General Hospital, 200 Elizabeth St. 9N-946, Toronto, ON, Canada, M5G 2C4. Tel.: +416 340 4010.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015
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    ABSTRACT: The microbiome shapes diverse facets of human biology and disease, with the importance of fungi only beginning to be appreciated. Microbial communities infiltrate diverse anatomical sites as with the respiratory tract of healthy humans and those with diseases such as cystic fibrosis, where chronic colonization and infection lead to clinical decline. Although fungi are frequently recovered from cystic fibrosis patient sputum samples and have been associated with deterioration of lung function, understanding of species and population dynamics remains in its infancy. Here, we coupled high-throughput sequencing of the ribosomal RNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) with phenotypic and genotypic analyses of fungi from 89 sputum samples from 28 cystic fibrosis patients. Fungal communities defined by sequencing were concordant with those defined by culture-based analyses of 1,603 isolates from the same samples. Different patients harbored distinct fungal communities. There were detectable trends, however, including colonization with Candida and Aspergillus species, which was not perturbed by clinical exacerbation or treatment. We identified considerable inter- and intra-species phenotypic variation in traits important for host adaptation, including antifungal drug resistance and morphogenesis. While variation in drug resistance was largely between species, striking variation in morphogenesis emerged within Candida species. Filamentation was uncoupled from inducing cues in 28 Candida isolates recovered from six patients. The filamentous isolates were resistant to the filamentation-repressive effects of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, implicating inter-kingdom interactions as the selective force. Genome sequencing revealed that all but one of the filamentous isolates harbored mutations in the transcriptional repressor NRG1; such mutations were necessary and sufficient for the filamentous phenotype. Six independent nrg1 mutations arose in Candida isolates from different patients, providing a poignant example of parallel evolution. Together, this combined clinical-genomic approach provides a high-resolution portrait of the fungal microbiome of cystic fibrosis patient lungs and identifies a genetic basis of pathogen adaptation.
    Preview · Article · Nov 2015 · PLoS Pathogens
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    ABSTRACT: Pulmonary infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa are a recalcitrant problem in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. While the clinical implications and long-term evolutionary patterns of these infections are well studied, we know little about the short-term population dynamics that enable this pathogen to persist despite aggressive antimicrobial therapy. Here, we describe a short-term population genomic analysis of 233 P. aeruginosa isolates collected from 12 sputum specimens obtained over a 1-year period from a single patient. Whole-genome sequencing and antimicrobial susceptibility profiling identified the expansion of two clonal lineages. The first lineage originated from the coalescence of the entire sample less than 3 years before the end of the study and gave rise to a high-diversity ancestral population. The second expansion occurred 2 years later and gave rise to a derived population with a strong signal of positive selection. These events show characteristics consistent with recurrent selective sweeps. While we cannot identify the specific mutations responsible for the origins of the clonal lineages, we find that the majority of mutations occur in loci previously associated with virulence and resistance. Additionally, approximately one-third of all mutations occur in loci that are mutated multiple times, highlighting the importance of parallel pathoadaptation. One such locus is the gene encoding penicillin-binding protein 3, which received three independent mutations. Our functional analysis of these alleles shows that they provide differential fitness benefits dependent on the antibiotic under selection. These data reveal that bacterial populations can undergo extensive and dramatic changes that are not revealed by lower-resolution analyses.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · mBio
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    ABSTRACT: The long-term success of lung transplantation is challenged by the development of chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) and its distinct subtypes of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) and restrictive allograft syndrome (RAS). However, the current diagnostic criteria for CLAD subtypes rely on total lung capacity (TLC), which is not always measured during routine post-transplant assessment. Our aim was to investigate the utility of low-dose 3-dimensional computed tomography (CT) lung volumetry for differentiating RAS from BOS. This study was a retrospective evaluation of 63 patients who had developed CLAD after bilateral lung or heart‒lung transplantation between 2006 and 2011, including 44 BOS and 19 RAS cases. Median post-transplant follow-up was 65 months in BOS and 27 months in RAS. The median interval between baseline and the disease-onset time-point for CT volumetry was 11 months in both BOS and RAS. Chronologic changes and diagnostic accuracy of CT lung volume (measured as percent of baseline) were investigated. RAS showed a significant decrease in CT lung volume at disease onset compared with baseline (mean 3,916 ml vs 3,055 ml when excluding opacities, p < 0.0001), whereas BOS showed no significant post-transplant change (mean 4,318 ml vs 4,396 ml, p = 0.214). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of CT lung volume for differentiating RAS from BOS was 0.959 (95% confidence interval 0.912 to 1.01, p < 0.0001) and the calculated accuracy was 0.938 at a threshold of 85%. In bilateral lung or heart‒lung transplant patients with CLAD, low-dose CT volumetry is a useful tool to differentiate patients who develop RAS from those who develop BOS. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · The Journal of heart and lung transplantation: the official publication of the International Society for Heart Transplantation
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic airway infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa contribute to the progression of pulmonary disease in individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF). In the setting of CF, within-patient adaptation of a P. aeruginosa strain generates phenotypic diversity that can complicate microbiological analysis of patient samples. We investigated within- and between- sample diversity of 34 phenotypes among 235 P. aeruginosa isolates cultured from sputum samples collected from a single CF patient over the span of one year, and assessed colony morphology as a screening tool for predicting phenotypes, including antimicrobial susceptibilities. We identified 15 distinct colony morphotypes that varied significantly in abundance both within and between sputum samples. Substantial within sample phenotypic heterogeneity was also noted in other phenotypes, with morphotypes being unreliable predictors of antimicrobial susceptibility and other phenotypes. Emergence of isolates with reduced susceptibility to β-lactams was observed during periods of clinical therapy with aztreonam. Our findings confirm that the P. aeruginosa population in chronic CF lung infections is highly dynamic, and that intra-sample phenotypic diversity is underestimated if only one or few colonies are analyzed per sample.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Scientific Reports
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    ABSTRACT: Understanding the significance of bacterial species that colonize and persist in cystic fibrosis (CF) airways requires a detailed examination of bacterial community structure across a broad range of age and disease stage. We used 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing to characterize the lung microbiota in 269 CF patients spanning a 60 year age range, including 76 pediatric samples from patients of age 4-17, and a broad cross-section of disease status to identify features of bacterial community structure and their relationship to disease stage and age. The CF lung microbiota shows significant inter-individual variability in community structure, composition and diversity. The core microbiota consists of five genera - Streptococcus, Prevotella, Rothia, Veillonella and Actinomyces. CF-associated pathogens such as Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, Stenotrophomonas and Achromobacter are less prevalent than core genera, but have a strong tendency to dominate the bacterial community when present. Community diversity and lung function are greatest in patients less than 10 years of age and lower in older age groups, plateauing at approximately age 25. Lower community diversity correlates with worse lung function in a multivariate regression model. Infection by Pseudomonas correlates with age-associated trends in community diversity and lung function.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Scientific Reports
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    ABSTRACT: Background: It is estimated that millions of North Americans would qualify for lung cancer screening and that billions of dollars of national health expenditures would be required to support population-based computed tomography lung cancer screening programs. The decision to implement such programs should be informed by data on resource utilization and costs. Methods: Resource utilization data were collected prospectively from 2059 participants in the Pan-Canadian Early Detection of Lung Cancer Study using low-dose computed tomography (LDCT). Participants who had 2% or greater lung cancer risk over 3 years using a risk prediction tool were recruited from seven major cities across Canada. A cost analysis was conducted from the Canadian public payer's perspective for resources that were used for the screening and treatment of lung cancer in the initial years of the study. Results: The average per-person cost for screening individuals with LDCT was $453 (95% confidence interval [CI], $400-$505) for the initial 18-months of screening following a baseline scan. The screening costs were highly dependent on the detected lung nodule size, presence of cancer, screening intervention, and the screening center. The mean per-person cost of treating lung cancer with curative surgery was $33,344 (95% CI, $31,553-$34,935) over 2 years. This was lower than the cost of treating advanced-stage lung cancer with chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or supportive care alone, ($47,792; 95% CI, $43,254-$52,200; p = 0.061). Conclusion: In the Pan-Canadian study, the average cost to screen individuals with a high risk for developing lung cancer using LDCT and the average initial cost of curative intent treatment were lower than the average per-person cost of treating advanced stage lung cancer which infrequently results in a cure.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
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    ABSTRACT: QUESTION What types of specimens suspected to be or diagnosed as lung cancer should or should not have routine secondary pathology review? Available from Cancer Care Ontario at: https://www.cancercare.on.ca/common/pages/UserFile.aspx?fileId=311334
    No preview · Technical Report · Jun 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation testing has become critical in the treatment of patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. This study involves a large cohort and epidemiologically unselected series of EGFR mutation testing for patients with nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer in a North American population to determine sample-related factors that influence success in clinical EGFR testing. Methods: Data from consecutive cases of Canadian province-wide testing at a centralized diagnostic laboratory for a 24-month period were reviewed. Samples were tested for exon-19 deletion and exon-21 L858R mutations using a validated polymerase chain reaction method with 1% to 5% detection sensitivity. Results: From 2651 samples submitted, 2404 samples were tested with 2293 samples eligible for analysis (1780 histology and 513 cytology specimens). The overall test-failure rate was 5.4% with overall mutation rate of 20.6%. No significant differences in the failure rate, mutation rate, or mutation type were found between histology and cytology samples. Although tumor cellularity was significantly associated with test-success or mutation rates in histology and cytology specimens, respectively, mutations could be detected in all specimen types. Significant rates of EGFR mutation were detected in cases with thyroid transcription factor (TTF)-1-negative immunohistochemistry (6.7%) and mucinous component (9.0%). Conclusions: EGFR mutation testing should be attempted in any specimen, whether histologic or cytologic. Samples should not be excluded from testing based on TTF-1 status or histologic features. Pathologists should report the amount of available tumor for testing. However, suboptimal samples with a negative EGFR mutation result should be considered for repeat testing with an alternate sample.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
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    ABSTRACT: Supplementary information available for this article at http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2014/140513/ncomms4796/suppinfo/ncomms4796_S1.html
    Full-text · Article · May 2014
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    ABSTRACT: The increasing use of nanomaterials raises concerns about the long-term effects of chronic nanoparticle exposure on human health. However, nanoparticle exposure is difficult to evaluate non-invasively using current measurement techniques. Here we show that the skin is an important site of nanoparticle accumulation following systemic administration. Mice injected with high doses of gold nanoparticles have visibly blue skin while quantum dottreated animals fluoresce under ultraviolet excitation. More importantly, elemental analysis of excised skin correlates with the injected dose and nanoparticle accumulation in the liver and spleen. We propose that skin analysis may be a simple strategy to quantify systemic nanoparticle exposure and predict nanoparticle fate in vivo. Our results suggest that in the future, dermal accumulation may also be exploited to trigger the release of ultraviolet and visible light-sensitive therapeutics that are currently impractical in vivo due to limits in optical penetration of tissues at these wavelengths.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Nature Communications
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this work was to establish a novel orthotopic human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) murine xenograft model by a nonsurgical, transbronchial approach. Male athymic nude mice and human NSCLC cell lines, including A549, H460, and H520 were used. Under direct visualization of the vocal cords, a 23-gauge blunt-tip slightly curved metal catheter was introduced into the trachea to the bronchus, and 2.5 × 10(5) tumor cells mixed with Matrigel (BD Biosciences, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada) were administered into the lung. Mice were monitored using weekly microcomputed tomography scans for tumor formation. When the tumor size reached more than 4 mm in diameter, the animals were euthanized, and the tumor tissue was evaluated histopathologically. Of 37 mice studied, 34 were confirmed to have tumor formation: 29 developed solitary tumors and 5 had multifocal lesions. There was no evidence of extrapleural dissemination or effusion. Transbronchial delivery of tumor cells enabled the establishment of a novel orthotopic human NSCLC murine xenograft model. This clinically relevant preclinical model bearing a solitary nodule is of value for a variety of in vivo research studies.
    No preview · Article · May 2014 · The Annals of thoracic surgery
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    ABSTRACT: We developed an innovative approach for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) with a short accelerated course of high-dose hemithoracic intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) followed by extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP). This phase I/II study assessed the feasibility of Surgery for Mesothelioma After Radiation Therapy (SMART). All resectable clinical T1-3N0M0 histologically proven, previously untreated MPMs were eligible. Patients received 25 Gy in five daily fractions during 1 week to the entire ipsilateral hemithorax with concomitant 5 Gy boost to areas at risk followed by EPP within 1 week of completing neoadjuvant IMRT. Adjuvant chemotherapy was offered to ypN2 patients on final pathologic findings. The primary end point was treatment-related mortality and secondary end points were overall survival, disease-free survival, treatment-related morbidity, and patterns of failure. Targeted accrual of 25 patients was completed between November 2008 and October 2012. All patients completed SMART. IMRT was well tolerated with no grade 3+ toxicities. EPP was performed 6 ± 2 days after completing IMRT without any perioperative mortality. Thirteen patients developed grade 3+ surgical complications. One patient (4%) died from treatment-related toxicity (empyema) during follow-up. All but one patient had stage III or IV disease on final pathologic findings. Five of 13 ypN2 patients received adjuvant chemotherapy. After a median follow-up of 23 months (range, 6-51), the cumulative 3-year survival reached 84% in epithelial subtypes compared with 13% in biphasic subtypes (p = 0.0002). SMART is feasible in resectable MPM patients. This innovative protocol presents encouraging results and supports future studies looking at long-term outcome in patients with epithelial subtypes.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
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    ABSTRACT: The past decade has seen a dramatic revolution in the treatment of lung cancer, resulting in large part from the discovery of specific molecular alterations that render tumors with these abnormalities amenable to specific targeted therapies. Many of the alterations affect intracellular signaling pathways that promote growth and survival of tumor cells and inhibit apoptosis. As a result, pathologists must be aware of the increasing number of molecular alterations and tests now being implemented as part of routine diagnostic algorithms for personalizing the treatment of lung cancers. Here, we review the molecular alterations that are commonly present in lung cancers and discuss tests for these alterations currently in clinical use, with an emphasis on epidermal growth factor receptor mutations and anaplastic lymphoma kinase-1 (ALK) rearrangements in non-small cell lung cancer. Other emerging, potentially targetable molecular aberrations are also discussed, including those in small cell carcinoma. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York. All rights are reserved.
    No preview · Chapter · Jan 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Context.-Surgical removal and pathologic handling of lung tissue has a compressive effect upon its architecture. The effect of surgical atelectasis on morphology has not been examined in depth, especially with respect to lung adenocarcinomas. Objective.-To examine the influence of surgical atelectasis on morphologic lepidic growth pattern, mimicking papillary adenocarcinoma pattern. Design.-In 2 cases serial sections of resected pulmonary adenocarcinoma were used, as was a 3-dimensional reconstruction. Elastin stains were performed on primary and metastatic adenocarcinomas. Results.-Perfusion fixation of another case showed marked morphologic differences of less compressed peripheral lung tissue, emphasizing the preexisting alveolar structure. An elastic stain may help identify true lesional architecture. Conclusions.-We demonstrate that microscopic sections of adenocarcinoma in situ in compressed/collapsed tissue may give rise to a pseudopapillary pattern mimicking invasive adenocarcinoma. Accurate appreciation of different tumor architecture in lung adenocarcinoma has important biologic and clinical implications. Pathologists should be aware of the possibility of misclassification of adenocarcinoma pattern due to tissue artifacts caused by lung tissue handling.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
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    Preview · Article · Oct 2013 · American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Context.-The International Collaboration on Cancer Reporting (ICCR) is a quadripartite alliance formed by the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia, the Royal College of Pathologists of the United Kingdom, the College of American Pathologists, and the Canadian Partnership Against Cancer. The ICCR was formed with a view to reducing the global burden of cancer data set development and reduplication of effort by different international institutions that commission, publish, and maintain standardized cancer-reporting data sets. The resultant standardization of cancer reporting would be expected to benefit not only those countries directly involved in the collaboration but also others not in a position to develop their own data sets. Objectives.-To develop an evidence-based reporting data set for each cancer site. Design.-A project to develop data sets for prostate, endometrium, and lung cancers and malignant melanoma was piloted by the quadripartite group. Results.-A set of required and recommended data elements and appropriate responses for each element were agreed upon for the reporting of lung cancer. Conclusions.-This review describes the process of development of the lung cancer data set.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The timing of disease onset may affect the prognosis in chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD). The relationship between the timing of disease onset and the prognosis of CLAD and its sub-types, bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) and restrictive allograft syndrome (RAS), was examined. METHODS: Clinical records and pulmonary function data of 597 patients who underwent bilateral lung transplantation from 1996 to 2010 and survived for >3 months were examined. RESULTS: Among 155 patients with a final diagnosis of BOS, patient survival after disease onset was significantly different according to disease-onset timing (BOS onset/post-BOS median survival: overall/1,438 days; <1 year/511 days; 1-2 years/1,199 days; 2-3 years/1,403 days; >3 years/did not reach median survival; p < 0.0001). The prognosis of RAS was generally poorer than that of BOS (overall post-RAS median survival, 377 days). Treating non-CLAD, CLAD, BOS, and RAS as time-dependent covariates, recipient sex-adjusted and age-adjusted Cox regression analysis demonstrated an overall mortality risk of BOS (reference: no CLAD) of 6.7 (95% confidence interval, 4.6-9.9). However, when patients survived 3 years without CLAD, the mortality risk of subsequent BOS was only 1.9 (95% confidence interval, 0.8-4.4) compared with no CLAD. The number of RAS patients was too small to obtain sufficient power to estimate time-dependent mortality risk. CONCLUSION: Late-onset BOS showed a better prognosis than early-onset BOS. Studies that do not distinguish BOS from RAS may overestimate the mortality risk of BOS. Multicenter studies will be required to further elucidate risk factors toward the development of better management strategies for CLAD.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · The Journal of heart and lung transplantation: the official publication of the International Society for Heart Transplantation
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    ABSTRACT: Restrictive allograft syndrome (RAS) is a novel form of chronic lung allograft dysfunction after lung transplantation. RAS is characterized by restrictive physiology and peripheral lung fibrosis. The purpose of the study is to analyze progression patterns of RAS. Clinical information, pulmonary function test results and radiographic findings were reviewed for 25 RAS patients who received bilateral lung or heart-lung transplantation between January 2004 and December 2009. Average time from transplantation to RAS onset was 647±544 (mean±SD) days; RAS onset to end of observation (death or re-transplantation) was 490±417 days. RAS patients had 1 to 4 episodes of acute exacerbation (2.48±0.82 episodes/patient) that accompanied acute respiratory deterioration or distress, a sudden drop in pulmonary function, evidence of diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) on biopsies, and patchy or diffuse ground-glass opacities (GGO) with occasional consolidation on computed tomography scan. Patients were most frequently managed by high-dose steroid in combination with empirical antibiotics, with uncertain efficacy. Acute exacerbation was followed by an interval during which resolution of GGO and progression of consolidation, interstitial reticular shadows and traction bronchiectasis were frequently observed. The interval between episodes of acute exacerbation was 238±165 days. In 21 patients, the last episode of acute exacerbation led to death or urgent retransplantation. RAS shows a "stair-step" pattern of progression. Acute lung injury represented by DAD and GGO is followed by an interval period during which graft fibrosis often progresses.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · The Journal of heart and lung transplantation: the official publication of the International Society for Heart Transplantation
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    ABSTRACT: The characterization of bacterial communities using DNA sequencing has revolutionized our ability to study microbes in nature and discover the ways in which microbial communities affect ecosystem functioning and human health. Here we describe Serial Illumina Sequencing (SI-Seq): a method for deep sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene using next-generation sequencing technology. SI-Seq serially sequences portions of the V5, V6 and V7 hypervariable regions from barcoded 16S rRNA amplicons using an Illumina short-read genome analyzer. SI-Seq obtains taxonomic resolution similar to 454 pyrosequencing for a fraction of the cost, and can produce hundreds of thousands of reads per sample even with very high multiplexing. We validated SI-Seq using single species and mock community controls, and via a comparison to cystic fibrosis lung microbiota sequenced using 454 FLX Titanium. Our control runs show that SI-Seq has a dynamic range of at least five orders of magnitude, can classify >96% of sequences to the genus level, and performs just as well as 454 and paired-end Illumina methods in estimation of standard microbial ecology diversity measurements. We illustrate the utility of SI-Seq in a pilot sample of central airway secretion samples from cystic fibrosis patients.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · PLoS ONE

Publication Stats

595 Citations
195.18 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007-2015
    • University of Toronto
      • • Department of Surgery
      • • Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2014
    • Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital
      Perth City, Western Australia, Australia
  • 2007-2013
    • University Health Network
      • Department of Pathology
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2011
    • UHN: Toronto General Hospital
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2009
    • Ontario Institute for Cancer Research
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2008
    • Saint Michael's Medical Center
      Newark, New Jersey, United States