[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: L-PGDS [lipocalin-type PG (prostaglandin) D synthase] is a multi-functional protein, acting as a PGD2-producing enzyme and a lipid-transporter. In the present study, we focus on the function of L-PGDS as an extracellular transporter for small lipophilic molecules. We characterize the binding mechanism of human L-PGDS for the molecules, especially binding affinity stoichiometry and driving force, using tryptophan fluorescence quenching, ICD (induced circular dichroism) and ITC (isothermal titration calorimetry). The tryptophan fluorescence quenching measurements revealed that haem metabolites such as haemin, biliverdin and bilirubin bind to L-PGDS with significantly higher affinities than the other small lipophilic ligands examined, showing dissociation constant (K(d)) values from 17.0 to 20.9 nM. We focused particularly on the extra-specificities of haem metabolites and L-PGDS. The ITC and ICD data revealed that two molecules of the haem metabolites bind to L-PGDS with high and low affinities, showing K(d) values from 2.8 to 18.1 nM and from 0.209 to 1.63 μM respectively. The thermodynamic parameters for the interactions revealed that the contributions of enthalpy and entropy change were considerably different for each haem metabolite even when the Gibbs energy change was the same. Thus we believe that the binding energy of haem metabolites to L-PGDS is optimized by balancing enthalpy and entropy change.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2012 · Biochemical Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: L-PGDS [lipocalin-type PGD (prostaglandin D) synthase] is a dual-functional protein, acting as a PGD2-producing enzyme and a lipid transporter. L-PGDS is a member of the lipocalin superfamily and can bind a wide variety of lipophilic molecules. In the present study we demonstrate the protective effect of L-PGDS on H2O2-induced apoptosis in neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. L-PGDS expression was increased in H2O2-treated neuronal cells, and the L-PGDS level was highly associated with H2O2-induced apoptosis, indicating that L-PGDS protected the neuronal cells against H2O2-mediated cell death. A cell viability assay revealed that L-PGDS protected against H2O2-induced cell death in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, the titration of free thiols in H2O2-treated L-PGDS revealed that H2O2 reacted with the thiol of Cys65 of L-PGDS. The MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization-time-of-flight)-MS spectrum of H2O2-treated L-PGDS showed a 32 Da increase in the mass relative to that of the untreated protein, showing that the thiol was oxidized to sulfinic acid. The binding affinities of oxidized L-PGDS for lipophilic molecules were comparable with those of untreated L-PGDS. Taken together, these results demonstrate that L-PGDS protected against neuronal cell death by scavenging reactive oxygen species without losing its ligand-binding function. The novel function of L-PGDS could be useful for the suppression of oxidative stress-mediated neurodegenerative diseases.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · Biochemical Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously reported that the thermal unfolding of mouse lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS) is a completely reversible process under acidic conditions and follows a three-state pathway, including an intermediate state (I) between native state (N) and unfolded state. In the present study, we investigated the intermediate state of mouse C65A L-PGDS and clarified the local conformational changes in the upper and bottom regions by using NMR and CD spectroscopy. The (1)H-(15)N HSQC measurements revealed that the backbone conformation was disrupted in the upper region of the β-barrel at 45°C, which is around the T(m) value for the N ↔ I transition, but that the signals of the residues located at the bottom region of L-PGDS remained at 54°C, where the maximum accumulation of the intermediate state was found. (1)H-NMR and CD measurements showed that the T(m) values obtained by monitoring Trp54 at the upper region and Trp43 at the bottom region of the β-barrel were 41.4 and 47.5°C, respectively, suggesting that the conformational change in the upper region occurred at a lower temperature than that in the bottom region. These findings demonstrate that the backbone conformation of the bottom region is still maintained in the intermediate state.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · Journal of Biochemistry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS) is a member of the lipocalin superfamily and a secretory lipid-transporter protein, which binds a wide variety of hydrophobic small molecules. Here we show the feasibility of a novel drug delivery system (DDS), utilizing L-PGDS, for poorly water-soluble compounds such as diazepam (DZP), a major benzodiazepine anxiolytic drug, and 6-nitro-7-sulfamoylbenzo[f]quinoxaline-2,3-dione (NBQX), an α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor antagonist and anticonvulsant. Calorimetric experiments revealed for both compounds that each L-PGDS held three molecules with high binding affinities. By mass spectrometry, the 1:3 complex of L-PGDS and NBQX was observed. L-PGDS of 500μM increased the solubility of DZP and NBQX 7- and 2-fold, respectively, compared to PBS alone. To validate the potential of L-PGDS as a drug delivery vehicle in vivo, we have proved the prospective effects of these compounds via two separate delivery strategies. First, the oral administration of a DZP/L-PGDS complex in mice revealed an increased duration of pentobarbital-induced loss of righting reflex. Second, the intravenous treatment of ischemic gerbils with NBQX/L-PGDS complex showed a protective effect on delayed neuronal cell death at the hippocampal CA1 region. We propose that our novel DDS could facilitate pharmaceutical development and clinical usage of various water-insoluble compounds.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · Journal of Controlled Release
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS) acts as both a PGD(2) synthase and an extracellular transporter for small lipophilic molecules. From a series of biochemical studies, it has been found that L-PGDS has an ability to bind a variety of lipophilic ligands such as biliverdin, bilirubin and retinoids in vitro. Therefore, we considered that it is necessary to clarify the molecular structure of L-PGDS upon binding ligand in order to understand the physiological relevance of L-PGDS as a transporter protein. We investigated a molecular structure of L-PGDS/biliverdin complex by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and multi-dimensional NMR measurements, and characterized the binding mechanism in detail. SAXS measurements revealed that L-PGDS has a globular shape and becomes compact by 1.3A in radius of gyration on binding biliverdin. NMR experiments revealed that L-PGDS possessed an eight-stranded antiparallel beta-barrel forming a central cavity. Upon the titration with biliverdin, some cross-peaks for residues surrounding the cavity and EF-loop and H2-helix above the beta-barrel shifted, and the intensity of other cross-peaks decreased with signal broadenings in (1)H-(15)N heteronuclear single quantum coherence spectra. These results demonstrate that L-PGDS holds biliverdin within the beta-barrel, and the conformation of the loop regions above the beta-barrel changes upon binding biliverdin. Through such a conformational change, the whole molecule of L-PGDS becomes compact.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2009 · Journal of Structural Biology