- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify worksite practices that show promise for promoting employee weight loss. The following electronic databases were searched from January 1, 1966, through December 31, 2005: CARL Uncover (via Ingenta), CDP, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Library, CRISP, Dissertation Abstracts, EMBASE, ERIC, Health Canada, INFORM (part of ABI/INFORM Proquest), LocatorPlus, New York Academy of Medicine, Ovid MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, PapersFirst, PsycINFO, PubMed, and TRIP. Included studies were published in English, conducted at a worksite, designed for adults (aged ≥ 18 years), and reported weight-related outcomes. Data were extracted using an online abstraction form. Studies were evaluated on the basis of study design suitability quality of execution, sample size, and effect size. Changes in weight-related outcomes were used to assess effectiveness. The following six promising practices were identified: enhanced access to opportunities for physical activity combined with health education, exercise prescriptions alone, multicomponent educational practices, weight loss competitions and incentives, behavioral practices with incentives, and behavioral practices without incentives. These practices will help employers and employees select programs that show promise for controlling and preventing obesity.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The goal of the systematic review described in this summary was to determine the effectiveness of stand-alone mass media campaigns to increase physical activity at the population level. This systematic review is an update of a Community Guide systematic review and Community Preventive Services Task Force recommendation completed in 2001. Updated searches for literature published from 1980 to 2008 were conducted in 11 databases. Of 267 articles resulting from the literature search, 16 were selected for full abstraction, including the three studies from the original 2001 review. Standard Community Guide methods were used to conduct the systematic evidence review. Physical activity outcomes were assessed using a variety of self-report measures with duration intervals ranging from 6 weeks to 4 years. Ten studies using comparable outcome measures documented a median absolute increase of 3.4 percentage points (interquartile interval: 2.4 to 4.2 percentage points), and a median relative increase of 6.7% (interquartile interval: 3.0% to 14.1%), in self-reported physical activity levels. The remaining six studies used alternative outcome measures: three evaluated changes in self-reported time spent in physical activity (median relative change, 4.4%; range of values, 3.1%-18.2%); two studies used a single outcome measure and found that participants reported being more active after the campaign than before it; and one study found that a mass media weight-loss program led to a self-reported increase in physical activity. The findings of this updated systematic review show that intervention effects, based wholly on self-reported measures, were modest and inconsistent. These findings did not lead the Task Force to change its earlier conclusion of insufficient evidence to determine the effectiveness of stand-alone mass media campaigns to increase physical activity. This paper also discusses areas needing future research to strengthen the evidence base. Finally, studies published between 2009 and 2011, after the Task Force finding was reached, and briefly summarized here, are shown to support that finding.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many health behaviors and physiologic indicators can be used to estimate one's likelihood of illness or premature death. Methods have been developed to assess this risk, most notably the use of a health-risk assessment or biometric screening tool. This report provides recommendations on the effectiveness of interventions that use an Assessment of Health Risks with Feedback (AHRF) when used alone or as part of a broader worksite health promotion program to improve the health of employees. The Guide to Community Preventive Services' methods for systematic reviews were used to evaluate the effectiveness of AHRF when used alone and when used in combination with other intervention components. Effectiveness was assessed on the basis of changes in health behaviors and physiologic estimates, but was also informed by changes in risk estimates, healthcare service use, and worker productivity. The review team identified strong evidence of effectiveness of AHRF when used with health education with or without other intervention components for five outcomes. There is sufficient evidence of effectiveness for four additional outcomes assessed. There is insufficient evidence to determine effectiveness for others such as changes in body composition and fruit and vegetable intake. The team also found insufficient evidence to determine the effectiveness of AHRF when implemented alone. The results of these reviews indicate that AHRF is useful as a gateway intervention to a broader worksite health promotion program that includes health education lasting > or =1 hour or repeating multiple times during 1 year, and that may include an array of health promotion activities. These reviews form the basis of the recommendations by the Task Force on Community Preventive Services presented elsewhere in this supplement.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In 2000, the Guide to Community Preventive Services (Community Guide) completed a systematic review of the effectiveness of various approaches to increasing physical activity including informational, behavioral and social, and environmental and policy approaches. Among these approaches was the use of signs placed by elevators and escalators to encourage stair use. This approach was found to be effective based on sufficient evidence. Over the past 5 years the body of evidence of this intervention has increased substantially, warranting an updated review. This update was conducted on 16 peer-reviewed studies (including the six studies in the previous systematic review), which met specified quality criteria and included evaluation outcomes of interest. These studies evaluated two interventions: point-of-decision prompts to increase stair use and enhancements to stairs or stairwells (e.g., painting walls, laying carpet, adding artwork, playing music) when combined with point-of-decision prompts to increase stair use. This latter intervention was not included in the original systematic review. According to the Community Guide rules of evidence, there is strong evidence that point-of-decision prompts are effective in increasing the use of stairs. There is insufficient evidence, due to an inadequate number of studies, to determine whether or not enhancements to stairs or stairwells are an effective addition to point-of-decision prompts. This article describes the rationale for these systematic reviews, along with information about the review process and the resulting conclusions. Additional information about applicability, other effects, and barriers to implementation is also provided.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This report presents the results of a systematic review of the effectiveness of worksite nutrition and physical activity programs to promote healthy weight among employees. These results form the basis for the recommendation by the Task Force on Community Preventive Services on the use of these interventions. Weight-related outcomes, including weight in pounds or kilograms, BMI, and percentage body fat were used to assess effectiveness of these programs. This review found that worksite nutrition and physical activity programs achieve modest improvements in employee weight status at the 6-12-month follow-up. A pooled effect estimate of -2.8 pounds (95% CI=-4.6, -1.0) was found based on nine RCTs, and a decrease in BMI of -0.5 (95% CI=-0.8, -0.2) was found based on six RCTs. The findings appear to be applicable to both male and female employees, across a range of worksite settings. Most of the studies combined informational and behavioral strategies to influence diet and physical activity; fewer studies modified the work environment (e.g., cafeteria, exercise facilities) to promote healthy choices. Information about other effects, barriers to implementation, cost and cost effectiveness of interventions, and research gaps are also presented in this article. The findings of this systematic review can help inform decisions of employers, planners, researchers, and other public health decision makers.
Conference Paper: Obesity prevention and control in the worksite: What works?[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Obesity affects nearly 60 million adults in the United States. Obesity is linked to many co-morbid conditions resulting in increased health care costs. It is estimated that employers spend $13 billion annually on the total cost of obesity. To help employers respond to this epidemic, we identified promising worksite strategies for obesity prevention and control. Methods: Using a methodology that closely parallels and broadens the Community Guide review process; we conducted a systematic review to identify worksite interventions addressing environmental and policy, informational and educational, and behavioral strategies. Our review included studies such as randomized control trials, before and after, time series, and other designs with concurrent comparison groups. Studies were evaluated based on suitability of study design, quality of execution, sample size, and effect size. Changes in weight-related outcomes were used to assess effectiveness. Results: Six promising strategies were identified: 1) enhanced access to physical activity with health education: -3.24% (n=5 studies) 2) exercise prescription alone: -2.45% (n=14 studies) 3) multi-component educational interventions which incorporated exercise prescriptions, nutrition prescriptions, and/or small media in addition to health education sessions: -2.24% (n=25 studies) 4) weight-loss competitions: -2.66% (n=17 studies) 5) behavioral strategies with incentives: -3.46% (n=17 studies) 6) behavioral strategies without incentive: -1.89% (n=46 studies) Conclusion: These promising strategies can help employers build effective interventions for their employees. Our review allows us to identify research gaps and acknowledges the need for further evaluation of promising worksite strategies for obesity prevention and control.