[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The apoptotic program incorporates a paracrine component of importance in fostering tissue repair at sites of apoptotic cell deletion. As this paracrine pathway likely bears special importance in maladaptive intercellular communication leading to vascular remodeling, we aimed at further defining the mediators produced by apoptotic endothelial cells (EC), using comparative and functional proteomics. Apoptotic EC were found to release nanovesicles displaying ultrastructural characteristics, protein markers and functional activity that differed from apoptotic blebs. Tumor susceptibility gene 101 and translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) were identified in nanovesicle fractions purified from medium conditioned by apoptotic EC and absent from purified apoptotic blebs. Immunogold labeling identified TCTP on the surface of nanovesicles purified from medium conditioned by apoptotic EC and within multivesicular blebs in apoptotic EC. These nanovesicles induced an extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK 1/2)-dependent antiapoptotic phenotype in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), whereas apoptotic blebs did not display antiapoptotic activity on VSMC. Caspase-3 biochemical inhibition and caspase-3 RNA interference in EC submitted to a proapoptotic stimulus inhibited the release of nanovesicles. Also, TCTP siRNAs in EC attenuated the antiapoptotic activity of purified nanovesicles on VSMC. Collectively, these results identify TCTP-bearing nanovesicles as a novel component of the paracrine apoptotic program of potential importance in vascular repair.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2010 · Cell death and differentiation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Apoptosis of endothelial cells (ECs) is an early pathogenic event in various fibrotic diseases. In this study, we evaluated whether paracrine mediators produced by apoptotic ECs play direct roles in fibrogenesis. C3H mice injected subcutaneously with serum-free medium conditioned by apoptotic ECs (SSC) showed increased skin thickness and heightened protein levels of alpha-smooth-muscle actin (alphaSMA), vimentin and collagen I as compared with mice injected with medium conditioned by non-apoptotic ECs. Fibroblasts exposed to SSC in vitro showed cardinal features of myofibroblast differentiation with increased stress fiber formation and expression of alphaSMA. Caspase-3 silencing in ECs prevented the release of mediators favoring myofibroblast differentiation. To identify the fibrogenic factor(s) released by ECs, the protein contents of media conditioned by either apoptotic or non-apoptotic ECs were compared using SDS-PAGE-liquid chromatography (LC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and two-dimensional LC-MS/MS. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) was the only fibrogenic protein found increased in SSC. Pan-caspase inhibition with ZVAD-FMK or caspase-3 silencing in ECs confirmed that CTGF was released downstream of caspase-3 activation. The fibrogenic signaling signatures of SSC and CTGF on fibroblasts in vitro were similarly Pyk2-, Src-family kinases- and PI3K dependent, but TGF-beta-independent. CTGF-immunodepleted SSC failed to induce myofibroblast differentiation in vitro and skin fibrosis in vivo. These results identify caspase-3 activation in ECs as a novel inducer of CTGF release and fibrogenesis.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2009 · Cell death and differentiation