[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fluorescence in situ hybridization can detect genomic abnormalities in up to 80% of cases and provides prognostic information on patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Although 13q deletion as the sole abnormality has been found to confer a favorable prognosis, there are little data as to whether there is a difference in prognostic value between monoallelic versus biallelic deletion of 13q.
The authors reviewed the electronic database for patients with CLL who carried the 13q deletion as the sole abnormality and presented to The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC). Untreated patients were separated into 2 groups: those having monoallelic versus those with biallelic deletion of 13q. Using Mann-Whitney, chi-square, and Kaplan-Meier analysis, the baseline quantitative and qualitative variables for each group, along with the time from presentation to MDACC to treatment, were compared.
A total of 176 patients were identified; 143 patients had a monoallelic deletion of 13q, whereas 33 patients had a biallelic deletion. The only significantly different values between the groups were albumin (4.5 g/dL vs 4.4 g/dL; P = .01) and zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 (ZAP70) expression (1.7% vs 4.8%; P = .010). The median time from fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis to treatment in both the monoallelic and biallelic groups had not been reached (P = not significant).
Except for inconsequential differences in albumin and ZAP70 expression, there was no difference in the baseline characteristics between patients with CLL who had monoallelic or biallelic deletion of 13q. In addition, there was no significant difference in endpoints, including time to treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are characterized by stem cell-derived, unrestrained clonal myeloproliferation. The World Health Organization classification system, proposed in 2008, identifies 7 distinct categories of Ph-negative MPNs including essential thrombocythemia (ET); polycythemia vera (PV); primary myelofibrosis (PMF); mastocytosis; chronic eosinophilic leukemia; chronic neutrophilic leukemia; and MPN, unclassifiable. For many years, the treatment of ET, PV, and PMF, the most frequently diagnosed Ph-negative MPNs, has been largely supportive. In recent years, that paradigm has been challenged because of the discovery of a recurrent point mutation in the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) gene (JAK2(V617F)). This mutation can be detected in the vast majority of patients with PV and approximately half of patients with ET or PMF and serves as both a diagnostic marker as well as representing a putative molecular target for drug development. Several putative targeted agents with significant in vitro JAK2 inhibitory activity and various degrees of JAK2 specificity are currently undergoing clinical evaluation. Furthermore, other investigational non-tyrosine kinase inhibitor approaches such as immunomodulatory agents and pegylated interferon- have also shown promising results in MPNs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The introduction of imatinib mesylate, a Bcr-Abl1 tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), has revolutionized the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). By directly targeting the Bcr-Abl kinase, imatinib leads to durable cytogenetic remissions and in turn improved survival. However, many patients with CML develop resistance, fail to respond, or become intolerant to imatinib due to side effects. This has spurred interest in developing second-generation TKIs to overcome the mechanisms of resistance that lead to treatment failure, specifically Bcr-Abl1 kinase domain mutations. Two second-generation TKIs, nilotinib and dasatinib, are approved for the treatment of CML after imatinib failure or intolerance. Unfortunately, many patients fail subsequent treatment with these agents, as they can develop highly resistant mutations such as T315I. Various other strategies are now in use to optimize the treatment of CML, including dose optimization of imatinib, combination therapy, upfront use of second-generation TKIs, and use of maintenance therapy with interferon-alpha and vaccines. This review highlights progress made in the treatment of CML in the past year.
No preview · Article · Sep 2010 · Current Oncology Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) drastically changed with the introduction of imatinib mesylate, a Bcr-Abl1 tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), in 1998. By directly targeting this leukemogenic protein kinase, imatinib affords patients with CML sustained chromosomal remissions, which translate into prolonged survival. However, there has been concern over the emergence of resistance to imatinib, and some patients fail to respond or are intolerant of imatinib therapy because of untoward toxicity. This has spurred interest in developing novel TKIs to overcome the mechanisms of resistance that lead to treatment failure-most importantly, Bcr-Abl1 kinase domain mutations. Two of these second-generation TKIs, nilotinib and dasatinib, are approved worldwide for the treatment of CML after imatinib failure or intolerance. Although these agents are active, they fail in many patients because of the development of highly resistant mutations such as the T315I, against which several novel agents are currently being tested in clinical trials. This review provides an account of the progress made in the field of TKI therapy for CML over the past decade.
No preview · Article · Apr 2010 · Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Responses can be achieved with dasatinib or nilotinib after failure of 2 prior tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). We report on 48 chronic myeloid leukemia patients sequentially treated with 3 TKIs: 34 with dasatinib after imatinib/nilotinib failure and 14 with nilotinib after imatinib/dasatinib failure. Before the third TKI, 25 patients were in chronic phase (CP), 10 in accelerated phase (AP), and 13 in blast phase (BP). Best response to third TKI in CP was 5 major molecular responses (MMR), 3 complete cytogenetic (CCyR), 2 partial cytogenetic (PCyR), 3 minor cytogenetic (mCyR), 6 complete hematologic responses (CHR), and 6 with no response (NR). In AP, 1 patient achieved MMR, 1 CCyR, 2 PCyR, 1 mCyR, 4 CHR, and 1 NR. In BP, 1 achieved MMR, 2 CCyR, 1 PCyR, 1 mCyR, 2 returned to CP, and 6 NR. Median CCyR duration was 16.3 months; 3 CP patients achieving CCyR had a response more than 12 months. Median failure-free survival was 20 months for patients in CP, 5 months in AP, and 3 months in BP. Use of second-generation TKI after failure to 2 TKIs may induce responses, but these are usually not durable except in some CP patients. New treatment options are needed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Among the well described cytogenetic abnormalities in adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), a translocation involving chromosomes 1 and 19 (t[1;19] [q23;p13]) occurs in a small subset but has been associated variously with an intermediate prognosis or a bad prognosis in different studies.
Adults with ALL and t(1;19) who were treated at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center were reviewed. Their clinical features and outcomes were compared with those of patients who had other cytogenetic abnormalities. The study endpoints included the complete remission (CR) rate, the complete response duration (CRD), and overall survival (OS).
Of 411 adults with pre-B-cell ALL, 12 patients had t(1;19). Ten of 12 patients with t(1;19) received hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin (Adriamycin), and dexamethasone alternating with methotrexate and high-dose cytarabine (hyper-CVAD) chemotherapy; and the other 2 patients received combined vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone (VAD). All 12 patients achieved CR, and the 3-year survival rate was 73%. Patients with t(1;19) had significantly better CRD and OS compared with all other patients combined and compared individually with patients who had Philadelphia chromosome-positive, t(4;11), and lymphoma-like abnormalities (deletion 6q, addition q14q, t[11;14], and t[14;18]).
Adults with ALL and t(1;19) had an excellent prognosis when the received the hyper-CVAD regimen.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated efficacy and safety of rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin (rATG), cyclosporine and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) as first-line therapy for patients with aplastic anemia (AA) and low or intermediate-1 or hypoplastic myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). rATG 3.5 mg/kg (or 2.5 mg/kg per day for patients >or=55 years with MDS) was given for 5 days. Cyclosporine (5 mg/kg) and G-CSF (5 microg/kg) were given daily and continued for up to 6 months or longer. Responses were assessed about 3 and 6 months after therapy. Thirty-six patients have been enrolled on study and 32 patients treated; 25 were evaluable for a response (13 with AA, 12 with MDS); the rest are too early. The median age was 62 years (range, 20-83) for patients with AA and 63 (range, 42-80) for patients with MDS. Of 13 patients, 12 (92%) patients with AA responded (5 complete response (CR), 7 partial response (PR)), whereas of 12 patients, 4 (33%) patients with MDS responded (1 CR, 3 PR). For patients with AA, the median time to response (TTR) was 93 days (range, 79-623), whereas in the MDS group the median TTR was 111 days (range, 77-139). Grade III/IV toxicities were mainly cytopenias and neutropenic fever. Combination of rATG, cyclosporine and G-CSF is safe and effective as first-line treatment of AA and has significant activity in low-risk MDS.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2009 · Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K