[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Perioperative hypertension requires careful management. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs) have shown efficacy in treating hypertension associated with surgery. However, there is lack of consensus about whether they can prevent mortality and morbidity. OBJECTIVES: To systematically assess the benefits and harms of administration of ACEIs or ARBs perioperatively for the prevention of mortality and morbidity in adults (aged 18 years and above) undergoing any type of surgery under general anaesthesia. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the current issue of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2014, Issue 12), Ovid MEDLINE (1966 to 8 December 2014), EMBASE (1980 to 8 December 2014), and references of the retrieved randomized trials, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing perioperative administration of ACEIs or ARBs with placebo in adults (aged 18 years and above) undergoing any type of surgery under general anaesthesia. We excluded studies in which participants underwent procedures that required local anaesthesia only, or participants who had already been on ACEIs or ARBs. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently performed study selection, assessed the risk of bias, and extracted data. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. MAIN RESULTS: We included seven RCTs with a total of 571 participants in the review. Two of the seven trials involved 36 participants undergoing non-cardiac vascular surgery (infrarenal aortic surgery), and five involved 535 participants undergoing cardiac surgery, including valvular surgery, coronary artery bypass surgery, and cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. The intervention was started from 11 days to 25 minutes before surgery in six trials and during surgery in one trial. We considered all seven RCTs to carry a high risk of bias. The effects of ACEIs or ARBs on perioperative mortality and acute myocardial infarction were uncertain because the quality of the evidence was very low. The risk of death was 2.7% in the ACEIs or ARBs group and 1.6% in the placebo group (risk ratio (RR) 1.61; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.44 to 5.85). The risk of acute myocardial infarction was 1.7% in the ACEIs or ARBs group and 3.0% in the placebo group (RR 0.55; 95% CI 0.14 to 2.26). ACEIs or ARBs may improve congestive heart failure (cardiac index) perioperatively (mean difference (MD) -0.60; 95% CI -0.70 to -0.50, very low-quality evidence). In terms of rate of complications, there was no difference in perioperative cerebrovascular complications (RR 0.48; 95% CI 0.18 to 1.28, very low-quality evidence) and hypotension (RR 1.95; 95% CI 0.86 to 4.41, very low-quality evidence). Cardiac surgery-related renal failure was not reported. ACEIs or ARBs were associated with shortened length of hospital stay (MD -0.54; 95% CI -0.93 to -0.16, P value = 0.005, very low-quality evidence). These findings should be interpreted cautiously due to likely confounding by the clinical backgrounds of the participants. ACEIs or ARBs may shorten the length of hospital stay, (MD -0.54; 95% CI -0.93 to -0.16, very low-quality evidence) Two studies reported adverse events, and there was no evidence of a difference between the ACEIs or ARBs and control groups. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Overall, this review did not find evidence to support that perioperative ACEIs or ARBs can prevent mortality, morbidity, and complications (hypotension, perioperative cerebrovascular complications, and cardiac surgery-related renal failure). We found no evidence showing that the use of these drugs may reduce the rate of acute myocardial infarction. However, ACEIs or ARBs may increase cardiac output perioperatively. Due to the low and very low methodology quality, high risk of bias, and lack of power of the included studies, the true effect may be substantially different from the observed estimates. Perioperative (mainly elective cardiac surgery, according to included studies) initiation of ACEIs or ARBs therapy should be individualized.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Newly developed neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) antagonists have been recently tried in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to explore whether NK-1R antagonists were effective in preventing PONV.
The PRISMA statement guidelines were followed. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that tested the preventive effects of NK-1R antagonists on PONV were identified by searching EMBASE, CINAHL, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library databases followed by screening. Data extraction was performed using a predefined form and trial quality was assessed using a modified Jadad scale. The primary outcome measure was the incidence of PONV. Meta-analysis was performed for studies using similar interventions. Network meta-analysis (NMA) was conducted to compare the anti-vomiting effects of placebo, ondansetron, and aprepitant at different doses.
Fourteen RCTs were included. Meta-analysis found that 80 mg of aprepitant could reduce the incidences of nausea (3 RCTs with 224 patients, pooled risk ratio (RR) = 0.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.47 to 0.75), and vomiting (3 RCTs with 224 patients, pooled RR = 0.13, 95% CI = 0.04 to 0.37) compared with placebo. Neither 40 mg (3 RCTs with 1171 patients, RR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.37 to 0.60) nor 125 mg (2 RCTs with 1058 patients, RR = 0.32, 95% CI = 0.13 to 0.78) of aprepitant showed superiority over 4 mg of ondansetron in preventing postoperative vomiting. NMA did not find a dose-dependent effect of aprepitant on preventing postoperative vomiting.
Limited data suggested that NK-1R antagonists, especially aprepitant were effective in preventing PONV compared with placebo. More large-sampled high-quality RCTs are needed.
Preview · Article · May 2015 · Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Shivering is a frequent complication in the postoperative period. The aim of the current meta-analysis was to assess the efficacy of dexmedetomidine on postoperative shivering.
Two researchers independently searched PubMed, EMBASE™ and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for controlled clinical trials. The meta-analysis was performed by Review Manager.
Thirty-nine trials with 2,478 patients were included in this meta-analysis. Dexmedetomidine reduced postoperative shivering compared with placebo (risk ratio [RR] = 0.26; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.20 to 0.34), with a minimum effective dose of 0.5 µg·kg(-1) (RR = 0.36; 95% CI: 0.21 to 0.60). The anti-shivering effect can be achieved both intravenously and epidurally when administered within two hours prior to the end of surgery. The efficacy of dexmedetomidine was similar to widely used anti-shivering agents, such as fentanyl, meperidine, tramadol, clonidine and so on; however, dexmedetomidine may increase the incidence of sedation, hypotension, bradycardia and dry mouth.
The present meta-analysis indicates that dexmedetomidine shows superiority over placebo, but not over other anti-shivering agents. Therefore, considering its high price and potential adverse events, dexmedetomidine may not be appropriate solely for the purpose of the prevention of postoperative shivering.
No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Canadian Anaesthetists? Society Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is an insidiously progressive scarring disorder of the alveoli and is associated with high mortality. Currently, therapies available are associated with restricted efficacy and side effects. This study aimed to investigate the effect of chitosan aerosol inhalation on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pulmonary remodeling and fibrosis in rats.
A rat model of PF was established by intratracheal injection of LPS (5 mg/kg). Chitosan was nebulized to rats from day 4 to 28 after LPS injection. We analyzed the effect of chitosan on LPS-induced pulmonary remodeling and fibrosis by hematoxylin-eosin staining (HE), Masson staining, and the determination of the hydroxyproline content. The expression intensities of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) were analyzed by western blots.
Histological assessments showed that chitosan aerosol inhalation attenuated the fibrotic changes in LPS-induced PF in rats. Compared with the LPS group, the fibrosis parameters were significantly improved in the LPS + chitosan group (LCh group), although not as good as those of the control group. The expressions of MMP-3 and TIMP-1 in the LCh group were markedly less than that of the LPS group on the 28th day.
Our findings show that chitosan aerosol inhalation inhibits the expression of MMP-3 and TIMP-1, and ameliorates LPS-induced pulmonary remodeling and fibrosis in rats.
No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Experimental Lung Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute lung injury (ALI) is a major component of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome after hemorrhagic shock (HS) resulting from major surgery and trauma. The increased susceptibility in HS patients to the development of ALI suggests not yet fully elucidated mechanisms that enhance proinflammatory responses and/or suppress anti-inflammatory responses in the lung. Alveolar macrophages (AMϕ) are at the center of the pathogenesis of ALI after HS. We have previously reported that HS-activated polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) interact with macrophages to influence inflammation progress. In this study, we explore a novel function of PMNs regulating AMϕ anti-inflammatory mechanisms involving autophagy. Using a mouse "two-hit" model of HS/resuscitation followed by intratracheal injection of muramyl dipeptide, we demonstrate that HS initiates high mobility group box 1/TLR4 signaling, which upregulates NOD2 expression in AMϕ and sensitizes them to subsequent NOD2 ligand muramyl dipeptide to augment lung inflammation. In addition, upregulated NOD2 signaling induces autophagy in AMϕ, which negatively regulates lung inflammation through feedback suppression of NOD2-RIP2 signaling and inflammasome activation. Importantly, we further demonstrate that HS-activated PMNs that migrate in alveoli counteract the anti-inflammatory effect of autophagy in AMϕ, possibly through NAD(P)H oxidase-mediated signaling to enhance I-κB kinase γ phosphorylation, NF-κB activation, and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain protein 3 inflammasome activation, and therefore augment post-HS lung inflammation. These findings explore a previously unidentified complexity in the mechanisms of ALI, which involves cell-cell interaction and receptor cross talk.
Preview · Article · Sep 2014 · The Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
This study was aimed at determining the effects and safety of Da-Cheng-Qi decoction (DCQD) or DCQD combined with conservative therapy in patients with intestinal obstruction.
Materials and methods:
PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, and several other databases were searched. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of DCQD or DCQD plus conservative therapy in patients with intestinal obstruction were eligible. Therapeutic effect was estimated by the improvement of clinical manifestations and diagnostic imaging; dichotomous/ordinal data assessment of overall response to therapy, adverse effects; or continuous variable were identified, including time to first bowel movement, time to first flatus, length of hospital stay.
Sixty eligible RCTs including 6,095 patients were identified. Response rate: (1) DCQD versus conservative therapy (6 RCTs, 361 patients, RR of respond =1.13; 95% CI 0.97 to 1.31). (2) DCQD plus conservative therapy versus conservative therapy (48 RCTs, 4,916 patients, RR of respond =1.25 which favoured DCQD plus conservative therapy; 95% CI 1.20 to 1.30). Treatment effect remained similar when RCTs at high risk of bias were excluded. Time to first flatus postoperatively: (1) DCQD versus conservative therapy (2 RCTs, 240 patients, SMD=-3.65; 95% CI -8.17 to 0.87). (2) DCQD plus conservative therapy versus conservative therapy (11 RCTs, 1,040 patients, SMD=-2.09 which favoured DCQD plus conservative therapy; 95% CI -3.04 to -1.15).
DCQD combined with conservative therapy may increase the success rate of conservative therapy for intestinal obstruction significantly and can shorten the duration of postoperative ileus in patients undergoing abdominal surgery compared with conservative therapy alone.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Propofol is a short-acting, intravenous general anesthetic that is widely used in clinical practice for short procedures; however, it causes depressed cognitive function for several hours thereafter. (R)-alpha-methylhistamine (RAMH), a selective histamine H3 receptor agonist, can enhance memory retention and attenuates memory impairment in rats. In this study, we investigated whether RAMH could rescue propofol-induced memory deficits and the underlying mechanisms partaking in this process.
In the modified Morris water maze (MWM) test, rats were randomized into the following groups: control, propofol (25 mg/kg, i.p., 30 min before training), RAMH (10 mg/kg, i.p., 60 min before training), and propofol plus RAMH. All randomized rats were subjected to 2 days of training, and a probe test was conducted on day 3. Field excitatory postsynaptic potentials were recorded from CA1 neurons in rat hippocampal slices, and long-term potentiation (LTP) was induced by either theta-burst stimulation (TBS) or high-frequency tetanic stimulation (HFS). Spontaneous and miniature inhibitory (sIPSCs, mIPSCs) or excitatory (sEPSCs, mEPSCs) postsynaptic currents were recorded from CA1 pyramidal neurons by whole-cell patch clamp.
In the MWM task, propofol injection significantly impaired spatial memory retention. Pretreatment with RAMH reversed propofol-induced memory retention. In hippocampal CA1 slices, propofol perfusion markedly inhibited TBS- but not HFS-induced LTP. Co-perfusion of RAMH reversed the inhibitory effect of propofol on TBS-induced LTP reduction. Furthermore, in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, RAMH significantly suppressed the frequency but not the amplitude of sIPSCs and mIPSCs and had little effects on both the frequency and amplitude of sEPSCs and mEPSCs.
Our results suggest that RAMH, by inhibiting presynaptic GABAergic neurotransmission, suppresses inhibitory neurotransmission in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, which in turn reverses inhibition of CA1 LTP and the spatial memory deficits induced by propofol in rats.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Yunnan Baiyao (YNBY) is widely used to treat rhexis haemorrhage and ulcer in China. This meta-analysis was conducted to determine the efficacy of YNBY on local haemostasis and antiulcer. Randomized controlled trials were included on condition that assessing the effects of YNBY with/without routine drugs versus the same routine drugs on haemorrhage or ulcer after searching major databases. Data were validated, extracted and synthesized using relative risk (RR) for dichotomous data using random effects models. Fifty-five studies involving 5,150 patients were identified. (1) YNBY alone for haemorrhage (RR = 1.16; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.28) (2) YNBY alone for antiulcer (RR = 1.26; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.53). We found certain effects on ulcerative colitis (RR = 1.22) and skin ulcer (RR = 1.20) in subgroup analysis. (3) YNBY plus routine haemostatic drugs for haemorrhage (RR = 1.23; 95% CI 1.17 to 1.29) with a significant funnel plot asymmetry (Begg's test, p = 0). (4) YNBY plus routine antiulcer drugs for antiulcer (RR = 1.18; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.33). Treatment effect in the 2(nd) and 4(th) group was unstable when RCTs at high risk of bias were excluded. Great heterogeneities and possible publication bias were found among the trials which preclude certain conclusions. The existing data showed that YNBY alone was helpful in treating uterine haemorrhage, ulcerative colitis and skin ulcer. YNBY plus routine antiulcer drugs was more effective in treating ulcerative colitis versus antiulcer drugs alone.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of mannitol administration on acute kidney injury (AKI) prevention remain uncertain, as the results from clinical studies were conflicting. Due to the lack of strong evidence, the KDIGO Guideline for AKI did not propose completely evidence-based recommendations on this issue.
We searched PubMed, EMBASE, clinicaltrials.gov and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register. Randomized controlled trials on adult patients at increased risk of AKI were considered on the condition that they compared the effects of intravascular administration of mannitol plus expansion of intravascular volume with expansion of intravascular volume alone. We calculated pooled risk ratios, numbers needed to treat and mean differences with 95% confidence intervals for dichotomous data and continuous data, respectively.
Nine trials involving 626 patients were identified. Compared with expansion of intravascular volume alone, mannitol infusion for AKI prevention in high-risk patients can not reduce the serum creatinine level (MD 1.63, 95% CI -6.02 to 9.28). Subgroup analyses demonstrated that serum creatinine level is negatively affected by the use of mannitol in patients undergoing an injection of radiocontrast agents (MD 17.90, 95% CI 8.56 to 27.24). Mannitol administration may reduce the incidence of acute renal failure or the need of dialysis in recipients of renal transplantation (RR 0.34, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.57, NNT 3.03, 95% CI 2.17 to 5.00). But similar effects were not found in patients at high AKI risk, without receiving renal transplantation (RR 0.29, 95% CI 0.01 to 6.60).
Intravascular administration of mannitol does not convey additional beneficial effects beyond adequate hydration in the patients at increased risk of AKI. For contrast-induced nephropathy, the use of mannitol is even detrimental. Further research evaluating the efficiency of mannitol infusions in the recipients of renal allograft should be undertaken.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To investigate the changes of the amino acid receptors in solitary tract nucleus(NTS)of rats after spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: The rat model of T4 spinal cord transection was used in this study. The study was divided into SCI group(n=5)and Control group(n=5). Changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were observed at 1,2,3,4, and 6 weeks after SCI; and the protein expression of the glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 1 (NMDA-R1) and gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor A α1 (GABAA-α1) in the NTS were detected by Western blotting analysis at different time points. Results: The MAP level was significantly decreased at 1-3 weeks after SCI (P<0.05), and it gradually recovered 4 weeks after SCI; the HR was significantly increased 1-4 weeks after SCI (P<0.05) and recovered at the 6th week. The results of Western blotting analysis showed that the protein expression of GABAA-α1 was significantly increased 2 weeks after SCI and significantly reduced at 4 and 6 weeks after SCI (P<0.05). Moreover, the ratio of NMDA-R1 to GABAA-α1 expression in NTS was significantly elevated after SCI(P<0.05). Conclusion: The adaptable changes of important receptors in the NTS following SCI may improve SCI-induced cardiovascular dysfunction.
No preview · Article · Jan 2014 · Academic Journal of Second Military Medical University
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is the third most common endogenously produced gaseous signaling molecule, but its impact on hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, especially on mitochondrial function, remains unclear. In this study, rats were randomized into Sham, I/R, ischemia preconditioning (IPC) or sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, an H2S donor) preconditioning groups. To establish a model of segmental (70%) warm hepatic ischemia, the hepatic artery, left portal vein and median liver lobes were occluded for 60 min and then unclamped to allow reperfusion. Preconditioning with 12.5, 25 or 50 μmol/kg NaHS prior to the I/R insult significantly increased serum H2S levels, and, similar to IPC, NaHS preconditioning decreased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels in the plasma and prevented hepatocytes from undergoing I/R-induced necrosis. Moreover, a sub-toxic dose of NaHS (25 μmol/kg) did not disrupt the systemic hemodynamics but dramatically inhibited mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening and thus prevented mitochondrial-related cell death and apoptosis. Mechanistic studies revealed that NaHS preconditioning markedly increased the expression of phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-Akt), phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (p-GSK-3β) and B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and decreased the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c and cleaved caspase-3/9 levels. Therefore, NaHS administration prior to hepatic I/R ameliorates mitochondrial and hepatocellular damage through the inhibition of MPTP opening and the activation of Akt-GSK-3β signaling. Furthermore, this study provides experimental evidence for the clinical use of H2S to reduce liver damage after perioperative I/R injury.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Cardiovascular response to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation may be harmful in surgical patients with cardiovascular and cerebral diseases. The efficacy of intravenous lidocaine on attenuating the hemodynamic changes remains controversial. This systematic review aims to determine the efficacy of lidocaine versus placebo. Methods: PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library databases were searched for relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The quality of eligible RCTs was evaluated according to the modified Jadad scale. Quantitative analyses were carried out using Review Manager 5 and Stata 10. Results: Thirty-seven trials with 1,429 patients of different age groups were included in our meta-analysis. Additional lidocaine resulted in fewer changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP) (mean difference (MD) -4.32 mmHg, 95% confidence interval (CI) -6.21 to -2.43); diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (MD -4.76 mmHg, 95% CI -5.90 to -3.63); mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) (MD -2.72 mmHg, 95% CI: -3.65 to -1.80) and heart rates (HR) (MD -4.28 beats per min, 95% CI -5.83 to -2.72). Subgroup analysis showed that lidocaine was effective in both the elderly and children with the exception of failing to reduce HR in children. Exclusion of poor-quality trials did not change the favor to lidocaine. No significant publication bias across trials was found. Conclusion: Intravenous lidocaine helps reduce cardiovascular responses to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation in patients of all age groups compared to placebo. Further studies are needed to clarify the effects of dosage and timing of lidocaine on hemodynamic changes.
No preview · Article · Jul 2013 · Minerva anestesiologica
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pruritus is a frequent adverse event after administration of morphine. Butorphanol has been used to prevent morphine-induced pruritus, but its efficacy is still controversial. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the efficacy of using butorphanol to prevent morphine-induced pruritus.
We searched PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and China's BioMedical Disc for full reports of randomized controlled trials that compared the use of butorphanol with either placebo or no treatment for preventing morphine-induced pruritus. The number of patients experiencing pruritus or other side effects was analyzed using relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI).
Sixteen trials (795 patients) were analyzed. Continuous intravenous and epidural butorphanol reduced pruritus with RR 0.22 (95% CI 0.10 to 0.45) and RR 0.24 (95% CI 0.16 to 0.36), respectively. Use of epidural butorphanol decreased the number of patients requesting rescue treatment for pruritus (RR 0.57; 95% CI 0.41 to 0.81). Butorphanol decreased postoperative pain intensity at four, eight, and 12 hr with standardized mean differences of -0.29 (95% CI -0.52 to -0.05), -0.30 (95% CI -0.56 to -0.04), and -0.23 (95% CI -0.46 to -0.01), respectively. Epidural but not intravenous butorphanol reduced postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) (RR 0.35; 95% CI 0.19 to 0.66). Butorphanol did not increase respiratory depression (RR 0.71; 95% CI 0.31 to 1.63), somnolence (RR 0.71; 95% CI 0.22 to 2.37), or dizziness (RR 2.45; 95% CI 0.35 to 17.14).
Butorphanol administered with morphine may be an effective strategy for preventing morphine-induced pruritus as it decreases pain intensity and PONV without increasing other side effects. Thus, it can be recommended for preventing morphine-induced pruritus during the perioperative period.
No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Canadian Anaesthetists? Society Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypomagnesemia is a serious adverse event for patients treated with cetuximab, an inhibitor of endothelial growth factor receptor (EGFR). However, no significant association has yet been established between cetuximab and hypomagnesemia in randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs). The present study conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published RCTs to assess the overall risk of hypomagnesemia associated with cetuximab. PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase and the American Society of Clinical Oncology conferences were searched for relevant RCTs. Quantitative analysis was carried out to evaluate the association between hypomagnesemia and cetuximab. A total of 7,045 patients with a variety of advanced cancers from 10 trials were included in the analysis. The overall incidence of grade 3/4 hypomagnesemia in patients receiving cetuximab was 3.9% [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.6-4.3%]. Patients treated with cetuximab had a significantly increased risk of grade 3/4 hypomagnesemia compared with patients treated with control medication, with a relative risk (RR) of 8.60 (95% CI, 5.08-14.54). Risk was observed to vary with tumor type. The study concluded that cetuximab is associated with a significant risk of hypomagnesemia in patients with advanced cancer receiving concurrent chemotherapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several studies documented persistent hypothermia in parturients after spinal anesthesia, while others reported that labor analgesia was related to a high incidence of fever. Continuous spinal labor anesthesia with sufentanil (CSLAS) is a new effective technique in labor analgesia but whether it affects maternal temperature has not been clarified. The aim of our study was to explore the relationship between CSLAS and maternal intrapartum temperature during vaginal delivery.
75 healthy term nulliparas of spontaneous labor were randomized to receive CSLAS during delivery in sufentanil group (n=37) or non-pharmacological methods of pain relief in control group (n=38). The maternal tympanic temperature was recorded at each time points we required during labor. IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α were sampled at baseline (before analgesia) and 5 minutes after delivery. The data on visual analog scale (VAS) in all puerperas, first and second stage durations of labor, vaginal examination, oxytocin augmentation, maternal and neonatal antibiotic therapy, maternal and neonatal infection, need for cesarean section, need for instrumental delivery and Apgar scores were all collected from the patients' medical records.
Baseline characteristics of parturients in the 2 groups were not significant differences. After intrathecal injection of sufentanil, the sensation of pain was attenuated by a wide margin in the sufentanil group compared with the control group. Nine parturients in the sufentanil group (24.32%) and two in the control group (5.26%) had a tympanic temperature above 38°C during the labor (p=0.024). In each group, there was a tendency that maternal temperature elevated gradually with time elapsing and reached the peak value 5 hours after baseline. The changes had significant difference from 3 hours to 7 hours after analgesia compared with baseline. Maternal serum IL-6 and IL-8 levels were increased during the labor, while TNF-α did not vary at any time point in each group. 1 min and 5 min Apgar scores were not significant difference in the two groups and no neonate developed temperature above 38°C in the first 24 hours and with antibiotic therapy.
The technique of continuous sufentanil spinal labor anesthesia is a safe and effective method in labor analgesia; however, it is associated with an increased incidence of maternal fever.
Full-text · Article · May 2013 · International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction is receiving more attention in patients with end-stage liver diseases. The importance of diastolic dysfunction observed before orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) and its adverse effects on hemodynamics and outcomes of OLT patients, have not been fully explored. We carried a retrospective study to investigate the influence of diastolic dysfunction on OLT patients.
Included in this retrospective study were 330 consecutive patients scheduled for cadaveric OLT over a 5-year period. According to preoperative Doppler echocardiogram (ECHO) findings, patients were divided into two groups: DD group (patients with diastolic dysfunction) and control group (patients with normal ECHO). Patient characteristics, operation variables, hemodynamic course, blood products and drug requirements, postoperative courses and outcomes were evaluated.
306 patients met the study entry criteria and 100 had preoperative diastolic dysfunction. Mean artery blood pressure was significantly lower in DD group after graft reperfusion than that in control group (P<0.01). More patients in DD group required epinephrine, and the mean dose of epinephrine was higher in DD group than that in control group (P<0.01). There was no significant difference in postoperative ventilation time, duration of ICU and hospital stay, renal failure and postoperative mortality between the two groups.
Diastolic dysfunction is common in liver transplant recipients. Patients with diastolic dysfunction may be associated with substantial hemodynamic alterations after graft reperfusion and need more inotropic support during OLT. Diastolic dysfunction was not associated with significant adverse postoperative outcomes.
Full-text · Article · May 2013 · International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The intravenous anesthetic propofol caused episodic memory impairments in human. We hypothesized propofol caused episodic-like spatial memory retention but not acquisition impairments in rats and rescuing cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) signaling using selective type IV phosphodiesterase (PDEIV) inhibitor rolipram reversed these effects.
Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into four groups: control; propofol (25 mg/kg, intraperitoneal); rolipram; and rolipram + propofol (pretreatment of rolipram 25 min before propofol, 0.3 mg/kg, intraperitoneal). Sedation and motor coordination were evaluated 5, 15, and 25 min after propofol injection. Invisible Morris water maze (MWM) acquisition and probe test (memory retention) were performed 5 min and 24 h after propofol injection. Visible MWM training was simultaneously performed to resist nonspatial effects. Hippocampal CREB signaling was detected 5 min, 50 min, and 24 h after propofol administration.
Rolipram did not change propofol-induced anesthetic/sedative states or impair motor skills. No difference was found on the latency to the platform during the visible MWM. Propofol impaired spatial memory retention but not acquisition. Rolipram reversed propofol-induced spatial memory impairments and suppression on cAMP levels, CaMKIIα and CREB phosphorylation, brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) and Arc protein expression.
Propofol caused spatial memory retention impairments but not acquisition inability possibly by inhibiting CREB signaling.
No preview · Article · Mar 2013 · CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction
The ideal measures to prevent postoperative delirium remain unestablished. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify the significance of potential interventions.
The PRISMA statement guidelines were followed. Two researchers searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library for articles published in English before August 2012. Additional sources included reference lists from reviews and related articles from 'Google Scholar'. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) on interventions seeking to prevent postoperative delirium in adult patients were included. Data extraction and methodological quality assessment were performed using predefined data fields and scoring system. Meta-analysis was accomplished for studies that used similar strategies. The primary outcome measure was the incidence of postoperative delirium. We further tested whether interventions effective in preventing postoperative delirium shortened the length of hospital stay.
We identified 38 RCTs with interventions ranging from perioperative managements to pharmacological, psychological or multicomponent interventions. Meta-analysis showed dexmedetomidine sedation was associated with less delirium compared to sedation produced by other drugs (two RCTs with 415 patients, pooled risk ratio (RR) = 0.39; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.16 to 0.95). Both typical (three RCTs with 965 patients, RR = 0.71; 95% CI = 0.54 to 0.93) and atypical antipsychotics (three RCTs with 627 patients, RR = 0.36; 95% CI = 0.26 to 0.50) decreased delirium occurrence when compared to placebos. Multicomponent interventions (two RCTs with 325 patients, RR = 0.71; 95% CI = 0.58 to 0.86) were effective in preventing delirium. No difference in the incidences of delirium was found between: neuraxial and general anesthesia (four RCTs with 511 patients, RR = 0.99; 95% CI = 0.65 to 1.50); epidural and intravenous analgesia (three RCTs with 167 patients, RR = 0.93; 95% CI = 0.61 to 1.43) or acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and placebo (four RCTs with 242 patients, RR = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.63 to 1.44). Effective prevention of postoperative delirium did not shorten the length of hospital stay (10 RCTs with 1,636 patients, pooled SMD (standard mean difference) = -0.06; 95% CI = -0.16 to 0.04).
The included studies showed great inconsistencies in definition, incidence, severity and duration of postoperative delirium. Meta-analysis supported dexmedetomidine sedation, multicomponent interventions and antipsychotics were useful in preventing postoperative delirium.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · Critical care (London, England)