B Mpoza

Rakai Health Sciences Program, Rakai, Central Region, Uganda

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Publications (3)5.51 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The need for viral load (VL) monitoring of HIV patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings (RLS) has become apparent with studies showing the limitations of immunological monitoring. We compared the Abbott m2000 Real-Time (Abbott) HIV-1 assay with the Roche AMPLICOR Monitor v1.5 (Roche) HIV-1 assay over a range of VL concentrations. Three hundred and eleven plasma samples were tested, including 164 samples from patients on ART ≥ six months and 147 from ART-naïve patients. The Roche assay detected ≥400 copies/mL in 158 (50.8%) samples. Of these, Abbott produced 145 (91.8%) detectable results ≥400 copies/mL; 13 (8.2%) samples produced discrepant results. Concordance between the assays for detecting HIV-1 RNA ≥400 copies/mL was 95.8% (298/311). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of Abbott to detect HIV-1 RNA ≥400 copies/mL were 91.8%, 100%, 100% and 92.2%, respectively. For the 151 samples with HIV-1 RNA ≥400 copies/mL for both assays, a good linear correlation was found (r = 0.81, P < 0.0001; mean difference, 0.05). The limits of agreement were -0.97 and 1.07 log(10) copies/mL (mean ± 2 SD). The Abbott assay performed well in our setting, offering an alternative methodology for HIV-1 VL for laboratories with realtime polymerase chain reaction (PCR) capacity.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2011 · International Journal of STD & AIDS
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    ABSTRACT: HIV acquisition is associated with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection and genital ulcer disease (GUD). Three randomized control trials demonstrated that male circumcision significantly decreases HIV, HSV-2, human papillomavirus and self-reported GUD among men. GUD is also decreased among female partners of circumcised men, but it is unknown whether male circumcision status affects GUD pathogens in female partners. For the evaluation of GUD aetiology, two separate multiplex assays were performed to detect Haemophilus ducreyi, Treponema pallidum, HSV-1 and HSV-2. Of all the female GUD swabs evaluated, 67.5% had an aetiology identified, and HSV-2 was the primary pathogen detected (96.3%). However, there was no difference in the proportion of ulcers due to HSV-2 or other pathogens between female partners of circumcised men (11/15, 73.3%) compared with uncircumcised men (15/25, 60.0%, P = 0.39). The seroprevalence of HSV-2 is high in this population and therefore most of the detected HSV-2 infections represent reactivation. Since GUD is associated with HIV acquisition and one-third of GUD in this study did not have an aetiological agent identified, further research is needed to better understand the aetiology of GUD in Africa, and its relationship to circumcision and HIV infection.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2009 · International Journal of STD & AIDS
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    ABSTRACT: To develop a real-time PCR assay that reliably and accurately detects the predominant sexually transmitted aetiological agents of genital ulcer disease (GUD) (Haemophilus ducreyi, Treponema pallidum and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2)) and to assess the use of real-time PCR diagnostic testing in a rural African field site. Two multiplex real-time PCR reactions were used to detect H ducreyi/and HSV-1/HSV-2 in ulcer swabs from 100 people with symptomatic genital ulcers in rural Rakai, Uganda. Results were compared with syphilis, HSV-1 and HSV-2 serology. Of 100 GUD samples analysed from 43 HIV positive and 57 HIV negative individuals, 71% were positive for one or more sexually transmitted infection (STI) pathogens by real-time PCR (61% for HSV-2, 5% for T pallidum, 3% for HSV-1, 1% for H ducreyi and 1% for dual H ducreyi/HSV-2). The frequency of HSV in genital ulcers was 56% (32/57) in HIV negative individuals and 77% (33/43) in HIV positive individuals (p = 0.037). Assay reproducibility was evaluated by repeat PCR testing in the USA with 96% agreement (kappa = 0.85). STI pathogens were detected in the majority of GUD swab samples from symptomatic patients in Rakai, Uganda, by real-time PCR. HSV-2 was the predominant cause of genital ulcers. Real-time PCR technology can provide sensitive, rapid and reproducible evaluation of GUD aetiology in a resource-limited setting.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2009 · Sexually transmitted infections