[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the prevalence and characteristics of cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) in a large population of adults with congenital heart disease (CHD).
In a retrospective analysis of aggregated European and Canadian databases a total population of 23 153 patients with CHD was followed up to the age of 16-91 years (mean 36.4 years). Among them, 458 patients (2.0%) had one or more CVA, with an estimated event rate of 0.05% per patient-year. Permanent neurological sequelae were noted in 116 patients (25.3%). The prevalence of CVA in selected diagnostic categories was as follows: open atrial septal defect 93/2351 (4.0%); closed atrial or ventricular septal defect 57/4035 (1.4%); corrected tetralogy of Fallot 52/2196 (2.4%); Eisenmenger physiology 24/467 (5.1%); other cyanotic 50/215 (23.3%); mechanical prostheses (29/882 (3.3%). Associated conditions in patients with CVA were absence of sinus rhythm (25%), transvenous pacemakers (7%), endocarditis (2%), cardiac surgery (11%) and catheter intervention (2%), but with the exception of absent sinus rhythm these were not significantly more prevalent in patients with CVA.
CVA are a major contributor to morbidity in this young population despite absence of classical cardiovascular risk factors. Although the prevalence of CVA in patients with CHD appears low, it is 10-100 times higher than expected in control populations of comparable age. Residua occur in a strong minority of patients. The subjects at highest risk are those patients with CHD with cyanotic lesions, in whom the prevalence is over 10-fold above the average.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We sought to examine the frequency of early postoperative complications and preoperative predictors of prolonged hospitalization in adults with repaired tetralogy of Fallot undergoing pulmonary valve replacement.
This was a retrospective study of consecutive adult patients undergoing surgical intervention between 1995 and 2006. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify determinants of prolonged hospitalization.
One hundred sixteen patients (mean age, 36 +/- 11 years) underwent 118 pulmonary valve replacements. Most (95%) operations included additional procedures, such as pulmonary artery/outflow tract reconstruction or tricuspid valve annuloplasty. The early postoperative mortality (<30 days) was 2.5%. The majority of the patients (60%) had no postoperative complications. The postoperative adverse events included postoperative arrhythmias (19%), respiratory complications (13%), reoperation during admission (13%), renal dysfunction (13%), and myocardial infarction (3%). Postoperative adverse events were associated with prolonged hospitalization (14 +/- 12 vs 7 +/- 3 days, P = .001). In the multivariate analysis age at reoperation of greater than 45 years (odds ratio, 6.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.6-23.6; P = .009), the number of previous sternotomies (odds ratio, 3.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-10; P = .007), and the need for urgent surgical intervention (odds ratio, 5.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-27.8; P = .03) were predictors of prolonged hospitalization.
Pulmonary valve replacement in adults with repaired tetralogy of Fallot has a low mortality risk. The most common early postoperative complications are arrhythmias and respiratory and renal complications. Although most early postoperative complications do not result in long-term sequelae, they are associated with prolonged hospitalization. Patients undergoing urgent interventions, older patients, and those with multiple previous sternotomies are at the highest risk for prolonged hospitalization.
No preview · Article · Sep 2009 · The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery