[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SUMMARY Following the recognition of a mecC MRSA isolate from a patient hospitalized in the northeastern region of Slovenia, a national collection of 395 community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) isolates from 2006 to 2013 was screened. An additional six mecC MRSA strains were found and characterized as spa types t843, t9397 and t10009, and multilocus sequence type ST130. The low oxacillin minimum inhibitory concentrations and absence of the mecA gene make recognition of these MRSA strains problematical for diagnostic laboratories. In such strains the presence of mecC should be determined.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Epidemiology and Infection
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PCR ribotyping was modified to allow direct detection of Clostridium difficile from stool samples. Direct PCR ribotyping was possible in 86 out of 99 C. difficile-positive stool samples, and in 84 cases (84.8%), the ribotype determined directly from the stool sample was identical to
the ribotype of the strain isolated from the same stool sample.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2011 · Journal of clinical microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) differs from healthcare-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) in its molecular and microbiological characteristics.
Six Slovenian regional public health institutes and the National Institute of Public Health took part in monitoring CA-MRSA infections. S. aureus isolates resistant to oxacillin and susceptible to > or = two of the four antibiotics ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, clindamycin or gentamicin were defined as CA-MRSA and further analyzed. The presence of the gene for Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) was confirmed using PCR, the type of staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCCmec) using multiplex PCR, and macrorestriction analysis of chromosomal DNA using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).
A total of 31 strains from 31 patients were analyzed during a period of 21 months: 23 specimens were sent from hospitals, six from primary care, two from a long-term care facility. All 31 isolates contained the gene mecA. Sixteen (51.6%) isolates were identified as SCCmec type IV, three isolates were PVL positive. Using PFGE, the CA-MRSA strains were classified into 15 similarity groups. Results of antibiotic susceptibility showed there were five resistance types among the 31 strains. Simultaneous resistance against ciprofloxacin and gentamicin was often associated with the presence of SCCmec type I, strongly resembling HA-MRSA.
PVL-positive strains of CA-MRSA have been isolated in Slovenia only rarely. We will continue to monitor strains of MRSA in order to obtain the complete microbiological and epidemiological features.
No preview · Article · Sep 2009 · Wiener klinische Wochenschrift
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between decreased use of macrolides and resistance of common respiratory pathogens in Slovenia from 1999 to 2004. Over a 6-year period the consumption of macrolides in Slovenia decreased by 21.3%, from 3.81 defined daily doses/1000 inhabitants per day (DID) to 3.0 DID. The use of short-acting, intermediate-acting and long-acting subclasses of macrolides decreased by 50%, 18% and 13%, respectively. In the same period, resistance of invasive strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae increased from 4.6% to 11.1% and resistance of non-invasive strains of S. pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes increased from 12.8% to 20.2% and from 7.4% to 12.5%, respectively. Resistance increased significantly more in children than in adults (P=0.05) and was significantly correlated with increased use of intermediate-acting macrolides (r=0.94 for non-invasive S. pneumoniae and r=0.96 for S. pyogenes) in children. Resistance of Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis was low and did not change. In children and adults, the emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant strains of invasive S. pneumoniae was observed. The decline in total macrolide use was not paralleled by reduced macrolide resistance rates of S. pyogenes and S. pneumoniae during the 6-year period. There was a strong correlation between the use of intermediate-acting macrolides and macrolide resistance of S. pyogenes and S. pneumoniae in children. Further reduction in the use of intermediate- and long-acting macrolides should be encouraged.
No preview · Article · Jan 2007 · International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endocarditis due to Abiotrophia sp. is rare and often associated with negative blood cultures. The rates of treatment failure, infection relapse and mortality are higher than in endocarditis caused by other viridans streptococci.
A retrospective review of A. defectiva endocarditis in a patient with prosthetic aortic valve and in a patient with Marfan syndrome was performed.
A. defectiva, susceptible to penicillin (MIC 0.064 mg/l and 0.016 mg/l, respectively) was isolated from blood cultures of both patients. Treatment with penicillin and gentamicin was started in both patients. Since the first patient developed a macular rash and leukopenia, penicillin was substituted with ceftriaxone. Both patients responded well to antibiotic treatment, did not need prosthetic valve insertion or reinsertion, and were without any sequelae at one year follow up.
Standard treatment of bacterial endocarditis with penicillin and gentamicin was effective in both patients. In contrast to previous reports, the present patients had a favorable outcome on completion of treatment and at one-year follow up.
Preview · Article · Feb 2005 · The Journal of heart valve disease