[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Four Thai - rumen fistulated male swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), about 3 years old with 360 +/- 18 kg liveweight, were randomly assigned according to a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement in a 4 x 4 Latin square design to receive four dietary treatments. The treatments were as follows: a cassava based supplement (CS) at 1 g/kg BW and Leucaena leucocephala leaf meal (LLM) at 300 g/d (T1): CS at 2 g/kg BW with LLM at 300 g/d (T2); CS at 1 g/kg BW and heat treated LLM (HLLM) at 300 g/d (T3); and CS at 2 g/kg BW and HLLM at 300 g/d. During the experiment, urea-calcium hydroxide treated rice straw was given on ad libitum basis. The results revealed an increase in roughage and total dry matter (DM) intake (P<0.05) by CS at 2 g/kg BW (T2 and T4) as compared with CS at 1 g/kg BW (T1 and T3). Digestion coefficients of DM, organic matter (OM), and crude protein (CP) were increased by CS at 2 g/kg BW. while neutral detergent fiber (aNDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) were similar among treatments. However, there was no effect of neither energy level nor HLLM on ruminal pH and temperature (P>0.05). Concentration of ruminal ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) was decreased by HLLM as compared with LLM (P<0.05), while blood urea-nitrogen was not altered. There was an increase (P<0.05) in total volatile fatty acid (TVFA). acetic acid (C2), propionic acid (C3), and butyric acid (C4) concentrations and the highest were found in CS at 2 g/kg BW with HLLM (T4), while the lowest was. in T1 and T3. However, no changes in C2-C3 ratio were found in this study. Total bacterial direct counts were found different (P<0.05), whereas fungal zoospores and protozoal populations were similar among treatments. Nevertheless, viable bacterial counts were found affected by both concentrate level and HLLM. The treatments with HLLM were lower than those in LLM and CS at 2 g/kg BW were higher than those supplemented at CS at 1 g/kg BW (P<0.05). In addition, efficiency of rumen microbial CP synthesis tended to be higher in treatment with higher level of energy and HLLM. Based on this study, it could be concluded that LLM could be used as a protein source, while the combination of HLLM and CS at 2 g/kg BW could enhance the voluntary feed intake, nutrient digestibility and rumen fermentation in swamp buffalo fed on treated rice straw (urea-calcium hydroxide treatment).
Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Animal Feed Science and Technology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of coconut oil and garlic powder supplementation on digestibility of nutrients, rumen fermentation, rumen ecology, rumen microorganism and methanogen diversity. Four, 3-year old, rumen fistulated swamp buffalo bulls were randomly assigned in a 4×4 Latin square design to receive four dietary treatments; 7% coconut oil, 7% coconut oil with 50g/day of garlic powder, 7% coconut oil with 100g/day of garlic powder and non-supplemented (control). During the experiment, concentrate was offered at 0.5% of BW while rice straw was given on ad libitum basis. It was found that supplementation of 7% coconut oil had significantly influenced on total DM intake, OM, NDF and ADF digestibilites while supplementation of 7% coconut oil with garlic powder (50 and 100g/day) were not significantly different when compared with the control. Dietary supplementations did not affect on rumen pH, NH3–N concentrations. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) was significantly higher in supplemented groups. Total VFA concentration, proportion of acetate and acetate to propionate ratio were reduced by supplementation. Proportion of propionate was increased (P
Full-text · Article · Jan 2011 · Livestock Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An in vitro gas technique trial was conducted to investigate the effect of coconut oil (Co), garlic powder (G) and their mixtures on in vitro fermentation. Incubation was carried out using rumen fluid obtained from swamp buffaloes. The experimental design was a completely randomized design (CRD). The dietary treatments were ratio of Co and G supplementation at 0:0, 16:0, 8:4, 4:8 and 0:16mg with rice straw as a roughage source. Cumulative gas production was recorded at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72h of incubation. In vitro true digestibility (IVTD) was determined after 48h incubation. Cumulative gas production at 72h was significantly lowest (P
Full-text · Article · Jan 2010 · Livestock Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The application of RNA interference (RNAi) strategy for controlling classical swine fever could become a promising alternative to the conventional eradication measures, as it was recently shown for foot-and-mouth disease (Chen et al., 2004), influenza (Ge et al., 2003), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (He et al., 2007) and porcine transmissible gastroenteritis (Zhou et al., 2007). The use of synthetic siRNA which is corresponding to nucleotides 1130-1148 of the CSF virus strain Alfort, targeting the nucleocapsid protein (C) was investigated to show the inhibition of CSF virus replication. It could be shown that the virus titer of infected cells, which had been mock-transfected or transfected with control (non-silence) RNA were not affected. These data indicate that siRNA_253 is able to inhibit viral replication.
No preview · Article · Sep 2009 · Veterinary Microbiology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The present study investigated the effect of garlic powder (GAP) supplementation on rumen fermentation pattern, nutrient digestibility and intake in ruminants fed on straw as a roughage source.
RESULTS: Dry matter intake and apparent digestibility of nutrients were similar among treatments. The apparent digestibility of crude protein tended to be higher in cattle supplemented with GAP compared to those fed without GAP (P = 0.08). Ruminal populations of protozoa and bacteria were decreased, as influenced by GAP supplementation. Ruminal pH and NH3-N were similar among treatments, while blood urea nitrogen tended to be decreased (P < 0.05). Total volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were not affected by GAP supplementation but individual VFAs were significantly different (P < 0.05), especially C3; meanwhile, C2:C3 ratio was reduced by GAP supplementation (P < 0.05). In addition, N balances were significantly increased as level of GAP supplementation increased and was highest at 120 g d−1 GAP.
CONCLUSION: Results of this study suggest that feeding of GAP at 80 g d−1 with urea-treated rice straw could enhance ruminal propionate production and thus lower C2:C3 ratio, decreasing the protozoal population, as well as increasing N retention and absorption in ruminants. Copyright
No preview · Article · Oct 2008 · Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf.] powder (LGP) on rumen ecology, rumen microorganisms, and digestibility of nutrients. Four ruminally fistulated crossbred (Brahman native) beef cattle were randomly assigned according to a 4 x 4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments were LGP supplementation at 0, 100, 200, and 300 g/d with urea-treated rice straw (5%) fed to allow ad libitum intake. Digestibilities of DM, ether extract, and NDF were significantly different among treatments and were greatest at 100 g/d of supplementation. However, digestibility of CP was decreased with LGP supplementation (P < 0.05), whereas ruminal NH(3)-N and plasma urea N were decreased with incremental additions of LGP (P < 0.05). Ruminal VFA concentrations were similar among supplementation concentrations (P > 0.05). Total viable bacteria, amylolytic bacteria, and cellulolytic bacteria were significantly different among treatments and were greatest at 100 g/d of supplementation (4.7 x 10(9), 1.7 x 10(7), and 2.0 x 10(9) cfu/mL, respectively). Protozoal populations were significantly decreased by LGP supplementation. In addition, efficiency of rumen microbial N synthesis based on OM truly digested in the rumen was enriched by LGP supplementation, especially at 100 g/d (34.2 g of N/kg of OM truly digested in the rumen). Based on this study, it could be concluded that supplementation of LGP at 100 g/d improved digestibilities of nutrients, rumen microbial population, and microbial protein synthesis efficiency, thus improving rumen ecology in beef cattle.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2008 · Journal of Animal Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Twelve swamp buffaloes and Brahman cattle heifers (6 animals each) were randomly assigned to two treatments, control (grazing only) and supplementation of cassava hay (CH) at 1-kg dry matter per head per day (DM/hd/d), in a 2×2 factorial arrangement according to a cross-over design. The cassava hay contained a high level of protein (19.5% of DM) and a strategic amount of condensed tannins (4.0% of DM). As a result it was revealed that supplementation of CH at 1-kg DM/hd/d significantly (p<0.05) improved the nutrition of both swamp buffaloes and Brahman cattle in terms of DM, organic matter (OM), protein and energy intake and digestibility, ruminal NH3-N and rumen ecology. Supplementation significantly (p<0.05) reduced weight losses in both species and improved the health, in terms of reduced number of parasite eggs in feces (p0.05), of both buffaloes and cattle. There tended to be a difference in term of response to CH between the two species. The DM, OM, protein intake and digestibility and total digestible energy intake tended to be higher for buffaloes as compared to cattle. Moreover, the percentage reduction of parasite eggs tended to be higher for buffaloes as compared to cattle (57.6 and 45.0%, respectively). However, there were no significant interactions between species and treatments.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2007 · Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two experiments were conducted to examine the production and quality of cassava hay and its utilization in diets for dairy cows. In experiment I, a 22 Factorial arrangement in a randomized complete block design with 4 replications was carried out to determine the effects of different initial (IC) and subsequent cutting (SC) on yield and composition of cassava plant. The results revealed that cassava could produce from 4 to 7 tonne of DM and 1.2 to 1.6 tonne of CP for the first six months after planting. CP content in cassava plant ranged from 20.8 to 28.5% and was affected by different SC regimes. Condensed tannin in cassava foliage ranged from 4.9 to 5.5%. Initial cutting at 2 months with subsequent cutting at 2 month intervals was the optimal to obtain high dry matter and protein yield. In the second experiment, five crossbred Holstein-Friesian cows in mid lactation with an initial live-weight of 5056.1 kg and average milk yield of 10.781.2 kg/d were randomly assigned in a 55 Latin square design to study the effects of 2 levels of CH (1 and 2 kg/hd/d) and concentrate (1 to 2 kg of milk and 1 to 3 kg of milk) on milk yield and milk composition. The results showed that cassava hay increased rumen -N and milk urea nitrogen (MUN) (p
Full-text · Article · Dec 2003 · Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences