Mark S Clements

Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Stockholm, Sweden

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Publications (73)282.59 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate (DAC) has morphological similarities to adenocarcinomas of other organs. DAC behaves in an aggressive manner and may present with metastases. These metastases may occur at unusual sites, which itself may cause diagnostic difficulties. It is important for therapeutic decisions that a prostatic origin of these metastases be established. Our aim was to compare the protein expression of DAC and adenocarcinomas of colon, endometrium, lung, pancreas, stomach and urinary bladder. A tissue microarray was constructed using 60 DAC, 6 colonic, 7 endometrial, 7 lung, 5 pancreatic, 5 gastric, and 9 urinary bladder adenocarcinomas. Slides were stained for estrogen, progesterone and androgen receptor, prolactin, PSA, prostein, PSMA, PSAP, CDX2, lysozyme, villin, monoclonal CEA, CK7, CK20, HMWCK, p63, p504s, c-Myc, EGFR, Ki-67, p16, p21, p27, p53, PTEN, ERG, and PAX-8. Androgen receptor, prostein, PSA, and PSAP were almost invariably expressed in DAC. Ki-67-labeling index was lower in DAC than in other adenocarcinomas. The expression patterns of intestinal markers and cytokeratins in DAC were less specific and may lead to diagnostic errors if not combined with prostate-specific markers.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Apmis
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test is used to screen for prostate cancer but has a high false-positive rate that translates into unnecessary prostate biopsies and overdiagnosis of low-risk prostate cancers. We aimed to develop and validate a model to identify high-risk prostate cancer (with a Gleason score of at least 7) with better test characteristics than that provided by PSA screening alone. Methods: The Stockholm 3 (STHLM3) study is a prospective, population-based, paired, screen-positive, diagnostic study of men without prostate cancer aged 50-69 years randomly invited by date of birth from the Swedish Population Register kept by the Swedish Tax Agency. Men with prostate cancer at enrolment were excluded from the study. The predefined STHLM3 model (a combination of plasma protein biomarkers [PSA, free PSA, intact PSA, hK2, MSMB, MIC1], genetic polymorphisms [232 SNPs], and clinical variables [age, family, history, previous prostate biopsy, prostate exam]), and PSA concentration were both tested in all participants enrolled. The primary aim was to increase the specificity compared with PSA without decreasing the sensitivity to diagnose high-risk prostate cancer. The primary outcomes were number of detected high-risk cancers (sensitivity) and the number of performed prostate biopsies (specificity). The STHLM3 training cohort was used to train the STHLM3 model, which was prospectively tested in the STHLM3 validation cohort. Logistic regression was used to test for associations between biomarkers and clinical variables and prostate cancer with a Gleason score of at least 7. This study is registered with ISCRTN.com, number ISRCTN84445406. Findings: The STHLM3 model performed significantly better than PSA alone for detection of cancers with a Gleason score of at least 7 (p<0·0001), the area under the curve was 0·56 (95% CI 0·55-0·60) with PSA alone and 0·74 (95% CI 0·72-0·75) with the STHLM3 model. All variables used in the STHLM3 model were significantly associated with prostate cancers with a Gleason score of at least 7 (p<0·05) in a multiple logistic regression model. At the same level of sensitivity as the PSA test using a cutoff of ≥3 ng/mL to diagnose high risk prostate cancer, use of the STHLM3 model could reduce the number of biopsies by 32% (95% CI 24-39) and could avoid 44% (35-54) of benign biopsies. Interpretation: The STHLM3 model could reduce unnecessary biopsies without compromising the ability to diagnose prostate cancer with a Gleason score of at least 7, and could be a step towards personalised risk-based prostate cancer diagnostic programmes. Funding: Stockholm County Council (Stockholms Läns Landsting).
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · The Lancet Oncology
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    ABSTRACT: A decreased risk of prostate cancer (PCa) has been suggested in men taking aspirin, statins and metformin, although the evidence has been conflicting. We estimated the association between prescribed medications, prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels and the risk of either any PCa or high-grade PCa. This population-based cohort study included 185,667 men having a first recorded PSA test and 18,574 men having a first prostate biopsy in Stockholm County, Sweden for the period 2007-2012. Detailed clinical information including PSA levels, biopsy results, comorbidities and educational level were obtained from population-based registers. High-grade prostate cancer was defined as a Gleason score of seven or higher. Differences in PSA levels by medication status were estimated using linear regression on log PSA values. PCa risk was estimated using multivariate logistic regression. Compared with men who were not on medication, the PSA level at the first PSA test was lower among men using 75mg/dose aspirin (-3.9% change in PSA concentration; 95% confidence interval (CI): -5.8 to -2.1), statin (-4.6%; 95% CI: -6.2 to -2.9), metformin (-14%; 95% CI: -17 to -12) and insulin (-16%; 95% CI: -18 to -14). Men using any statins had an increased risk of both high-grade PCa (odds ratio (OR) 1.25; 95% CI: 1.10-1.42) and PCa of any grade (OR 1.16; 95% CI 1.04-1.29). There were no significant associations between aspirin or any antidiabetic medication and the risk of PCa. We found no protective effect of aspirin, statins or antidiabetics in terms of risk for any PCa or high-grade PCa. Use of any statins was associated with an elevated risk of being diagnosed with high-grade prostate cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · European journal of cancer (Oxford, England: 1990)
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Information on the current and future numbers of Australian men living with prostate cancer is limited. We describe a method for estimating complete prevalence of prostate cancer to provide a measure of the burden of prostate cancer in Australia. Methods: Prostate cancer data from the New South Wales (NSW) Central Cancer Registry were used with PIAMOD (Prevalence and Incidence Analysis MODel) software to estimate future prostate cancer prevalence in NSW. We first fitted parametric incidence and survival models then used the modelled incidence and survival estimates to calculate complete prevalence. The estimated and projected prevalence incorporate past observed trends and take into account different assumptions about future survival trends. These models were validated against observed prevalence from the counting method. Results: Based on data for 1996-2007, the number of men living with prostate cancer in NSW was estimated to rise by 59% to 73%, from 38,322 in 2007 to 60,910-66,160 in 2017. The increasing incidence rates and the ageing population were the major contributors to this estimated increase. Validation suggested that these projections were reasonable, as the estimated prevalence in 1996-2007 was in good agreement with the corresponding prevalence calculated using the direct counting method, and the incidence models were supported by the recent data on prostate-specific antigen testing. Conclusions: As the number of men living with prostate cancer is expected to increase dramatically in the next decade in Australia, representing a significant challenge to the health system, careful planning and development of a healthcare system able to respond to this increased demand is required. These projections are useful for addressing the challenge in meeting the cancer care needs of men with prostate cancer.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Cancer Epidemiology
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    ABSTRACT: Background There is a positive association between solar UV exposure and micronucleus frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and this association may be stronger when serum vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels are insufficient (<50nmol/L). Micronucleus formation can result from global hypomethylation of DNA repeat sequences. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate the relationship between solar UV exposure and methylation pattern in LINE-1 repetitive elements in PBL DNA and to see if serum 25(OH)D levels modify it. Method Personal solar UV exposure was estimated from hours of outdoor exposure over 6 weeks recalled at the time of blood collection in 208 male and female participants living in South Australia. Methylation in LINE-1 repetitive elements was assessed in PBL using pyrosequencing. Results Methylation in LINE-1 decreased with increasing solar UV exposure (% decrease = 0.5% per doubling of sUV; 95%CI:-0.7-0.2 pvalue = 0.00003). Although there was no correlation between LINE-1 methylation and micronucleus frequency, there was a 4.3% increase (95% CI:0.6-8.1 p-value = 0.02) in nucleoplasmic bridges and a 4.3% increase in necrosis (CI:1.9-6.8 p-value = 0.0005) for every 1% increase in LINE-1 methylation. Serum 25(OH)D was not associated with DNA methylation; nor did it modify the association of solar UV with DNA methylation. Conclusion Exposure to solar UV radiation may reduce DNA methylation in circulating lymphocytes. This association does not appear to be influenced or mediated by vitamin D status.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Cancer Research
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    ABSTRACT: Background Despite growing interest in prevention of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) through better understanding of modifiable risk factors, large-scale population-based evidence is limited. Objective To describe risk factors associated with severe LUTS in the 45 and Up Study, a large cohort study. Design, Setting, and Participants A cross-sectional analysis of questionnaire data from 106,435 men aged ≥45 years, living in New South Wales, Australia. Outcome Measures and Statistical Analysis LUTS were measured by a modified version of the International Prostate Symptom Score (m-IPSS). The strength of association between severe LUTS and socio-demographic, lifestyle and health-related factors was estimated, using logistic regression to calculate odds ratios, adjusted for a range of confounding factors. Results Overall, 18.3% reported moderate, and 3.6% severe, LUTS. Severe LUTS were more common among men reporting previous prostate cancer (7.6%), total prostatectomy (4.9%) or having part of the prostate removed (8.2%). After excluding men with prostate cancer or prostate surgery, the prevalence of moderate-severe LUTS in the cohort (n = 95,089) ranged from 10.6% to 35.4% for ages 45–49 to ≥80; the age-related increase was steeper for storage than voiding symptoms. The adjusted odds of severe LUTS decreased with increasing education (tertiary qualification versus no school certificate, odds ratio (OR = 0.78 (0.68–0.89))) and increasing physical activity (high versus low, OR = 0.83 (0.76–0.91)). Odds were elevated among current smokers versus never-smokers (OR = 1.64 (1.43–1.88)), obese versus healthy-weight men (OR = 1.27 (1.14–1.41)) and for comorbid conditions (e.g., heart disease versus no heart disease, OR = 1.36 (1.24–1.49)), and particularly for severe versus no physical functional limitation (OR = 5.17 (4.51–5.93)). Conclusions LUTS was associated with a number of factors, including modifiable risk factors, suggesting potential targets for prevention.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Background There is evidence, although inconsistent, that long term exposure to disinfection by products (DBPs) increases the risk of bowel cancer. No study has been conducted in Australia to examine this association and due to difference in the methods of disinfection the risk can vary across geographical regions and. This study was conducted to analyse the association of trihalomethanes (THMs) in water with colon and rectal cancer in NSW Australia. Methods Average yearly concentrations of total and individual species of THMs were obtained for 50 local government areas (LGAs). Indirectly-standardized incidence rates of colon and rectal cancers in LGAs for the period 1995 to 2001 were regressed against mean THM concentrations lagged five years, adjusting for socioeconomic status, high risk drinking, smoking status, usual source of water and year of diagnosis, including local and global random effects within a Bayesian framework. The incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for an interquartile range (IQR) increase in THMs were estimated. Results Using five year lag of exposure there was a positive association between bromoform concentration and CRC in men (IRR = 1.025, 95% CI 1.010, 1.040) but not in women (IRR = 1.003, 95% CI 0.987, 1.018). The association in men was mainly found in colon cancer with bromoform (IRR = 1.035, 95% CI 1.017, 1.053). There was no appreciable association of colorectal cancer with other species of THMs. Sensitivity analyses did not materially change the associations observed. Conclusion A positive association was observed between colon cancer and water bromoform concentrations in men. Given the potential population impact of such an association, further research into the relationship between THMs, particularly brominated species, and colorectal cancer is warranted.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · BMC Cancer
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    ABSTRACT: There is a positive association between solar UV exposure and micronucleus frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and this association may be stronger when serum vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels are insufficient (<50nmol/L). Micronucleus formation can result from global hypomethylation of DNA repeat sequences. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate the relationship between solar UV exposure and methylation pattern in LINE-1 repetitive elements in PBL DNA and to see if serum 25(OH)D levels modify it. Personal solar UV exposure was estimated from hours of outdoor exposure over 6 weeks recalled at the time of blood collection in 208 male and female participants living in South Australia. Methylation in LINE-1 repetitive elements was assessed in PBL using pyrosequencing. Methylation in LINE-1 decreased with increasing solar UV exposure (% decrease=0.5% per doubling of sUV; 95%CI:-0.7-0.2 pvalue=0.00003). Although there was no correlation between LINE-1 methylation and micronucleus frequency, there was a 4.3% increase (95% CI:0.6-8.1 p-value=0.02) in nucleoplasmic bridges and a 4.3% increase in necrosis (CI:1.9-6.8 p-value=0.0005) for every 1% increase in LINE-1 methylation. Serum 25(OH)D was not associated with DNA methylation; nor did it modify the association of solar UV with DNA methylation. Exposure to solar UV radiation may reduce DNA methylation in circulating lymphocytes. This association does not appear to be influenced or mediated by vitamin D status.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis

  • No preview · Article · Apr 2014 · European Urology Supplements
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Metastatic breast cancer is a severe condition without curative treatment. How relative and absolute risk of distant metastasis varies over time since diagnosis, as a function of treatment, age and tumour characteristics, has not been studied in detail. Methods: A total of 9514 women under the age of 75 when diagnosed with breast cancer in Stockholm and Gotland regions during 1990–2006 were followed up for metastasis (mean follow-up=5.7 years). Time-dependent development of distant metastasis was analysed using flexible parametric survival models and presented as hazard ratio (HR) and cumulative risk. Results: A total of 995 (10.4%) patients developed distant metastasis; the most common sites were skeleton (32.5%) and multiple sites (28.3%). Women younger than 50 years at diagnosis, with lymph node-positive, oestrogen receptor (ER)-negative, >20 mm tumours and treated only locally, had the highest risk of distant metastasis (0–5 years' cumulative risk =0.55; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.47–0.64). Women older than 50 years at diagnosis, with ER-positive, lymph node-negative and ⩽20-mm tumours, had the same and lowest cumulative risk of developing metastasis 0–5 and 5–10 years (cumulative risk=0.03; 95% CI: 0.02–0.04). In the period of 5–10 years after diagnosis, women with ER-positive, lymph node-positive and >20-mm tumours were at highest risk of distant recurrence. Women with ER-negative tumours showed a decline in risk during this period. Conclusion: Our data show no support for discontinuation at 5 years of clinical follow-up in breast cancer patients and suggest further investigation on differential clinical follow-up for different subgroups of patients.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · British Journal of Cancer
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    ABSTRACT: We aim to determine the relationship between season, personal solar UV exposure, serum 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. Questionnaire data and blood samples were collected at baseline from participants of the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project (n = 1,705), aged 70 and above. They were grouped as men 'free of prostate disease' for those with no record of having prostate cancer, benign prostatic hyperplasia, or prostatitis and with serum PSA levels below 20 ng/mL, and 'with prostate disease' for those with a record of either of these diseases or with serum PSA levels 20 ng/mL or above. Personal solar UV exposure (sUV) was estimated from recalled hours of outdoor exposure and weighted against ambient solar UV radiation. Sera were analysed to determine levels of PSA, 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D, and analysed using multiple regression, adjusting for age, BMI and region of birth. The association between sUV and serum PSA levels was conditional upon season (p interaction = 0.04). There was no direct association between serum PSA and 25(OH)D in both groups of men. There was a positive association between serum PSA and 1,25(OH)2D in men with prostate disease (mean = 110.6 pmol/L; p heterogeneity = 0.03), but there was no such association in men free of prostate disease (mean = 109.3 pmol/L; p heterogeneity = 0.8). The association between PSA and sUV may only be evident at low solar UV irradiance, and this effect may be independent of serum vitamin D levels.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2013 · World Journal of Urology
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    ABSTRACT: Cancer is a serious health issue in China, but accurate national counts for cancer incidence are not currently available. Knowledge of the cancer burden is necessary for national cancer control planning. In this study, national death survey data and cancer registration data were used to calculate the cancer burden in China using a Bayesian approach. Cancer mortality and incidence rates for 2004--2005 were obtained from the National Cancer Registration database. The third National Death Survey (NDS), 2004--2005 database provided nationally representative cancer mortality rates. Bayesian modeling methods were used to estimate mortality to incidence (MI) ratios from the registry data and national incidence from the NDS for specific cancer types by age, sex and urban or rural location. The total estimated incident cancer cases in 2005 were 2,956,300 (1,762,000 males, 1,194,300 females). World age standardized incidence rates were 236.2 per 100,000 in males and 168.9 per 100,000 in females in urban areas and 203.7 per 100,000 and 121.8 per 100,000 in rural areas. MI ratios are useful for estimating national cancer incidence in the absence of representative incidence or survival data. Bayesian methods provided a flexible framework for smoothing rates and representing statistical uncertainty in the MI ratios. Expansion of China's cancer registration network to be more representative of the country would improve the accuracy of cancer burden estimates.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · BMC Cancer
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    ABSTRACT: Positive associations between sun exposure and cancer survival have been observed in regions of high latitudes, where ambient solar ultraviolet (SUV) radiation is generally low. We examined the effects of ambient ultraviolet-B radiation (UVB) at time of diagnosis, season of diagnosis and latitude of residence on survival outcome from prostate cancer. Regression models for relative survival were used to estimate relative excess risks (RER) of death after diagnosis of prostate cancer from cancer registries in Eastern Australia (Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania). Relative excess risks was increased with diagnosis in summer (RER = 1.20; 95 % CI 1.14-1.26) relative to winter, high ambient UVB at the time of diagnosis (>60 mW/m(2); RER = 1.10; 95 % CI 1.05-1.15) relative to low SUV (<30 mW/m(2)), and with residence in high latitudes (35°S-43°S; RER = 1.20; 95 % CI 1.14-1.26) relative to low latitudes (9°S-29.9°S). RER was highest for summer diagnosis in all three latitude bands, after adjusting for age, follow-up period, and socioeconomic status. The contradictory outcome from season and latitude suggests that their use as surrogates for UV warrants validation. Our data suggest that high ambient solar ultraviolet radiation at the time of diagnosis of prostate cancer increases the risk of dying from this cancer.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2013 · Cancer Causes and Control
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    Xue Qin Yu · Mark Clements · Dianne O'Connell
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study is to describe a method for estimating the number of cancer survivors requiring different types of cancer care in the future. Colon cancer data (1972-2007) from the New South Wales (NSW) Central Cancer Registry were used to estimate prevalence in 2008-2017, which was then divided into five phases of care (initial, post-treatment monitoring, treatment for recurrence and second colon cancer, long-term survivors and last year of life). Patterns of care study data were used to calculate the type and number of treatments required by patients in initial care. There were 17,375 patients living in NSW who had a past diagnosis of first primary colon cancer in 2007. Our statistical model suggests that by 2017, this number will have increased to 22,671. At least 2,430 patients are expected to require initial surgery for colon cancer in 2017, and of these, 753 will also require adjuvant chemotherapy. Furthermore, an additional 538 cases will require therapy due to cancer recurrence (307) or a second primary colon cancer (231). Our proposed method provides more complete estimates of future cancer care needs. With some modifications, this method can be used to estimate the future prevalence of many major cancer types in many other jurisdictions. Our proposed method can be a useful tool for planning future cancer care with the goal of improving the cancer survivorship experience for survivors, their caregivers and their families.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Journal of Cancer Survivorship
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Ecological studies in predominantly European populations have reported higher cancer survival in areas of higher solar ultraviolet (UV) B irradiation, perhaps due to a cancer protective effect of vitamin D synthesized photochemically in the skin. Such studies have not been done in developing countries, perhaps because of lack of cancer registries that can do outcome follow-up. One minus the mortality-to-incidence ratio (1-MIR), however, can be used as a measure of survival, and MIR as a measure of fatality, in developing country cancer registries. We analyzed the association between ambient solar UVB and MIR in China. Methods: National cancer registration data in 32 counties of China in 2004-2005 were used to estimate MIR by age, sex, and area. The accuracy of 1-MIR as a measure of survival was assessed in the Cixian County cancer registry. Contemporary satellite measurements of cloud-adjusted ambient UVB intensity at 305 nm were taken from an NASA database and spatial Kriging methods used to estimate the average daily irradiance in each county. We estimated mortality hazard ratios (HRs) per 10 mW/m(2) of UVB for all cancers together, and the ten commonest cancer types by fitting a generalized linear model assuming mortality had a binomial distribution conditional on the sum of mortality and incidence, adjusted for sex, age, and location. Results: The 5-year survival proportions for the main cancer types were in good agreement with 1-MIR in Cixian County. MIR ratios for all cancers combined were inversely associated with ambient UVB in men (HR = 0.96, 95% CI 0.93-0.99) and women (HR = 0.91, 95% CI 0.88-0.94) and in urban (HR = 0.95, 95% CI 0.94-0.96) and rural areas (HR = 0.90, 95% CI 0.87-0.93). Similar inverse associations were present for cancers of esophagus, stomach, and bladder in both sexes together and breast cancer in women. They were present in urban residents for all major cancers except liver cancer, bladder cancer, and breast cancer in women. For rural residents, most HRs were <1.0 but, with the exception of breast cancer, their upper 95% confidence bounds were >1.0. Conclusion: Ambient UVB was significantly inversely associated with MIR for all cancers together and four of ten cancer types. Solar UVB may increase survival from some cancers in China.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013 · Cancer Causes and Control

  • No preview · Article · Dec 2012 · European Urology
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    ABSTRACT: Table S1. Average costs of medical consultation. Table S2. Problems managed per GP encounter – single service weighting. Table S3. Cost of screening test. Table S4. Cost of diagnostic procedures. Table S5. Cost of precancerous lesion treatment. Table S6. Cost post-treatment follow-up after CIN2/3 treatment. Table S7. Summary work-up and treatment by FIGO stage and disease extension. Table S8. Summary stage-specific cervical cancer work-up and treatment costs by FIGO stage. Table S9. Cost of surgical managements for cervical cancer treatment. Table S10. Cost of non-surgical managements.
    Preview · Dataset · Dec 2012
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    ABSTRACT: Background The National Cervical Screening Program in Australia currently recommends that women aged 18–69 years are screened with conventional cytology every 2 years. Publicly funded HPV vaccination was introduced in 2007, and partly as a consequence, a renewal of the screening program that includes a review of screening recommendations has recently been announced. This study aimed to provide a baseline for such a review by quantifying screening program resource utilisation and costs in 2010. Methods A detailed model of current cervical screening practice in Australia was constructed and we used data from the Victorian Cervical Cytology Registry to model age-specific compliance with screening and follow-up. We applied model-derived rate estimates to the 2010 Australian female population to calculate costs and numbers of colposcopies, biopsies, treatments for precancer and cervical cancers in that year, assuming that the numbers of these procedures were not yet substantially impacted by vaccination. Results The total cost of the screening program in 2010 (excluding administrative program overheads) was estimated to be A$194.8M. We estimated that a total of 1.7 million primary screening smears costing $96.7M were conducted, a further 188,900 smears costing $10.9M were conducted to follow-up low grade abnormalities, 70,900 colposcopy and 34,100 histological evaluations together costing $21.2M were conducted, and about 18,900 treatments for precancerous lesions were performed (including retreatments), associated with a cost of $45.5M for treatment and post-treatment follow-up. We also estimated that $20.5M was spent on work-up and treatment for approximately 761 women diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer. Overall, an estimated $23 was spent in 2010 for each adult woman in Australia on cervical screening program-related activities. Conclusions Approximately half of the total cost of the screening program is spent on delivery of primary screening tests; but the introduction of HPV vaccination, new technologies, increasing the interval and changing the age range of screening is expected to have a substantial impact on this expenditure, as well as having some impact on follow-up and management costs. These estimates provide a benchmark for future assessment of the impact of changes to screening program recommendations to the costs of cervical screening in Australia.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · BMC Health Services Research
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    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · International Journal of Cancer
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing has increased in several countries. There is incomplete knowledge of PSA testing patterns. OBJECTIVE: Determine the prevalence of PSA testing and explore patterns of PSA retesting in Stockholm County, Sweden. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A population-based study was performed. Through registry linkages, we collected population information, data on PSA tests, pathology reports, and clinical information. The study population comprised males living in Stockholm County in 2011 (n=1034129), of which 229 872 had a PSA test during the period 2003-2011. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: We determined limited-duration-point prevalence of PSA testing and performed survival analysis on PSA retesting for men aged 40-89 yr. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: The number of PSA tests increased from 54239 in 2003 to 124613 in 2011. During the 9-yr study period, 46%, 68%, and 77% of men without a prior prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosis and aged 50-59 yr, 60-69 yr, and 70-79 yr, respectively, had a PSA test. During 2010 and 2011, 25%, 40%, and 46% of men aged 50-59 yr, 60-69 yr, and 70-79 yr, respectively, had a PSA test. The prevalence of PSA testing increased from 2003 to 2011. The probability of retesting was PSA and age dependent, with a 26-mo cumulative incidence of 0.337 (95% confidence interval, 0.333-0.341) if the first PSA value was <1 ng/ml. The main limitations were (1) that PSA data prior to 2003 were not available and (2) that the study cohort was restricted to men who were alive in 2011. CONCLUSIONS: Although screening for PCa is not recommended in Sweden, PSA testing in Stockholm County was high across ages ranging from 40 to 89 yr and increased during the period 2003-2011. The probability of PSA retesting was high, regardless of the original PSA level. These results contrast with current clinical recommendations and raise calls for a change, either through structured PCa testing or more detailed guidelines on PSA testing.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2012 · European Urology

Publication Stats

1k Citations
282.59 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011-2015
    • Karolinska Institutet
      • Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics
      Solna, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 2005-2013
    • Australian National University
      • National Centre for Epidemiology & Population Health Research
      Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia
    • Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
      • Division of Public Health Sciences
      Seattle, WA, United States
  • 2010
    • Western Sydney University
      Sydney, New South Wales, Australia