[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cell polarity proteins regulate tight junction formation and directional migration in epithelial cells. To date, the mechanism by which these polarity proteins assemble at the leading edge of migrating epithelial cells remains unclear. We report that occludin, a transmembrane protein, is localized at the leading edge of migrating cells and regulates directional cell migration. During migration, occludin knockdown disrupted accumulation of aPKC-Par3 and PATJ at the leading edge, and led to a disorganized microtubule network and defective reorientation of the microtubule organization center (MTOC). Phosphorylation of occludin at tyrosine 473 residue allowed recruitment of p85 alpha to the leading edge via association with its C-terminal SH2 domain. Loss of occludin attenuated activation of PI3K, leading to disorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and reduced cell protrusions. Our data indicate that occludin is required for the leading-edge localization of polarity proteins aPKC-Par3 and PATJ and promotes cell protrusion by regulating membrane-localized activation of PI3K.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2010 · Developmental Cell
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Salt cress (Thellungiella halophila), a salt-tolerant relative of Arabidopsis, has turned to be an important model plant for studying abiotic stress tolerance. One binary bacterial artificial chromosome (BIBAC) library was constructed which represents the first plant-transformation-competent large-insert DNA library generated for Thellungiella halophila. The BIBAC library was constructed in BamHI site of binary vector pBIBAC2 by ligation of partial digested nuclear DNA of Thellungiella halophila. This library consists of 23,040 clones with an average insert size of 75 kb, and covers 4x Thellungiella halophila haploid genomes. BIBAC clones which contain inserts over 50 kb were selected and transformed into Arabidopsis for salt tolerant plant screening. One transgenic line was found to be more salt tolerant than wild type plants from the screen of 200 lines. It was demonstrated that the library contains candidates of stress tolerance genes and the approach is suitable for the transformation of stress susceptible plants for genetic improvement.