Ji-Oh Mok

Soonchunhyang University, Onyang, Chungcheongnam-do, South Korea

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Publications (25)37.35 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Adipocytokines are thought to be associated with inflammatory disorders and autoimmune diseases. However, limited information is available on the relationship between serum adipocytokine levels, Graves' disease (GD), and Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO). The present study examined the relationship between serum adipocytokine levels and GD and GO. A total of 80 patients with GD participated in this study. The medical records of patients were reviewed retrospectively. GO activity was assessed using the clinical activity score (CAS). GO severity was assessed by the modified NOSPECS classification and included soft tissue involvement, proptosis, and extraocular muscle involvement. Serum adiponectin, leptin, resistin, and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP-4) levels were measured using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The prevalence of GO was 36.3%. Serum adiponectin, leptin, and resistin levels were significantly higher in patients with GO than in those without GO. The CAS was positively correlated with serum adiponectin and leptin levels. The total eye score was positively correlated with serum adiponectin, leptin, resistin, and RBP-4 levels. A multivariate analysis revealed that serum leptin and resistin levels were associated with the presence of GO after adjusting for clinical factors. Free thyroxine was negatively correlated with serum leptin level. These results suggest that adipocytokines, such as leptin and resistin, may play a role in inflammatory and autoimmune processes of GD and GO. Future studies with larger numbers of patients are required to establish relationships between serum adipocytokines levels and GO and ascertain the role of adipocytokines in GD and GO.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Endocrine Journal
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    ABSTRACT: We aimed to investigate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. It was hypothesized that lower 25(OH)D would be associated with increased microvascular complications in T2DM. A total of 257 T2DM patients (111 males, 146 females) who underwent diabetic microvascular complications (peripheral neuropathy, nephropathy, retinopathy) studies were recruited. Patients were categorized into three groups according to vitamin D status: vitamin D sufficient (n = 41, 25(OH)D ≥ 20 ng/mL), vitamin D insufficient (n = 132, 10 ≤ 25(OH)D < 20 ng/mL), and vitamin D deficient (n = 84, 25(OH)D < 10 ng/mL). In males, the prevalence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) was significantly higher in patients with vitamin D deficiency than in those with insufficiency or sufficiency (38%, 11.7%, and 10%, respectively, p = 0.005). In addition, the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy (DN) was significantly higher in female with vitamin D deficiency than in the other two groups (40%, 20.6%, and 0%, p = 0.007). Compared to the male in the vitamin D sufficient group (reference), male in the vitamin D deficient group had an increased risk of DPN after adjusting for confounding factors (OR = 7.79, 95% CI = 1.52-40.05). For females, when the vitamin D sufficient group was used as a reference, those in the vitamin D deficient group had an increased risk of DN after adjusting for confounding factors (OR = 4.27, 95% CI = 1.58-11.56). This present study found that a serum 25(OH)D level less than 10 ng/mL is independently associated with increased DPN in male patients and increased DN in female patients with T2DM.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Nutrition research
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Thyroid hormones can influence energy metabolism and insulin sensitivity via their interaction with adipocytokines and gut hormones. The aims of this study were to evaluate differences in serum ghrelin and leptin concentrations according to thyroid hormone levels, and to investigate the correlation of insulin resistance. Methods: A total of 154 patients (57 hyperthyroid patients, 61 euthyroid patients, and 36 hypothyroid patients; mean age, 47.9 years) were enrolled. Serum leptin, ghrelin, and insulin levels were measured and insulin resistance was calculated using the formula of the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Results: There were no differences in mean concentrations of ghrelin or leptin among the three groups. There were no significant differences in insulin levels between the groups (P=0.06), although hyperthyroid patients had borderline statistically significantly higher levels of insulin than did euthyroid subjects by post hoc test (26.4 μIU/mL vs. 16.1 μIU/mL, P=0.057). Regarding HOMA-IR index, the mean levels were highest in the hyperthyroid group among those of the three groups (hyperthyroid vs. euthyroid vs. hypothyroid, 6.7 vs. 3.8 vs. 4.4, P=0.068). Plasma levels of ghrelin were significantly negatively correlated with age, insulin, glucose, body mass index (BMI), and HOMA-IR. Plasma levels of leptin showed significant positive correlation with BMI and triglyceride. There were no significant correlations among thyroid hormone, thyrotropin, ghrelin, leptin, or insulin. Conclusion: The present study found that serum ghrelin, leptin, and insulin levels didn't differ according to thyroid function conditions. Further studies with larger numbers of patients are required to establish a direct relationship between plasma ghrelin, leptin, and thyroid hormone.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2015
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    ABSTRACT: This study evaluates cardiac autonomic neuropathy and heart rate variability according to the vitamin D status in type 2 diabetes mellitus. A total of 163 patients were recruited. Cardiac autonomic neuropathy was assessed using five tests according to Ewing's protocol. The time and frequency domains of the heart rate variability were also evaluated. Patients were separated into three groups: vitamin D sufficient [25(OH)D ⩾ 20 ng/mL], vitamin D insufficient [10 ⩽ 25(OH)D < 20] and vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D < 10] groups. Both standard deviation of normal-to-normal RR intervals and square root of the average of the sum of the squares of the differences between adjacent NN intervals in the supine position were significantly lower in vitamin D deficient group. Low frequency/high frequency ratio in the upright position was significantly higher in the vitamin D deficient group. 25(OH)D levels are positively correlated with standard deviation of normal-to-normal RR intervals in the supine position. In multivariate logistic analysis, patients with vitamin D levels of 10 < 25(OH)D < 20 ng/mL showed borderline significantly lower cardiac autonomic neuropathy risk than those with 25(OH)D levels <10 ng/mL (odds ratio = 0.45 (0.23-1.01), p = 0.051). Vitamin D deficiency was significantly correlated with heart rate variability parameters. However, there was only borderline significant association between vitamin D concentration and presence of cardiac autonomic neuropathy. Therefore, future studies are required to establish a relationship between vitamin D levels and cardiac autonomic neuropathy. © The Author(s) 2015.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
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    Preview · Article · Dec 2014
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    ABSTRACT: We undertook this study to compare the prevalence of coronary artery calcification (CAC) across glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in nondiabetic males and to evaluate the impact of insulin resistance on CAC in relation to HbA1c levels. A cross-sectional study was performed in 18,504 adult males without diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease (CVD). CAC scores were measured by multidetector computed tomography; CAC was defined as a CAC score >0. Insulin resistance was estimated using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Subjects were grouped by HbA1c quartile (≤5.4%, 5.4-5.6%, 5.7%, 5.8-6.4%). Thirteen percent of subjects (n = 2,406) had a CAC score >0. The prevalence of CAC increased with increasing HbA1c quartile (9.4%, 11.1%, 14.1%, 17.3%). Crude odds ratios (ORs) for CAC were 1.2, 1.58 and 2.01 for the HbA1c quartiles 2, 3, and 4 when compared with the first quartile. Mean HOMA-IR levels were different among HbA1C categories and CAC status. HOMA-IR levels were higher in subjects with CAC than in those without, except in the third HbA1c quartile. Stratification by HbA1c showed a significant association between CAC and insulin resistance only in the first (OR 1.67) and fourth (OR 1.33) HbA1c quartile. After adjustment for CV risk factors, insulin resistance remained an independent predictor of CAC only in the first HbA1c quartile. Our study demonstrated that not only glucose status represented by HbA1c but also insulin resistance might be associated with CAC in non-diabetic Korean men. The magnitude of association of CAC with insulin resistance was greater in the lowest HbA1c quartile group. Copyright © 2014 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Archives of Medical Research
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    ABSTRACT: Metastasis to the primary thyroid carcinoma is extremely rare. We report here a case of colonic adenocarcinoma metastasis to medullary thyroid carcinoma in a 53-yr old man with a history of colon cancer. He showed a nodular lesion, suggesting malignancy in the thyroid gland, in a follow-up examination after colon cancer surgery. Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of the thyroid gland showed tumor cell clusters, which was suspected to be medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). The patient underwent a total thyroidectomy. Using several specific immunohistochemical stains, the patient was diagnosed with colonic adenocarcinoma metastasis to MTC. To the best of our knowledge, the present patient is the first case of colonic adenocarcinoma metastasizing to MTC. Although tumor-tumor metastasis to primary thyroid carcinoma is very rare, we still should consider metastasis to the thyroid gland, when a patient with a history of other malignancy presents with a new thyroid finding. Graphical Abstract
    Preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Journal of Korean Medical Science
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the association between microalbuminuria and prediabetes in Korean population using data from the KNHANES 2011-2012. Prevalence of microalbuminuria was significantly increased in prediabetes group. However, the odds ratio became insignificant after adjustment for blood pressure, and the prevalence of microalbuminuria was not increased in prediabetic subjects without hypertension.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
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    ABSTRACT: Conclusion: Primary intraoperative recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) reinnervation techniques demonstrated significant voice improvement at 24 months postoperatively and could be an effective alternative treatment for thyroidectomy-related permanent unilateral vocal fold paralysis (VFP). Objectives: To assess the long-term efficacy of intraoperative RLN reinnervation techniques in the management of thyroidectomy-related unilateral VFP. Methods: A prospective study was conducted from January 2008 to June 2012 at Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital. Nineteen patients who underwent RLN reinnervation with either direct reinnervation (neurorrhaphy) or ansa cervicalis to RLN (ansa-RLN) anastomosis and completed subjective and objective voice measurement over a 1-year follow-up period were included in this study. Results: The causes of VFP were cancer involving the RLN (68.4%, 13/19) and iatrogenic nerve transection (31.5%, 6/19). Reinnervation techniques were direct neurorrhaphy (63.2%, 12/19) and ansa-RLN anastomosis (36.8%, 7/19). Subjective parameters such as the Voice Handicap Index (VHI), posterior glottic closure, and mucosal wave demonstrated significant improvement 6 months postoperatively, and the majority of parameters remained stable up to 24 months (p < 0.05). Objective parameters, such as maximum phonation time (MPT), jitter, shimmer, and the harmonics-to-noise ration (HNR), demonstrated significant improvement at 12 months and most remained stable at 24 months (p < 0.05).
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Acta Oto-Laryngologica
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    ABSTRACT: Whereas visceral abdominal adipose tissue (VAT) is associated with cardiometabolic risk, there is debate regarding the role of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT). The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships of subcutaneous and visceral abdominal fat with carotid atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 234 patients (men 131, women 103, mean age: 53 years) with T2DM were enrolled. Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT) and visceral fat thickness (VFT) were assessed by high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography (US). Compared to women, men had significantly higher VFT and lower SFT (p = 0.002, p = 0.04, respectively). In partial correlation coefficient analyses between CIMT and abdominal fat thickness after adjustment for body mass index (BMI), SFT showed a negative correlation with CIMT in men (r = -0.27, p = 0.03). VFT was not correlated with CIMT in either men or women. In women, SFT was not correlated with CIMT (r = -0.01, p = 0.93). VFT/SFT ratio was not correlated with CIMT in either men or women. In multivariate regression analyses adjusted for BMI and other CVD risk factors, SFT but not VFT was independently inversely associated with CIMT in men but not in women (p < 0.001). SFT assessed by US was inversely associated with carotid atherosclerosis in patients with T2DM, particularly men. Further research into the different roles of the two types of abdominal adipose tissue in both men and women is warranted.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2014 · Cardiovascular Diabetology
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    Chan-Hee Jung · Ji-Oh Mok

    Preview · Article · Mar 2014
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    ABSTRACT: We examined the relationship between central blood pressure (BP), brachial BP with carotid atherosclerosis and microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We recruited 201 patients who were evaluated for central BP, brachial BP, carotid ultrasonography, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), ankle-brachial index (ABI) and microvascular complications. Central BP were calculated using a radial automated tonometric system. Agreement between central BP and brachial BP was very strong (concordance correlation coefficient between central and brachial SBP = 0.889, between central and brachial PP = 0.816). Central pulse pressure (PP) was correlated with mean carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), baPWV and ABI, whereas brachial PP was borderline significantly correlated with CIMT. The prevalence of nephropathy(DN) and retinopathy(DR) according to the brachial PP tertiles increased, the prevalences of microvascular complications were not different across central PP tertiles. In multivariate analysis, the relative risks (RRs) for the presence of DR were 1.2 and 4.6 for the brachial PP tertiles 2 and 3 when compared with the first tertile. Also, the RRs for the presence of DN were 1.02 and 3 for the brachial PP tertiles 2 and 3 when compared with the first tertile. Agreement of central BP and brachial BP was very strong. Nonetheless, this study showed that higher brachial PP levels are associated with increased probability for the presence of microvascular complications such as DR/DN. However, there are no associations with central SBP and central PP with microvascular complications. Central BP levels than brachial BP are correlated with surrogate marker of macrovascular complications.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2014 · BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
  • Chan-Hee Jung · Ji-Oh Mok
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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin D affects not only musculoskeletal health but also a range of nonskeletal diseases such as cancer, obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Vitamin D deficiency and obesity have been recognized as pandemic diseases with much health consequences. The 'cause-effect' relationship of vitamin D to obesity has been the area of much recent activity. There is consistent association in the published literature between higher body mass index (BMI) and lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations, but the mechanisms are not fully understood. Although recent studies suggest that low serum vitamin D is the consequence of obesity, the results from randomized controlled trials are still scarce and inconclusive to establish the relationship between vitamin D and obesity. Moreover, the role of vitamin D in the pathophysiology of obesity is still debatable and there is little evidence for a direct effect of vitamin D supplementation on body weight. Therefore, randomized large-scale double-blind controlled trials are needed in the future to clearly establish the effects of vitamin D in obesity.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiogenic shock after stress-induced cardiomyopathy is very rare and serious, and a reversible, clinical consequence of untreated adrenal insufficiency that is attributable to Sheehan's syndrome. A 53-year-old female presented with confusion, congestive heart failure, and hypotension. Endocrine testing, prior medical history, and brain MRI confirmed the presence of hypopituitarism and secondary adrenal insufficiency owing to undiagnosed Sheehan's syndrome. After glucocorticoid replacement therapy, her cardiac function recovered completely. Stress-induced cardiomyopathy should be considered as a possible cause of unexplained heart failure in patients with Sheehan's syndrome and adrenal insufficiency.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2014
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    ABSTRACT: It is not clear whether microangiopathies are associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We investigated the relation of cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) and other microangiopathies with carotid atherosclerosis in T2DM. A total of 131 patients with T2DM were stratified by mean carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) ≥ or <1.0 mm and the number of carotid plaques. CAN was assessed by the five standard cardiovascular reflex tests according to the Ewing's protocol. CAN was defined as the presence of at least two abnormal tests or an autonomic neuropathy points ≥2. Diabetic microangiopathies were assessed. Patients with CAN comprised 77% of the group with mean CIMT ≥1.0 mm, while they were 29% of the group with CIMT <1.0 mm (P=0.016). Patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR) comprised 68% of the group with CIMT ≥1.0 mm, while they were 28% of the group without CIMT thickening (P=0.003). Patients with CAN comprised 51% of the group with ≥2 carotid plaques, while they were 23% of the group with ≤1 carotid plaque (P=0.014). In multivariable adjusted logistic regression analysis, the patients who presented with CAN showed an odds ratio [OR] of 8.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6 to 44.8) for CIMT thickening and an OR of 2.9 (95% CI, 1.1 to 7.5) for carotid plaques. Furthermore, patients with DR were 3.8 times (95% CI, 1.4 to 10.2) more likely to have CIMT thickening. These results suggest that CAN is associated with carotid atherosclerosis, represented as CIMT and plaques, independent of the traditional cardiovascular risk factors in T2DM. CAN or DR may be a determinant of subclinical atherosclerosis in T2DM.
    Preview · Article · Dec 2013
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: We examined the relationship between serum fetuin-A, insulin resistance (IR), metabolic syndrome (MS) and vascular complications including cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: A total of 172 T2DM patients were recruited and evaluated for diabetic microangiopathies (nephropathy, retinopathy and peripheral neuropathy) including CAN. Serum fetuin-A levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the IR was assessed by the index of homeostasis model [homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)]. Atherosclerotic burden was assessed by ankle-brachial index (ABI) and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). Results: Serum fetuin-A levels showed significant positive correlations with HOMA-IR (r = 0.196, p = 0.022), and the mean levels of HOMA-IR were significantly increased progressively across fetuin-A tertiles (p for trend = 0.044). Serum fetuin-A showed significant positive correlations with baPWV, systolic blood pressure (BP), total cholesterol, triglycerides, serum fasting c-peptide and negative correlations with ABI. Serum fetuin-A levels were also negatively correlated with serum adiponectin and positively correlated with serum tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The mean levels of serum fetuin-A were not significantly different according to the presence of each microangiopathies including CAN. Also, the mean levels of serum fetuin-A were not different between patients with MS and without MS. Conclusions: This present study showed that levels of serum fetuin-A are significantly associated with IR and arterial stiffness assessed by baPWV, while there are no associations with each microangiopathies in patients with T2DM.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Considerable amount of interest has been focused on the positive relationship between inflammation and the metabolic syndrome (MS). However, few studies have been performed to evaluate the relationship between baseline white blood cell (WBC) count and future risk for developing MS. Therefore, we investigated whether the baseline plasma levels of WBC count could be associated with future risk for MS in apparently healthy Korean. Materials and Methods A total of 1135 subjects (781 men and 354 women with a mean age of 49 years), who underwent health examinations at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital in both 2002 and 2005 were enrolled. The presence of MS was defined using the modified criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III using BMI instead of waist circumference. Results The baseline levels of WBC count were significantly higher among incident MS cases than among subjects without MS. The relative risks of incident MS were 1.4, 3.2 and 2.7 for WBC quartiles 2, 3, and 4, respectively, when compared with the first quartile (p-value for trend <0.001). These positive associations persisted after adjustment for baseline body mass index, blood pressure, fasting glucose, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglyceride and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance; adjusted relative risk of incident MS for the 2nd, 3rd and 4th quartile groups vs. the lowest quartile were 1.2, 2.4 and 1.7, respectively (p-value for trend =0.011). Conclusion This retrospective cohort study suggests that an elevated WBC count could be associated with incident MS, suggesting that baseline inflammation mirrored by WBC level can impact future MS development.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013 · Yonsei medical journal
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    ABSTRACT: Unlabelled: Introduction: When a pulmonary nodular lesion is detected by F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography in a patient with post-surgical papillary thyroid carcinoma with undetectable serum-stimulated thyroglobulin levels and negative 131I whole body scan, diagnosis and management of the nodule may be confusing. Case presentation: We describe two post-surgical patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma who showed pulmonary nodular lesions detected by F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography. In both cases serum-stimulated thyroglobulin levels were undetectable and nodular lesions were not detected by 131I whole body scan. In the first case, a 64-year-old Asian woman showed one focal increased fluorodeoxyglucose uptake lesion in the right lower lobe of one of her lungs. Based on the histologic study, the pulmonary nodular lesion was diagnosed as a solitary pulmonary metastasis from papillary thyroid carcinoma. In the second case, a 59-year-old Asian woman showed a new pulmonary nodule in the right lower lobe. The computed tomography scan of her chest revealed a 9mm nodule in the anterior basal segment and another tiny nodule in the posterior basal segment of the right lower lobe. Six months later, both nodules had increased in size and miliary disseminated nodules were also seen in both lungs. Based on their histology, the pulmonary nodular lesions were considered to be primary lung adenocarcinoma. Conclusions: The present cases emphasize that physicians should be cautious and make efforts for an accurate diagnosis of pulmonary nodules detected on F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma with no evidence of metastasis such as negative 131I whole body scan and undetectable stimulated serum thyroglobulin levels.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · Journal of Medical Case Reports
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated whether the clinicopathological factors of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC), especially tumoe size, are associated with subcinical central lymph node metastasis. A total of 160 patients diagnosed with PTMC who underwent total thyroidectomy with bilateral central lymph node dissection were enrolled in this study. All patients were clinically lymph node negative PTMC. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the size of tumor (≤5 mm vs. >5 mm). Clinicopathologic risk factors for subclinical central lymph node metastasis were analyzed. Subclinical central lymph node metastasis was detected in 61 (38.1%). Patients with tumors ≤5 mm had a lower frequency of extrathyroidal extension, multifocality and subclinical central lymph node metastasis. On multivariate analysis, only male and tumor size >5 mm were independent predictors of subclinical central lymph node metastasis; age, multifocality, bilaterality, extrathyroidal extension, lymphvascular invasion and lymphocytic thyroiditis were not. In this study, male and tumor size >5 mm were two independent predictive factors for subclinical central lymph node metastasis in PTMC. These are easier factors to assess before surgery than other factors when planning the central lymph node dissection. However, further long-term follow-up studies are needed to confirm the prognostic significance of subclinical central lymph node metastasis in PTMC.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2012 · Yonsei medical journal
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is a common complication of diabetes associated with poor prognosis. In addition, the autonomic imbalance is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in diabetes. It is thought that adipocytokines contribute to the increased risk of vascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, literature data on the association between CAN with adipocytokines such as leptin, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), adiponectin in subjects with T2DM is limited.Therefore, in the present study, we examined the relationship between fasting serum leptin, TNF- alpha and adiponectin and CAN in Korean T2DM patients. A total of 142 T2DM patients (94 males, 48 females) were recruited. CAN was assessed by the five tests according to the Ewing's protocol and the time and frequency domain of the heart rate variability (HRV) was evaluated. Serum TNF-alpha and adiponectin levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and serum leptin levels were measured using radioimmunoassay. Although, the mean levels of leptin, TNF-alpha and adiponectin were not significantly different between the groups with and without CAN, the levels of leptin and adiponectin had a tendency to increase as the score of CAN increased (p = 0.05, p = 0.036). Serum leptin levels demonstrated a negative correlation with low frequency (LF) in the upright position (p = 0.037). Regarding TNF-alpha, a significant negative correlation was observed with SDNN and RMSSD in the upright position (p = 0.023, p = 0.019). Adiponectin levels were not related to any HRV parameters. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the odds of CAN increased with a longer duration of diabetes (1.25, [1.07-1.47]) and higher homeostatic model of assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (5.47, [1.8-16.5]). The relative risks for the presence of CAN were 14.1 and 51.6 for the adiponectin 2nd, 3rd tertiles when compared with first tertile (p-value for trend = 0.022). In the present study, the higher serum adiponectin levels and HOMA-IR were associated with an increased risk for the presence of CAN. Also, the CAN score correlated with the serum adiponectin. Serum adipocytokines such as leptin and TNF-alpha were significantly correlated with parameters of HRV, representative markers of CAN. Future prospective studies with larger number of patients are required to establish a direct relationship between plasma adipocytokine concentrations and the development or severity of CAN.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Cardiovascular Diabetology