[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Signaling by IL-4 and IL-13 through the IL-4 receptor alpha chain (IL-4Ralpha) plays a critical role in the pathology of allergic diseases. The IL-4Ralpha is endowed with an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) centered on tyrosine 709 (Y709) in the cytoplasmic domain that binds a number of regulatory phosphatases. The function of the ITIM in the in vivo regulation of IL-4 receptor signaling remains unknown.
We sought to determine the in vivo function of the IL-4Ralpha ITIM by using mice in which the ITIM was inactivated by mutagenesis of the tyrosine Y709 residue into phenylalanine (F709).
F709 ITIM mutant mice were derived by means of knock-in mutagenesis. Activation of intracellular signaling cascades by IL-4 and IL-13 was assessed by means of intracellular staining of phosphorylated signaling intermediates and gene expression analysis. In vivo responses to allergic sensitization were assessed by using models of allergic airway inflammation.
The F709 mutation increased signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 phosphorylation by IL-4 and, disproportionately, by IL-13. This was associated with exaggerated T(H)2 polarization, enhanced alternative macrophage activation by IL-13, augmented basal and antigen-induced IgE responses, and intensified allergen-induced eosinophilic airway inflammation and hyperreactivity.
These results point to a physiologic negative regulatory role for the Y709 ITIM in signaling through IL-4Ralpha, especially by IL-13.
Full-text · Article · May 2010 · The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hyper IgE syndrome (HIES) is characterized by abscesses, eczema, recurrent infections, skeletal and connective tissue abnormalities, elevated serum IgE, and diminished inflammatory responses. It exists as autosomal-dominant and autosomal-recessive forms that manifest common and distinguishing clinical features. A majority of those with autosomal-dominant HIES have heterozygous mutations in signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 and impaired T(H)17 differentiation.
To elucidate mechanisms underlying different forms of HIES.
A cohort of 25 Turkish children diagnosed with HIES were examined for STAT3 mutations by DNA sequencing. Activation of STAT3 by IL-6 and IL-21 and STAT1 by IFN-alpha was assessed by intracellular staining with anti-phospho (p)STAT3 and -pSTAT1 antibodies. T(H)17 and T(H)1 cell differentiation was assessed by measuring the production of IL-17 and IFN-gamma, respectively.
Six subjects had STAT3 mutations affecting the DNA binding, Src homology 2, and transactivation domains, including 3 novel ones. Mutation-positive but not mutation-negative subjects with HIES exhibited reduced phosphorylation of STAT3 in response to cytokine stimulation, whereas pSTAT1 activation was unaffected. Both patient groups exhibited impaired T(H)17 responses, but whereas STAT3 mutations abrogated early steps in T(H)17 differentiation, the defects in patients with HIES with normal STAT3 affected more distal steps.
In this cohort of Turkish children with HIES, a majority had normal STAT3, implicating other targets in disease pathogenesis. Impaired T(H)17 responses were evident irrespective of the STAT3 mutation status, indicating that different genetic forms of HIES share a common functional outcome.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2009 · The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polymorphisms in the interleukin-4 receptor alpha chain (IL-4R alpha) have been linked to asthma incidence and severity, but a causal relationship has remained uncertain. In particular, a glutamine to arginine substitution at position 576 (Q576R) of IL-4R alpha has been associated with severe asthma, especially in African Americans. We show that mice carrying the Q576R polymorphism exhibited intense allergen-induced airway inflammation and remodeling. The Q576R polymorphism did not affect proximal signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 6 activation, but synergized with STAT6 in a gene target- and tissue-specific manner to mediate heightened expression of a subset of IL-4- and IL-13-responsive genes involved in allergic inflammation. Our findings indicate that the Q576R polymorphism directly promotes asthma in carrier populations by selectively augmenting IL-4R alpha-dependent signaling.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2009 · Journal of Experimental Medicine