[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Individuals with ADHD may self-medicate with nicotine, the main psychoactive ingredient in tobacco smoke, in order to reduce symptoms and negative moods associated with ADHD. ADHD medication (e.g., methylphenidate and atomoxetine) may mimic some of the effects of nicotine and may aid smoking cessation in smokers with ADHD. The present study examined if ADHD medication reduces smoking and withdrawal in non-treatment seeking smokers with ADHD. Fifteen adult smokers with ADHD participated in the study, which consisted of an experimental phase and field monitoring phase to examine the acute and extended effects, respectively, of ADHD medication. During the experimental phase, smokers were asked to complete a Continuous Performance Task (CPT) and the Shiffman-Jarvik smoking withdrawal questionnaire during the following four conditions: (1) ADHD medication+cigarette smoking, (2) ADHD medication+overnight abstinence, (3) placebo+cigarette smoking, and (4) placebo+overnight abstinence. During the field monitoring phase, participants were asked to provide salivary cotinine samples and complete electronic diaries about smoking, smoking urge, ADHD symptoms, and stress in everyday life for two days on ADHD medication and for two days on placebo. Results of the experimental phase showed that ADHD medication improved task performance on the CPT and reduced withdrawal during overnight abstinence. During the field monitoring phase, ADHD medication reduced salivary cotinine levels compared to placebo. In addition, the electronic diary revealed that ADHD medication improved difficulty concentrating during no smoking events and stress. The findings of the present study suggest that, along with other strategies, ADHD medication may be used to aid smoking withdrawal and cessation in smokers with ADHD.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to test the self-medication hypothesis by examining the effects of nicotine in the everyday lives of smokers and nonsmokers with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Fifty-two adults with ADHD (25 abstinent smokers and 27 nonsmokers) participated in a double-blind placebo controlled study with one nicotine patch condition and one placebo patch condition in counterbalanced order. Each condition continued for two consecutive days in which patches were administered each morning. The effects of nicotine on ADHD symptoms, moods, and side effects were assessed with electronic diaries. Cardiovascular activity was recorded with ambulatory blood pressure monitors and physical activity was monitored with actigraphs. Nicotine reduced reports of ADHD symptoms by 8% and negative moods by 9%, independent of smoking status. In addition, nicotine increased cardiovascular activity during the first 3 to 6 hours after nicotine patch administration. The results support the self-medication hypothesis for nicotine in adults with ADHD and suggest that smoking cessation and prevention efforts for individuals with ADHD will need to address both the symptom reducing and mood enhancing effects of nicotine.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2009 · Psychology of Addictive Behaviors
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Individuals with ADHD often report sleep problems. Though most studies on ADHD and sleep examined children or nonclinically diagnosed adults, the present study specifically examines nonmedicated adults with ADHD to determine whether inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms are associated with sleep problems.
A total of 22 nonmedicated adults diagnosed with ADHD are assessed with a DSM-IV-based interview and the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI).
The number of hyperactive-impulsive symptoms indicate a positive correlation with sleep duration, habitual sleep efficiency, and global PSQI score. No significant associations are found between inattentive symptoms and sleep quality.
The results show that sleep problems are associated with hyperactive and impulsive symptoms in nonmedicated adults with ADHD. These findings provide information on the nature of sleep problems without the confounding effects of medication associated with ADHD. Treatment of sleep problems, especially in those with hyperactive-impulsive symptoms, may help ameliorate ADHD symptomatology.