[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using C6 glioma cells in this study we investigated in detail how exposure time and cell concentration affect the cytotoxic potency of H(2)O(2) in vitro. Median cytotoxic concentrations (EC(50)) decreased from 500 to 30 μM with increasing incubation time from 1 to 24h. Twenty-four hours proved to be sufficient to determine incipient cytotoxic concentrations of H(2)O(2). The incipient EC(50) values were linearly related to the cell concentration. A cell concentration-independent median cytotoxic cell dose (ED(50)) of 430 nmol/mg cell protein or 860 nmol/10(7) cells was derived. Median cytotoxic H(2)O(2) concentrations were completely eliminated from the culture medium at a rate proportional to both the H(2)O(2) and the cell concentrations. In contrast to EC(50) values the corresponding areas under the concentration versus time curve (AUC) were independent of the cell concentration and amounted to 1800 μM×min. With decreasing cell concentration the H(2)O(2) elimination decelerates and, thus, exposure to H(2)O(2) applied as a bolus approaches a continuous exposure to a steady H(2)O(2) concentration. Taken together, our results indicate that the cytotoxic potency of H(2)O(2) administered to cultured cells as a bolus is characterized by the AUC, which depends on its initial concentration, the ability of the cells to eliminate H(2)O(2), and the cell concentration. We recommend expressing the toxic potency of H(2)O(2) in vitro by the incipient toxic cell dose (e.g., nmol H(2)O(2)/mg cell protein or nmol H(2)O(2)/10(7) cells), in particular for comparative purposes.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2010 · Free Radical Biology and Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microglia and astrocytes are the cellular key players in many neurological disorders associated with oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Previously, we have shown that microglia activated by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) induce the expression of antioxidative enzymes in astrocytes and render them more resistant to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In this study, we examined the mechanisms involved with respect to the cellular action of different peroxides, the ability to detoxify peroxides, and the status of further antioxidative systems. Astrocytes were treated for 3 days with medium conditioned by purified quiescent (microglia-conditioned medium, MCM[-]) or LPS-activated (MCM[+]) microglia. MCM[+] reduced the cytotoxicity of the organic cumene hydroperoxide in addition to that of H2O2. Increased peroxide resistance was not accompanied by an improved ability of astrocytes to remove H2O2 or an increased expression/activity of peroxide eliminating antioxidative enzymes. Neither peroxide-induced radical generation nor lipid peroxidation were selectively affected in MCM[+] treated astrocytes. The glutathione content of peroxide resistant astrocytes, however, was increased and superoxide dismutase and heme oxygenase were found to be upregulated. These changes are likely to contribute to the higher peroxide resistance of MCM[+] treated astrocytes by improving their ability to detoxify reactive oxygen radicals and oxidation products. For C6 astroglioma cells a protective effect of microglia-derived factors could not be observed, underlining the difference of primary cells and cell lines concerning their mechanisms of oxidative stress resistance. Our results indicate the importance of microglial-astroglial cell interactions during neuroinflammatory processes.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2009 · Neurotoxicity Research