[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 49-member human ATP binding cassette (ABC) gene family encodes 44 membrane transporters for lipids, ions, peptides or xenobiotics, four translation factors without transport activity, as they lack transmembrane domains, and one pseudogene. To understand the roles of ABC genes in pluripotency and multipotency, we performed a sensitive qRT-PCR analysis of their expression in embryonic stem cells (hESCs), bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and hESC-derived hMSCs (hES-MSCs). We confirm that hES-MSCs represent an intermediate developmental stage between hESCs and hMSCs. We observed that 44 ABCs were significantly expressed in hESCs, 37 in hES-MSCs and 35 in hMSCs. These variations are mainly due to plasma membrane transporters with low but significant gene expression: 18 are expressed in hESCs compared with 16 in hES-MSCs and 8 in hMSCs, suggesting important roles in pluripotency. Several of these ABCs shared similar substrates but differ regarding gene regulation. ABCA13 and ABCB4, similarly to ABCB1, could be new markers to select primitive hMSCs with specific plasma membrane transporter (low) phenotypes. ABC proteins performing basal intracellular functions, including translation factors and mitochondrial heme transporters, showed the highest constant gene expression among the three populations. Peptide transporters in the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi and lysosome were well expressed in hESCs and slightly upregulated in hMSCs, which play important roles during the development of stem cell niches in bone marrow or meningeal tissue. These results will be useful to study specific cell cycle regulation of pluripotent stem cells or ABC dysregulation in complex pathologies, such as cancers or neurological disorders.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present a strategy to identify developmental/differentiation and plasma membrane marker genes of the most primitive human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSCs). Using sensitive and quantitative TaqMan Low Density Arrays (TLDA) methodology, we compared the expression of 381 genes in human Embryonic Stem Cells (hESCs), hESC-derived MSCs (hES-MSCs), and hMSCs. Analysis of differentiation genes indicated that hES-MSCs express the sarcomeric muscle lineage in addition to the classical mesenchymal lineages, suggesting they are more primitive than hMSCs. Transcript analysis of membrane antigens suggests that IL1R1(low), BMPR1B(low), FLT4(low), LRRC32(low), and CD34 may be good candidates for the detection and isolation of the most primitive hMSCs. The expression in hMSCs of cytokine genes, such as IL6, IL8, or FLT3LG, without expression of the corresponding receptor, suggests a role for these cytokines in the paracrine control of stem cell niches. Our database may be shared with other laboratories in order to explore the considerable clinical potential of hES-MSCs, which appear to represent an intermediate developmental stage between hESCs and hMSCs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using an experimental approach, we investigated the RNome of the pathogen Staphylococcus aureus to identify 30 small RNAs (sRNAs) including 14 that are newly confirmed. Among the latter, 10 are encoded in intergenic regions,
three are generated by premature transcription termination associated with riboswitch activities, and one is expressed from
the complementary strand of a transposase gene. The expression of four sRNAs increases during the transition from exponential
to stationary phase. We focused our study on RsaE, an sRNA that is highly conserved in the bacillales order and is deleterious
when over-expressed. We show that RsaE interacts in vitro with the 5′ region of opp3A mRNA, encoding an ABC transporter component, to prevent formation of the ribosomal initiation complex. A previous report
showed that RsaE targets opp3B which is co-transcribed with opp3A. Thus, our results identify an unusual case of riboregulation where the same sRNA controls an operon mRNA by targeting two
of its cistrons. A combination of biocomputational and transcriptional analyses revealed a remarkably coordinated RsaE-dependent
downregulation of numerous metabolic enzymes involved in the citrate cycle and the folate-dependent one-carbon metabolism.
As we observed that RsaE accumulates transiently in late exponential growth, we propose that RsaE functions to ensure a coordinate
downregulation of the central metabolism when carbon sources become scarce.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2010 · Nucleic Acids Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe in this chapter the development of a xenofree molecularly defined medium, SBX, associated with xenofree matrices, to maintain human embryonic stem cell (hESC) pluripotency as determined by phenotypic, functional and TLDA studies. This simple, inexpensive, and more physiological culture condition has been chosen because (1) it is xenofree and molecularly defined; it is devoid of albumin, which is a carrier of undefined molecules; (2) it maintains pluripotency, but very significantly reduces differentiation gene expression during hESC self-renewal, as compared to the widely used culture conditions tested so far; and (3) it can be further improved by replacing high concentrations of expensive additives by physiological concentrations of new factors. Xenofree molecularly defined media and matrices represent valuable tools for elucidating still unknown functions of numerous embryonic genes using more physiological culture conditions. These genes encode potential new factors controlling hESC self-renewal and pluripotency.
No preview · Article · Jan 2010 · Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Author Summary
Bacteria possess various signaling systems that sense and respond to environmental conditions. The bacterial envelope is at the front line for most external stress conditions; its components sense perturbations and transmit signals to induce transcriptional reprogramming, leading to an adaptive response. In Escherichia coli, at least five response pathways, called Bae, Cpx, Psp, Rcs, and σE, are induced in response to envelope stress. To date, these pathways have been studied mainly individually, and the interconnections and/or overlaps between them have not been extensively characterized. The present study establishes two important characteristics of stress response in E. coli: first, that a given stress solicits the combined responses of several pathways; second, that each individual pathway controls a discrete set of genes involved in the response, and shows little overlap with other pathways. Based on previous knowledge and the present data, we propose that an environmental stress probably impacts on the cell envelope by inducing numerous alterations, each of which may be perceived by different pathways of the stress response and contributes to adapting the cell to different aspects of the stress damage. The extracytoplasmic stress signaling pathways in E. coli thus regulate mainly complementary functions whose discrete contributions are integrated to mount the full adaptive response.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 4 ng/ml bFGF is indispensable for hESC cultured on mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF), withdrawal of bFGF drives the hESC to differentiate. In order to exploit effect of bFGF on MEF, we collected a series of MEF conditioned medium (bFGF-MCM) by co-culturing MEF with increasing bFGF concentrations: 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 1 and 4 ng/ml. The primitivity of hESC cultured in bFGF-MCM was estimated by morphology and alkaline phosphatase staining. Compared with the control medium (medium conditioned without bFGF: MCM), percentage of undifferentiated colony was increased from 23% to 29%, 44%, 74%, 77% and 78%, respectively. However, percentage of undifferentiated colony in the blank medium (medium conditioned with bFGF but without MEF: bFGF-SR) was from 13% to 31%. This indicated that low concentration of bFGF acted on MEF and stimulated MEF producing effective conditioned medium for maintaining hESC. To identify active elements in the effective conditioned medium can help to understand mechanisms of hESC self-renewal.
No preview · Article · Jul 2009 · Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are adult multipotential progenitors which have a high potential in regenerative medicine. They can be isolated from different tissues throughout the body and their homogeneity in terms of phenotype and differentiation capacities is a real concern. To address this issue, we conducted a 2-DE gel analysis of mesenchymal stem cells isolated from bone marrow (BM), adipose tissue, synovial membrane and umbilical vein wall. We confirmed that BM and adipose tissue derived cells were very similar, which argue for their interchangeable use for cell therapy. We also compared human mesenchymal to embryonic stem cells and showed that umbilical vein wall stem cells, a neo-natal cell type, were closer to BM cells than to embryonic stem cells. Based on these proteomic data, we could propose a panel of proteins which were the basis for the definition of a mesenchymal stem cell proteomic signature.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To monitor human embryonic stem cell (hESC) self-renewal without differentiation, we used quantitative RT-PCR to study a selection of hESC genes, including markers for self-renewal, commitment/differentiation, and members of the TGF-beta superfamily and DAN gene family. Indeed, low commitment/differentiation gene expression, together with a significant self-renewal gene expres sion, provides a better pluripotency index than self-renewal genes alone. We demonstrate that matrices derived from human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) can advantageously replace murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) or hMSC feeders. Moreover, a xenofree molecularly-defined SBX medium, containing a synthetic lipid carrier instead of albumin, can replace SR medium. The number of selected differentiation genes expressed by hESCs in these culture conditions was significantly lower than those expressed on MEF feeders in SR medium. In SBX, the positive effect of a non-physiological concentration of activin A (10-30 ng/mL) to reduce differentiation during self-renewal could also be obtained by physiological concentrations of TGF-beta(100-300 pg/mL). In contrast, these TGF-beta concentrations added to activin favored differentiation as previously observed with TGF-beta concentrations of 1 ng/mL or more. Compared to SR-containing medium, SBX medium promoted down-regulation of CER1 and LEFTIES and up-regulation of GREM1. Thus these genes better control self-renewal and pluripotency and prevent differentiation. A strategy is proposed to analyze, in more physiological, xenofree, molecularly-defined media and matrices, the numerous genes with still unknown functions controlling hESCs or human-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS).
No preview · Article · Jul 2008 · Stem Cells and Development
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Here we present a simple two-step in vitro model of vascularized trophoblastic tissue derived from human embryonic stem (hES) cells. The first step is the formation of cystic embryoid bodies (EBs) in suspension in a semisolid methyl cellulose medium, within which an endothelial platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1(+)) cell network develops. In a second step, deposition of these EBs on the bottom of nontreated, polystyrene tissue culture plates, leads by centrifugal outgrowth of the EB to the emergence of an adherent cell layer, with which a PECAM-1(+) network is associated. Cells of this adherent layer expressed VE-cadherin (CD144), PECAM-1 (CD31), and alpha-fetoprotein (alpha-FP). Trophoblastic differentiation was strongly suggested by the secretion of beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) and by the presence of the cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast marker GB25. The INSL4 gene, a cyto and syncytio-trophoblast marker, was also highly expressed in the adherent layer, as well as other trophoblast genes such as CGA, CDX1, CDX2, and HAND1, compared to hES cell gene expression taken as reference. In contrast, expression of self-renewal genes, such as TERT, POU5F1, ZFP42, GDF3, and NODAL were decreased. No ectodermal or endodermal genes were expressed, but the mesodermal genes PECAM-1 and GATA2 were. The possibility of removing the EBs during the second step would permit analysis of their relative contribution to angiogenesis or possible hemangioblast formation, compared to that of the trophoblastic adherent layer. This primitive vascularized trophoblastic model could also provide a tool to study early steps of normal and pathological placental development.
No preview · Article · Jul 2007 · Stem Cells and Development
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type I interferon (IFN) is shown to control the reversible quiescence of a primitive human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) subpopulation. A 24 h pre-treatment of Stro1+/GlycoA- or CD45-/GlycoA- subpopulations with a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against the IFNAR1 chain of the human type I IFN receptor (64G12), or with a polyclonal anti-IFNalpha antibody, resulted in a marked increase in the number of very large colonies (CFU-F >3000 cells) obtained in the presence of low, but necessary, concentrations of bFGF. Over a 2-month culture period, this short activation promoted a faster and greater amplification of mesenchymal progenitors for adipocytes and osteoblasts. Activation correlated with inhibition of STAT1 and STAT2 phosphorylation and of STAT1 nuclear translocation. A non-neutralizing anti-IFNAR1 mAb was ineffective. We demonstrate that control and activated MSCs express ST3GAL3, a sialyltransferase necessary to produce the embryonic antigens SSEA-3 and -4. Interestingly, activated MSC progeny expressed SSEA-3 and -4 at a higher level than control cultures, but this was not correlated with a significant expression of other embryonic markers. As MSCs represent an essential tool in tissue regeneration, the use of 64G12, which rapidly recruits a higher number of primitive cells, might increase amplification safety for cell therapy.