[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) or Lynch syndrome underlies between 2 and 5% of all colorectal cancer. It is inherited as an autosomal dominant condition due to mutations in the mismatch repair genes. Fifty-four non-related index cases, 21 of them fulfilling Amsterdam criteria I or II, were studied. Ten (10/21 = 47.6%) different pathological mutations were found in this group, two of which had not previously been reported--one in MLH1 and the other in MSH2-. In the remaining patients, we also found another family with one of these new mutations, and four additional changes, two of which were also new--a pathological change in MSH2 and a second change of uncertain significance in MLH1-, while the other two changes had already been reported. Of all mutations, eight were found in MSH2 (8/15 = 53.3%) and seven in MLH1 (7/15 = 46.6%), suggesting a slightly greater involvement of MSH2 in HNPCC than MLH1 in our population, in contrast to the results reported by other authors.