[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: [18F]Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (CT) is recognized as a useful adjunct to conventional imaging with CT and endoscopic ultrasonography for the staging of oesophageal cancer, for response assessment and identification of recurrent disease and it may provide prognostic information.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: (18)F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D: -glucose positron emission tomography ((18)F-FDG PET/CT) has developed into the standard of care for investigating patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to determine the optimal treatment. However, although the majority of patients with NSCLC do have intense uptake of tracer, false negatives do occur and should be considered. We report cases of patients that have synchronous NSCLCs. In both cases, there was intense uptake of FDG in one tumour type, with very low grade uptake in the separate tumour. Histology confirmed separate lung malignancies, demonstrating that differential FDG uptake may not always be inflammatory and should be considered to have a separate malignant aetiology.
No preview · Article · May 2011 · Annals of Nuclear Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are excellent modalities for the localization of mediastinal masses and there are often features that may allow the correct diagnosis to be made. However, CT and MRI cannot usually assess the aggressiveness of masses or identify viable tumour in residual masses after chemotherapy. Metabolic imaging using [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography/CT, although not required in many cases, may be helpful for further characterization of masses and to guide the most appropriate site for biopsy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the role of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (18-FDG-PET-CT) in the surveillance of patients after multimodality treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma.
Retrospective study of patients who had chemotherapy, radical surgery, extrapleural pneumonectomy or pleurectomy/decortication, and radiotherapy for mesothelioma in our unit. PET-CT was performed after multimodality therapy to evaluate response to treatment or when disease recurrence was suspected. 18-FDG-PET scans were acquired from skull base to upper thigh with low-dose CT scans for attenuation correction and image fusion.
Forty-four patients had extrapleural pneumonectomy (21) or pleurectomy/decortication (23) between January 2004 and July 2008. Twenty-five patients had PET-CT performed after multimodality therapy. This was performed in 11 patients in whom disease recurrence was suspected at a median of 9 (range, 6-16) months after treatment. PET-CT correctly diagnosed recurrent disease in eight patients and missed microscopic recurrence in one. Surveillance PET-CT was performed in 14 asymptomatic patients at a median of 11 (range, 7-13) months after treatment. It showed unsuspected recurrences in four patients. The standard uptake value max of recurrent mesothelioma was 8.9 +/- 4.0 (4-18.4). PET-CT had a sensitivity of 94%, a specificity of 100%, and the positive and negative predictive values of 100 and 88%, respectively.
18-FDG-PET-CT is useful in diagnosing disease recurrence after multimodality therapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma. We propose a prospective study to fully assess its value in this group of patients.
No preview · Article · Mar 2010 · Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been previously reported in the literature that intractable hiccups (singultus) may indicate a serious underlying pathology . In particular, there have been well-documented cases that intractable hiccups are associated with cerebral toxoplasmosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients [2–4]. We present a case using F-18flurodeoxygluocose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) that demonstrates the effect of intractable hiccups on FDG uptake in a PET scan. A 30-year-old man with HIV was referred for a FDGPET/CT scan to further investigate an enhancing lesion in the right frontal lobe found with magnetic resonance imaging. The patient was suffering from intractable hiccups during the FDG uptake period. The PET/CT showed an area of hypometabolism in the right frontal lobe surrounded by a rim of low-grade increased uptake in keeping with toxoplasmosis (arrow, A). In addition, as a result of the intractable hiccups, there was avid FDG accumulation within the muscles of respiration (intercostal and diaphragmatic muscles), and the accessory muscles of respiration in the low neck. This is shown in both axial (B) and coronal
Full-text · Article · Oct 2009 · European Journal of Nuclear Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many studies demonstrate a high accuracy for PET in staging lymphoma, but few assess observer variation. This study quantified agreement for staging lymphoma with PET/CT.
The PET/CT images of 100 patients with lymphoma who had been referred for staging were reviewed by 3 experienced observers, with 2 observers reviewing each series a second time. Ann Arbor stage and individual nodal and extranodal regions were assessed. Weighted kappa (kappa(w)) and intraclass correlation coefficient were used to compare ratings.
Intra- and interobserver agreement was high for Ann Arbor stage (kappa(w) = 0.79-0.91), number of nodal regions involved (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.83-0.93), and presence of extranodal disease (kappa = 0.74-0.86). High agreement was also observed for all nodal regions (kappa(w) > 0.60) except hilar (kappa(w) = 0.56-0.82) and infraclavicular (kappa(w) = 0.14-0.55). Lower agreement was observed for bowel involvement (kappa(w) = 0.37-0.71).
Experienced observers had a high level of agreement using PET/CT for lymphoma staging, supporting its use as a robust noninvasive staging tool. Further research is needed to evaluate observer variability for restaging during and after chemotherapy.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2009 · Journal of Nuclear Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is the most common benign tumor of the larynx in children. Papillomas in RRP are usually benign and are localized to the larynx. Lung involvement is rare. The papillomas in the laryngotracheal and bronchioloalveolar region may undergo malignant degeneration to squamous cell carcinoma and are reported to have a poor prognosis. A 28-year-old woman presented with hemoptysis. She had known RRP in the trachea but no previous lung involvement. A chest radiograph and CT scan revealed multiple nodules, some of which were cavitating and some were with a predominantly cystic appearance. PET/CT showed increased F-18 FDG uptake in these nodules and guided biopsy.
No preview · Article · Sep 2009 · Clinical nuclear medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Error and variation in reporting remains one of the weakest features of clinical imaging despite enormous technological advances in nuclear medicine and radiology. The aim of this study was to evaluate agreement amongst experienced readers in staging non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with PET-CT.
A series of (18)F-FDG PET-CT scans from 100 consecutive patients were reviewed independently by three experienced readers, with two readers reviewing each scan series a second time. Individual mediastinal lymph node stations were assessed as benign/inflammatory, equivocal or malignant, and AJCC N and M stage were also assigned. Kappa (kappa) was used to compare ratings from two categories and weighted kappa (kappa(w)) for three or more categories, and kappa values were interpreted according to the Landis-Koch benchmarks.
Both intra- and interobserver agreement for N and M staging were high. For M staging there was almost perfect intra- and interobserver agreement (kappa = 0.90-0.93). For N staging, agreement was either almost perfect or substantial (intraobserver kappa(w) = 0.79, 0.91; interobserver kappa(w) = 0.75-0.81). Importantly, there was almost perfect agreement for N0/1 vs N2/3 disease (kappa = 0.80-0.97). Agreement for inferior and superior mediastinal nodes (stations 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9) was either almost perfect or substantial (kappa(w) = 0.71-0.88), but lower for hilar nodes (10; kappa(w) = 0.56-0.71). Interreporter variability was greatest for aortopulmonary nodes (5, 6; kappa(w) = 0.48-0.55).
Amongst experienced reporters in a single centre, there was a very high level of agreement for both mediastinal nodal stage and detection of distant metastases with PET-CT. This supports the use of PET-CT as a robust imaging modality for staging NSCLC.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2008 · European Journal of Nuclear Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Correct staging of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is vital to undertake appropriate management and improve prognosis.
Initial staging is usually performed with computerized tomography (CT), which has well recognized limitations, and increasingly
functional imaging using integrated positron emission tomography and CT (PET/CT) is being used to provide more accurate staging,
to guide biopsies, to assess response to therapy, and to identify recurrent disease. Staging and response to therapy will
be discussed in this review.
No preview · Article · Jul 2008 · Targeted Oncology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Correct staging of non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is vital for appropriate management. Initial staging is usually performed with computerised tomography (CT), but increasingly functional imaging using integrated positron emission tomography and CT (PET/CT) is being used to provide more accurate staging, guide biopsies, assess response to therapy and identify recurrent disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We set out to find a policy for the management of the pneumonectomy space which would minimise risk and be acceptable to all the surgeons. We believe this will reduce opportunities for error, be welcomed by nursing staff, and improve adherence to protocols.
We sought evidence in the scientific and educational literature. Finding no sure guidance, we audited our own experience of two policies, with the emphasis on minimising risk.
There was no evidence from randomised trials. There was no cohesive advice in the text books. Our data indicated that it was improbable that randomised controlled trial (RCT) would have the power to find the evidence. Unable to establish the best strategy, we chose what appeared to be the lowest risk management policy.
It is instructive that such a fundamental question should be unanswered. We have adopted a low risk and well established strategy--an unclamped underwater seal drain--but have no evidence base other than clinical experience. This is illustrative of much of what we do in clinical surgical practice. Avoiding major risk is often more important than proving small differences in benefit.
Full-text · Article · May 2007 · Heart, Lung and Circulation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prognosis for oesophageal cancer is poor with a median survival of 3-5 months and recurrences are frequent. The best chance of cure is successful surgery and pre-operative chemoradiotherapy is used to try and improve outcomes. However, patients may either not respond or may progress during therapy and it is important to differentiate the responders from non-responders. Clinical parameters such as weight gain and improvement in swallowing can be assessed but imaging is used in an attempt to improve outcomes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Surgery may offer a long-term survival benefit to a small proportion of patients with operable non-small cell lung cancer
(NSCLC) and solitary adrenal metastasis. Several approaches to lung resection with a separate open or laparoscopic adrenalectomy
have been advocated. We describe a technique that allows a single incision, single operation through a transdiaphragmatic
approach to the ipsilateral adrenal gland following a standard lung resection through a postero-lateral thoracotomy. By using
this approach, along with the harmonic scalpel to aid adrenal dissection, both lobectomy and adrenalectomy can be carried
out safely and effectively with minimal perioperative and postoperative morbidity.
Preview · Article · Aug 2006 · European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Staging of non-small lung cancer (NSCLC) uses the TNM classification and is undertaken to identify those patients who are surgical candidates, either initially or after chemo-radiotherapy, and to differentiate patients who will be treated radically from those requiring palliation and to plan radiotherapy fields. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are used in staging and provide anatomical information but have well known limitations in differentiating reactive from malignant nodes, fibrosis from active disease and in defining the extent of invasion. MRI, with its superior soft tissue contrast provides optimal information on brachial plexus and central nervous system involvement. Functional imaging using [2-(18F)]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography is increasingly being used to provide unique information and when combined with anatomic imaging will provide better staging information for both local disease and the extent of metastases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: FDG-PET is a useful tool in the imaging of head and neck tumours. It can be used to stage the primary tumour, to assess response to therapy and most importantly for the detection of recurrent tumour. The advantages and limitations of this technique are discussed in this article.