[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes between the groups using Ray-Tracing (RAT) and Monte-Carlo (MC) calculation algorithms for stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) of lung tumors.
Materials and methods:
Thirty-five patients received SBRT with CyberKnife for 47 primary or metastatic lung tumors. RAT was used for 22 targets in 12 patients, and MC for 25 targets in 23 patients. Total dose of 48 to 60 Gy was prescribed in 3 to 5 fractions on median 80% isodose line. The response rate, local control rate, and toxicities were compared between RAT and MC groups.
The response rate was lower in the RAT group (77.3%) compared to the MC group (100%) (p = 0.008). The response rates showed an association with the mean dose to the gross tumor volume, which the doses were re-calculated with MC algorithm in both groups. However, the local control rate and toxicities did not differ between the groups.
The clinical outcome and toxicity of lung SBRT between the RAT and MC groups were similar except for the response rate when the same apparent doses were prescribed. The lower response rate in the RAT group, however, did not compromise the local control rates. As such, reducing the prescription dose for MC algorithm may be performed but done with caution.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Potentially harmful unplanned extubation (UE) may occur in patients on mechanical ventilation (MV) in an intensive care unit (ICU) setting. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics of UE and its impact on clinical outcomes in patients with MV in a medical ICU (MICU).
We retrospectively evaluated MICU data prospectively collected between December 2011 and May 2014.
A total of 468 patients were admitted to the MICU, of whom 450 were on MV. Of the patients on MV, 30 (6.7%) experienced UE; 13 (43.3%) required reintubation after UE, whereas 17 (56.7%) did not require reintubation. Patients who required reintubation had a significantly longer MV duration and ICU stay than did those not requiring reintubation (19.4±15.1 days vs. 5.9±5.9 days days and 18.1±14.2 days vs. 7.1±6.5 days, respectively; p<0.05). In addition, mortality rate was significantly higher among patients requiring reintubation than among those not requiring reintubation (54.5% vs. 5.9%; p=0.007). These two groups of patients exhibited no significant differences, within 2 hours after UE, in the fraction of inspired oxygen, blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, and pH.
Although reintubation may not always be required in patients with UE, it is associated with a poor outcome after UE.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) is a common and unavoidable complication of thoracic radiotherapy. The current study was conducted to evaluate the ability of clarithromycin (CLA) to prevent radiation-induced pneumonitis, oxidative stress, and lung fibrosis in an animal model. C57BL/6J mice were assigned to control, irradiation only, irradiation plus CLA, and CLA only groups. Test mice received single thoracic exposures to radiation and/or oral CLA (100 mg/kg/day). Histopathologic findings and markers of inflammation, fibrosis, and oxidative stress were compared by group. On a microscopic level, CLA inhibited macrophage influx, alveolar fibrosis, parenchymal collapse, consolidation, and epithelial cell changes. The concentration of collagen in lung tissue was lower in irradiation plus CLA mice. Radiation-induced expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, TNF receptor 1, acetylated nuclear factor kappa B, cyclooxygenase 2, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, and matrix metallopeptidase 9 were also attenuated by CLA. Expression levels of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 and heme oxygenase 1, transforming growth factor-β1, connective tissue growth factor, and type I collagen in radiation-treated lungs were also attenuated by CLA. These findings indicate that CLA ameliorates the deleterious effects of thoracic irradiation in mice by reducing pulmonary inflammation, oxidative damage, and fibrosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the clinical significance of the absolute monocyte count (AMC) as a predictor of the response to anticoagulation and survival in lung cancer patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE). We retrospectively reviewed 1707 patients with pathologically proven lung cancer who visited the hospital between July 2008 and May 2014. Among them, the clinical data of patients newly diagnosed with VTE and treated with anticoagulation were compared between the low and high AMC groups according to the median value of AMC (640/μL) at the time of VTE diagnosis. The incidence of VTE was 7.9 % during the study period. Most of the patients had non-small-cell lung cancer (82.1 %), stage IV (64.2 %), and pulmonary thromboembolism (76.1 %) and were incidentally diagnosed with VTE (76.9 %). The patients' characteristics and laboratory values were not significantly different between the low and high AMC groups. Among patients available for evaluation of the response to anticoagulation, the high AMC group was significantly more refractory to anticoagulation than the low AMC group (no response to anticoagulation, 21.7 vs. 6.8 %, respectively; p = 0.044). Additionally, the high AMC group showed worse overall survival (OS) than the low AMC group (median, 9.6 vs. 5.9 months; p = 0.038). On multivariate analysis, high AMC, low albumin, and advanced stage were independent poor prognostic factors for OS. High AMC is associated with refractoriness to anticoagulation and poor prognosis in lung cancer patients with VTE.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of Hsp90β and GRP94 and elucidate the clinical significance of their expression in patients with resectable non-small cell lung cancer(NSCLC).
Surgical tissue specimens were obtained from 208 patients with NSCLC who underwent surgical resection. The expression levels of Hsp90β and GRP94 were assessed using tissue microarrays and immunohistochemistry.
No correlations were observed between the expression of Hsp90β or GRP94 and several clinicopathological factors. High Hsp90β group(median overall survival[OS], 20.4 months;95% confidence interval[CI], 0.000-40.864) showed a significant decrease in OS compared with low Hsp90β group(median OS, not reached;p=0.003). In contrast to Hsp90β, the analysis for GRP94 did not show a difference in survival in overall. Moreover, in subgroup analysis of patients with squamous cell carcinoma(SqCC) histology, OS(p=0.012) and relapse-free survival(RFS) (p=0.044) were significantly worse in high Hsp90β group than in low Hsp90β group. Multivariate analysis suggested that elderly(HR,1.568;95% CI,1.019-2.412;p=0.041), advanced disease(HR,2.066;95% CI,1.218-3.502; p=0.007), and high Hsp90β expression (HR,1.802;95% CI,1.061-3.060; p=0.029) were independent poor prognostic factors for OS.
High Hsp90β group might be useful markers of poor OS, although further large prospective studies are warranted to validate our findings. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The diagnosis and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) have become mandatory to reduce the burden of tuberculosis worldwide. Close contacts of active TB patients are at high risk of both active and LTBI. The aim of this study is to identify the predominant risk factors of contracting LTBI, persons in close contact with TB patients were recruited. This study also aimed to compare the efficacy of the tuberculin skin test (TST) and QuantiFERON®-TB GOLD (QFT-G) to diagnose LTBI.
Close contacts of active pulmonary TB patients visiting a hospital in South Korea were diagnosed for LTBI using TST and/or QFT-G. The association of positive TST and/or QFT-G with the following factors was estimated: age, gender, history of Bacillius Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination, history of pulmonary TB, cohabitation status, the acid-fast bacilli smear status, and presence of cough in source cases.
Of 308 subjects, 38.0% (116/305) were TST positive and 28.6% (59/206) were QFT-G positive. TST positivity was significantly associated with male gender (OR: 1.734; 95% CI: 1.001-3.003, p =0.049), history of pulmonary TB (OR: 4.130; 95% CI: 1.441-11.835, p =0.008) and household contact (OR: 2.130; 95% CI: 1.198-3.786, p =0.01) after adjustment for confounding variables. The degree of concordance between TST and QFT-G was fair (70.4%, κ =0.392).
A prevalence of LTBI among close contacts of active pulmonary TB patients was high, and prior TB history and being a household contact were risk factors of LTBI in the study population.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · BMC Infectious Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the role of the lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR) at diagnosis in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) treated with standard chemotherapy. We retrospectively reviewed all SCLC patients who received frontline platinum-based chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. The cut-off LMR value at diagnosis was 4.19 according to time-dependent receiver-operating characteristic analysis. A total of 188 patients were divided into two groups according to the LMR at diagnosis (low vs. high LMR). Of the 171 patients evaluated for treatment response, 14 (12.4 %) in the low LMR group and 1 (1.7 %) in the high LMR group were non-responders (p = 0.025). In the whole patient cohort, progression-free survival and overall survival were significantly shorter in the low LMR group (low vs. high: median 6.4 vs. 7.1 months, p = 0.001; median 10.6 vs. 13.1 months, p = 0.003, respectively). On multivariate analysis, a low LMR at diagnosis was an independent unfavourable prognostic factor for predicting survival. The LMR at diagnosis could be helpful for predicting prognosis in SCLC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity is useful for diagnosing tuberculous (TB) pleurisy in regions with a high prevalence of tuberculosis. However, some cases of TB pleural effusion show decreased ADA activity. Therefore, we evaluated factors influencing pleural ADA levels in patients with TB pleurisy.
We retrospectively evaluated 182 patients with TB pleural effusion who were admitted to Gyeongsang National University Hospital from January 2004 to September 2008. Patients were dichotomized into 2 groups: a low-ADA (<40 IU/L) group (n = 22) and a high-ADA (≥40 IU/L) group (n = 160). Age, sex, ADA level of pleural effusion, smoking status, history of tuberculosis and comorbid diseases were evaluated in each group.
The median age of the patients was 50.5 years, with a male to female ratio of 1.72:1. Patients with a low-ADA level were significantly older than those with a high ADA level (66.9 ± 12.0 versus 49.4 ± 21.2 years, P < 0.001). A history of tuberculosis and hypertension was more common in the low-ADA group than in the high-ADA group (31.8% versus 15.0%, P = 0.049 and 36.4% versus 16.9%, P = 0.03, respectively). A multivariate analysis revealed that older age and current smoking were predictive of TB pleurisy with a low ADA level (odds ratios, 1.053 and 4.848; P = 0.002 and 0.028, respectively).
Physicians should be careful when interpreting pleural ADA levels in elderly patients and/or current smokers for the diagnosis of TB pleurisy.
Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · The American Journal of the Medical Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Pneumothorax (PTX) can occur as a complication of positive pressure ventilation in mechanically ventilated patients. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical characteristics of patients who developed PTX during mechanical ventilation (MV) in the intensive care unit (ICU). RESULTS: Of the 326 patients admitted (208 men and 118 women; mean age, 65.3 +/- 8.74 years), 15 (4.7%) developed PTX, which was MV-associated in 11 (3.3%) cases (6 men and 5 women; mean age, 68.3 +/- 9.12 years) and procedure-associated in 4. Among the patients with MV-associated PTX, the underlying lung diseases were acute respiratory distress syndrome in 7 patients, interstitial lung disease in 2 patients, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 2 patients. PTX diagnosis was achieved by chest radiography alone in 9 patients and chest computed tomography alone in 2 patients. Nine patients were using assist-control mode MV with the mean applied positive end-expiratory pressure, 9 +/- 4.6 cmH2O and the mean tidal volume, 361 +/- 63.7 ml at the diagnosis of PTX. Two patients died as a result of MV-associated PTX and their systolic pressure was below 80 mmHg and heart rates were less than 80/min. Ten patients were treated by chest tube insertion, and 1 patient was treated by percutaneous pigtail catheter insertion. CONCLUSIONS: PTX can develop in patients undergoing MV, and may cause death. Early recognition and treatment are necessary to prevent hemodynamic compromise in patients who develop PTX.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteopontin (OPN) is a phosphorylated glycoprotein expressed by diverse tissues including bone, brain, kidney, liver, and lung. Limited data exists regarding OPN in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and the exacerbation of this condition.
The aim of this study was to evaluate plasma OPN levels and investigate the clinical usefulness of plasma OPN measurement in patients with COPD.
Plasma OPN levels were measured and compared in patients with COPD exacerbation (n=64), patients with stable COPD (n=68), and healthy controls (n=30). In patients with COPD exacerbation, plasma OPN levels were measured repeatedly in convalescence. Patients with stable COPD were categorized into frequent and infrequent exacerbators according to their frequency of exacerbation, and plasma OPN levels were compared between these2 groups. Plasma OPN levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Patients with COPD exacerbation had increased plasma OPN levels compared to those with stable COPD and healthy controls (32.6 ± 29.6, 17.6 ± 11.1, 8.4 ± 6.1ng/mL, respectively; p<0.001). In patients with COPD exacerbation, plasma OPN levels were significantly decreased in convalescence (44.8 ± 43.5 vs. 24.6 ± 13.6ng/mL, p=0.034). Frequent exacerbators had higher plasma OPN levels compared to infrequent exacerbators (22.5 ± 12.0 vs. 15.0 ± 9.8ng/mL, p=0.008).
Plasma OPN levels were increased in patients with COPD exacerbation and frequent exacerbators, which suggests a possible role for OPN as a biomarker of COPD exacerbation.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · The Clinical Respiratory Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Body weight fluctuates daily throughout a patient's stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) due to a variety of factors, including fluid balance, nutritional status, type of acute illness, and presence of comorbidities. This study investigated the association between change in body weight and clinical outcomes in critically ill patients during short-term hospitalization in the ICU.
All patients admitted to the Gyeongsang National University hospital between January 2010 and December 2011 who met the inclusion criteria of age 18 or above and ICU hospitalization for at least 2 days were prospectively enrolled in this study. Body weight was measured at admission and daily thereafter using a bed scale. Univariate and multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate factors associated with mortality and the association between changes in body weight and clinical outcomes, including duration of mechanical ventilation (MV) use, length of ICU stay, and ICU mortality.
Of the 140 patients examined, 33 died during ICU hospitalization, yielding an ICU mortality rate of 23.6%. Non-survivors experienced higher rates of severe sepsis and septic shock and greater weight gain than survivors on days 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 of ICU hospitalization (P < .05). Increase of body weight on days 2 through 7 on ICU admission was correlated with the longer stay of ICU, and increase on days 3 through 7 on ICU admission was correlated with the prolonged use of mechanical ventilation. Increase of body weight on days 3 through 5 on ICU admission was associated with ICU mortality.
Increase in body weight of critically ill patients may be correlated with duration of mechanical ventilation use and longer stay of ICU hospitalization and be associated with ICU mortality.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Journal of critical care
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A beneficial radioprotective agent has been used to treat the radiation-induced lung injury. This study was performed to investigate whether curcumin, which is known to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, could ameliorate radiation-induced pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in irradiated lungs. Rats were given daily doses of intragastric curcumin (200 mg/kg) prior to a single irradiation and for 8 weeks after radiation. Histopathologic findings demonstrated that macrophage accumulation, interstitial edema, alveolar septal thickness, perivascular fibrosis, and collapse in radiation-treated lungs were inhibited by curcumin administration. Radiation-induced transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression, and collagen accumulation were also inhibited by curcumin. Moreover, western blot analysis revealed that curcumin lowered radiation-induced increases of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Curcumin also inhibited the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κ B (NF-κB) p65 in radiation-treated lungs. These results indicate that long-term curcumin administration may reduce lung inflammation and fibrosis caused by radiation treatment.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical and radiological characteristics of tuberculous pneumonia (TBPn). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We compared the clinical presentation, pneumonia severity index (PSI), and radiological findings of 51 TBPn patients with those of typical pulmonary tuberculosis (PulTB) and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients. RESULTS: The mean age of patients with TBPn was higher than that of patients with CAP or PulTB (66.6 +/- 15.8 vs. 53.1 +/- 17.1, 54.9 +/- 15.7) (p < 0.05). Diabetes mellitus was more common in patients with TB than in those with CAP (24.1% vs. 8.2%) (p < 0.05). The PSI scores for TBPn and CAP were similar (79.5 +/- 31.1 vs. 71.8 +/- 28.3, respectively) and were higher than that for PulTB (64 +/- 26.8) (p < 0.05). The ratio of lower lobe involvement was higher in TBPn and CAP than in PulTB (49% and 75.5% vs. 22.4%, respectively). Cavity formation and centrilobular nodules were more common in TBPn than in CAP (13.7% vs. 6.1% and 74.5% vs. 22.4%, respectively) (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Although TBPn shows a similar clinical presentation to CAP, it is more common in elderly patients and more commonly involves lower lobe involvement with cavity formation and centrilobular nodules. Therefore, in cases in which there may be diagnostic uncertainty, appropriate diagnostic procedures following these findings are required to differentiate these diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute respiratory failure can occur paradoxically on initiation of anti-tuberculosis (TB) treatment in patients with pulmonary TB. This study is aimed to analyze the clinical features of anti-TB treatment induced acute respiratory failure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is now regarded as a heterogenous disease, with variable phenotypes. Acute exacerbation of COPD is a major event that alters the natural course of disease. The frequency of COPD exacerbation is variable among patients. We analyzed clinical features, according to the frequency of acute exacerbation in COPD.
Sixty patients, who visited Gyeongsang National University Hospital from March 2010 to October 2010, were enrolled. Patients were divided into two groups, according to their frequency of acute exacerbation. Frequent exacerbator is defined as the patient who has two or more exacerbation per one year. We reviewed patients' medical records and investigated modified Medical Research Council (MMRC) dyspnea scale, smoking history and frequency of acute exacerbation. We also conducted pulmonary function test and 6-minute walking test, calculated body mass index, degree of airway obstruction and dyspnea and exercise capacity (BODE) index and measured CD146 cells in the peripheral blood.
The number of frequent exacerbators and infrequent exacerbators was 20 and 40, respectively. The frequent exacerbator group had more severe airway obstruction (forced expiratory volume in one second [FEV(1)], 45% vs. 65.3%, p=0.001; FEV(1)/forced vital capacity, 44.3% vs. 50.5%, p=0.046). MMRC dyspnea scale and BODE index were significantly higher in the frequent exacerbator group (1.8 vs. 1.1, p=0.016; 3.9 vs. 2.1, p=0.014, respectively). The fraction of CD146 cells significantly increased in the frequent exacerbator group (2.0 vs. 1.0, p<0.001).
Frequent exacerbator had more severe airway obstruction and higher symptom score and BODE index. However, circulating endothelial cells measured by CD146 needed to be confirmed in the future.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: This study is to evaluate the effect of systemic corticosteroid on the clinical outcomes and the occurrence of complications in mechanical ventilated patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). METHODS: We retrospectively assessed the clinical outcomes and complications in patients with severe CAP admitted to ICU between March 1, 2003 and July 28, 2009. Outcomes were measured by hospital mortality after ICU admission, duration of mechanical ventilation (MV), ICU, and hospital stay. Complications such as ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP), catheter related-blood stream infection (CR-BSI), and upper gastrointestinal (UGI) bleeding during ICU stay were assessed. RESULTS: Of the 93 patients, 36 patients received corticosteroids over 7 days while 57 patients did not receive corticosteroids. Age, underlying disease, APACHE II, PSI score, and use of vasopressor were not different between two groups. In-hospital mortality was 30.5% in the steroid group and 36.8% in the non-steroid group (p>0.05). The major complications such as VAP, CR-BSI and UGI bleeding was significantly higher in the steroid group than in the non-steroid group (19.4% vs. 7%, p<0.05). The use of steroids and the duration of ICU stay were significantly associated with the development of major complications during ones ICU stay (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Systemic corticosteroid in patients with severe CAP requiring mechanical ventilation may have no beneficial effect on clinical outcomes like duration of ICU stay and in-hospital mortality but may contribute to the development of ICU acquired complications.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2012 · Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increasing antioxidant capacity has been proposed as a promising strategy to prevent cigarette smoke-induced lung diseases. This study tested whether garlic extracts prevented cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced cell death in human bronchial smooth muscle cells (HBSMCs). Garlic extracts were prepared from fresh raw garlic (FRG), aged black garlic (ABG) and aged red garlic (ARG). Treatment of HBSMCs with 10% CSE induced cell death accompanied by activation of caspase. Of the garlic extracts, treatment with ARG extract reduced CSE-induced cell death. The combination of ARG extract with CSE attenuated the CSE-induced reduction in glutathione (GSH) content, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induction of heme oxygenase-1 expression compared with CSE treatment without ARG extract. Furthermore, the combination of L-BSO, a GSH synthesis inhibitor, with ARG and CSE extracts failed to increase the intracellular GSH content and cell viability. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ARG extract reduces CSE-induced cell death by increasing GSH content and reducing ROS generation in HBSMCs.
No preview · Article · Jan 2012 · Phytotherapy Research