[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A previous study demonstrated that local application of levonorgestrel-loaded polylactic acid microspheres (LNG microspheres) resulted in significant regression of endometriotic cysts in a rabbit model for 6 months without disturbing the metabolic parameters or ovarian function. In order to investigate the feasibility of local application of LNG microspheres as a long-term maintenance treatment for endometriosis, the suppressive effect of a single intra-cystic injection of LNG microspheres was studied for 1 year in a rat model.
Twenty four rats with experimental endometriotic cysts were randomized to be treated with a single intra-cystic injection of LNG microspheres (n = 8); 6-month GnRH agonist (GnRHa, n = 8) or control (n = 8). Intra-cystic injection of LNG microspheres and GnRHa treatment caused comparable regression and atrophy in endometriotic cysts in the first 6 months. Compared with the control, the wet weight of the endometriotic cysts was significantly lower in both groups at Month 6 but by Month 12 only remained low in the LNG microspheres group (P < 0.01). The immunostaining of estrogen receptors (ERs) in both the epithelium and stroma and progesterone receptors (PRs) in the stroma was significantly weakened in the LNG microspheres group at Month 6 and was not fully restored at Month 12 (P < 0.01). Metabolic parameters and estrous cycle were not disturbed by local application of LNG microspheres.
In a rat endometriosis model, the suppressive effect of a single intra-cystic injection of LNG microspheres was comparable to that of GnRHa, and was maintained for 1 year. The down-regulation of ERs and PRs might serve as possible mechanism of long-term effectiveness.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endometriosis is a chronic disease that responds to systemic pseudo-pregnancy therapy. However, side effects limit their long-term use, and recurrence often occurs after cessation of medication. Reducing side effects whereas improving therapeutic efficacy of pseudo-pregnancy therapy seems contradictory, but appealing. In order to address this dilemma, the efficacy and side effects of local pseudo-pregnancy therapy were investigated for the first time in an endometriosis animal model.
Levonorgestrel-loaded polylactic acid microspheres (LNG-microspheres) were prepared by using an oil-in-water emulsification-solvent evaporation method. Rabbits with experimental endometriosis were randomized to treatment with local pseudo-pregnancy therapy, local blank microspheres, systemic pseudo-pregnancy therapy, ovariectomy or the control. Local pseudo-pregnancy was induced by injection of LNG-microspheres directly into endometrial cysts. Compared with the systemic pseudo-pregnancy group, significantly higher intra-cystic drug levels were maintained for at least 6 months with much lower serum levels in the local pseudo-pregnancy group (P < 0.01). The high intra-cystic levonorgestrel simulated a state of potent pregnancy, which induced size reductions and endometrial atrophy comparable to those of ovariectomy. Moreover, major metabolic parameters and ovarian function were not disturbed by local pseudo-pregnancy therapy.
Induction of a local pseudo-pregnancy could achieve therapeutic efficacy comparable to that of ovariectomy without provoking any marked side effects in a rabbit endometriosis model. Thus it may be a preferable option for patients with endometriosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As a common cause of chronic pelvic pain, endometriosis affects 10% of women of reproductive age. The most popular strategy for treating endometriosis is pseudo-pregnancy therapy. However, the efficacy of common systemic pseudo-pregnancy therapy is significantly attenuated by poor compliance because of so many side effects. While levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine systems (LNG-IUS) successfully localize the effect of pseudo-pregnancy to the genital tract in treating endometriosis, it seemed to be insufficient to suppress the ovarian and extragenital endometriosis. We postulate that induction of a local pseudo-pregnancy via progestogen-loaded microsphere in the lesions of endometriosis may provide a more effective treatment with fewer side effects.
No preview · Article · Sep 2009 · Medical Hypotheses