[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied the concurrent, predictive, and discriminate validity of psychopathology scales (e.g., schizotypal and depressive) and temperament traits for hospitalisations due to major depression. Temperament, perceptual aberration, physical and social anhedonia, Depression Subscale of Symptom Checklist (SCL-D), Hypomanic Personality Scale, Schizoidia Scale, and Bipolar II Scale were completed as part of the 31-year follow-up survey of the prospective Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort (n = 4941; 2214 males). Several of the scales were related to depression. Concurrent depression was especially related to higher perceptual aberration (effect size when compared to controls, d = 1.29), subsequent depression to high scores in SCL-D (d = 0.48). Physical anhedonia was lower in subjects with subsequent depression than those with other psychiatric disorders (d = -0.33, nonsignificant). Participants with concurrent (d = 0.70) and subsequent (d = 0.54) depression had high harm avoidance compared to controls, while differences compared to other psychiatric patients were small. Subjects with depression differed from healthy controls in most of the scales. Many of the scales were useful predictors for future hospital treatments, but were not diagnosis-specific. High harm avoidance is a potential indicator for subsequent depression.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · Depression research and treatment
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Summary of the SNPs displaying P-values<10E-4 and located within clusters of three such SNPs. For all the SNPs, the closest gene and the shortest distance to the gene in base pairs are indicated.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Manhattan plots for all the tested models: RPAS risk (a), RPAS protective (b), RPAS neutral (c), RPAS covariated (d), RSAS risk (e), RSAS protective (f), RSAS neutral (g), RSAS covariated (h). Blue line corresponds to P = 10 E-4. The clusters with ≥3 SNPs with P<10E-4 are marked with asterisk (*).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Illustration of how predicted target molecules of MIR620 that showed enrichment in bipolar disorder and psychological disorder have been related to etiologies of schizophrenia and psychosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic evidence implicates the DISC1 gene in the etiology of a number of mental illnesses. Previously, we have reported association between DISC1 and measures of psychosis proneness, the Revised Social Anhedonia Scale (RSAS) and Revised Physical Anhedonia Scale (RPAS), in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (NFBC66). As part of the studies of this Finnish birth cohort genome-wide association analysis has recently been performed.
In the present study, we re-analyzed the genome-wide association data with regard to these two measures of psychosis proneness, conditioning on our previous DISC1 observation. From the original NFBC66 sample (N = 12 058), 4 561 individuals provided phenotype and genotype data. No markers were significant at the genome-wide level. However, several genes with biological relevance to mental illnesses were highlighted through loci displaying suggestive evidence for association (≥3 SNP with P<10E-4). These included the protein coding genes, CXCL3, KIAA1128, LCT, MED13L, TMCO7, TTN, and the micro RNA MIR620.
By conditioning a previous genome-wide association study on DISC1, we have been able to identify eight genes as associating to psychosis proneness. Further, these molecules predominantly link to the DISC1 pathway, strengthening the evidence for the role of this gene network in the etiology of mental illness. The use of quantitative measures of psychosis proneness in a large population cohort will make these findings, once verified; more generalized to a broad selection of disorders related to psychoses and psychosis proneness.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The schematics show the QQ plots for the observed −log10 P-values versus those expected by change for Revised Social Anhedonia Scale. (a) and Revised Physical Anhedonia Scale (b) risk (1), protective (2), neutral (3) and covariated (4) models.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We study the predictive power and associations of several psychopathology and temperament scales with respect to schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Measures of psychopathology (Physical and Social Anhedonia Scales, Perceptual Aberration Scale, Hypomanic Personality Scale, Bipolar II Scale, and Schizoidia Scale) and the Temperament and Character Inventory were included in the 31-year follow-up of the prospective Northern Finland 1966 birth cohort (N = 4926). The Perceptual Aberration Scale was the best scale for concurrent validity in psychoses, and also the best psychopathology scale in terms of discriminant validity. Participants scoring high in hypomanic personality were at the highest risk for developing psychosis during the 11-year follow-up. Harm avoidance was a dominant temperament dimension in individuals with psychosis compared with participants without psychiatric diagnoses. These scales are useful as vulnerability markers in studying psychoses.
No preview · Article · Apr 2011 · The Journal of nervous and mental disease
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present psychometric properties and normative data by gender and educational level in scales related to schizotypy and affective disorders in a large population-based adult sample. As part of the 31-year follow-up survey of the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort; Bipolar II scale (BIP2), Hypomanic Personality Scale (HPS), Physical Anhedonia Scale (PAS), Social Anhedonia Scale (SAS), Perceptual Aberration Scale (PER) and Schizoidia Scale (SCHD) were filled in by 4928 subjects. In total sample mean scores were: BIP2 10.59 (3.80), HPS 11.26 (7.03), PAS 14.99 (S.D. 7.03), SAS 9.44 (5.52), PER 2.35 (3.26) and SCHD 2.56 (1.42). Men scored higher (had more psychopathological symptoms) in PAS and SAS (P<0.001), and in BIP2 (P=0.02). Women had higher scores in SCHD, HPS and PER (P<0.001). Participants with a lower level of education scored higher in all scales; differences were largest in BIP2, PAS and SAS (ES>0.5,P<0.001). The gender and education differences were moderate or large in all the included scales. These differences should be taken into account when considering normal values in these scales. The findings indicate that commonly used student samples are likely to be biased when compared to community based samples.
No preview · Article · Jul 2010 · Psychiatry Research
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Earlier general population studies have shown that novelty seeking (NS) of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) of personality is lower for persons born in winter compared to those born in summer, particularly for women. Here, we investigate if this result can be replicated in another population.
The Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort, comprising 4968 subjects (2725 women, 2243 men), was investigated with regard to the temperament dimensions of the TCI and the season of birth.
Novelty seeking and reward dependence (RD) showed significant variations according to the month of birth. We found that women born during winter have significantly lower levels of NS compared to women born during summer, with a minimum for the birth month November and maximum for May. These results are similar to those found in a previous Swedish study. Furthermore, our study showed that men born during spring had significantly lower mean scores of RD compared to men born during autumn, with a minimum for birth month March. This was in contrast to the Swedish study, where the minimum of RD was obtained for the birth month December.
Women born in winter have lower NS as adults compared to women born in summer. Because NS is modulated by dopamine, this study gives further support to the studies in the literature that show that dopamine turnover for those born in winter is higher than for those born in summer.
No preview · Article · Nov 2009 · Comprehensive psychiatry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One month before (T-1) and 12 months after (T12) controlled i.v. administration of pharmaceutical heroin-HCl (10-100 mg/day) in the context of a heroin maintenance program (HMP), concentrations of opiates and cocaine as well as its metabolites were determined in head hair (n = 46) using a validated gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric method. In addition, a patient collective of a methadone maintenance program (MMP, daily doses 15-260 mg) was examined (n = 35). The incidence of additional cocaine consumption decreased in both groups during the study period (T-1 to T12): in HMP from 64.6% to 45.8% and in MMP from 71.4% to 60.0%. A significant reduction of cocaine consumption was defined as an at least 30% reduction of analyte concentrations in hair (Deltac > 30%). Accordingly, in HMP, a decrease in 45.8% of initially (T-1) cocaine-positive patients was determined; in MMP, the reduction was 48.6%. In 22.9% of HMP and 37.1% of MMP, an increase of cocaine concentrations was detected. Codeine and acetylcodeine were found in 50.0% and 43.5% (T-1) and 13.0% and 10.9% (T12) of the samples of the HMP, as well as in 45.7% and 25.7% (T-1) and 17.1% and 5.7% (T12) in MMP, respectively. The missing of acetylcodeine, in particular at T-1, questions its applicability as a characteristic marker of a preceding consumption of illicit heroin in hair analysis.
No preview · Article · Sep 2009 · Deutsche Zeitschrift für die Gesamte Gerichtliche Medizin
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Urine samples of patients from a heroin maintenance program (HMP) and a methadone maintenance program (MMP) were chromatographically analyzed 1 month before and 6 and 12 months into treatment for the presence of classical markers of heroin use as well as for the presence of markers for illicit heroin abuse. Furthermore, the samples were immunochemically tested for cannabinoids, cocaine metabolites, amphetamine, methylendioxyamphetamines and benzodiazepines. A co-consumption of illicit heroin (HER) in the HMP was determined to be 50% but was significantly lower compared to the MMP with a co-use of 71%. The incidence was high because not only acetylcodeine (AC) as a very specific marker was considered but also other marker substances for illicit HER use. Amphetamines played only a minor part in both collectives, and the proportion of HER and methadone patients using cocaine was similar and decreased during treatment. Also, the benzodiazepine use decreased, and cannabis use was high in both collectives during treatment. Considering only the AC in the present study, a co-use of illicit HER in the HMP was similar to previous reports concerning HER-assisted treatment programs. If additional marker substances were examined, the suspicion of a co-use of illicit HER is markedly enhanced.
No preview · Article · Sep 2009 · Deutsche Zeitschrift für die Gesamte Gerichtliche Medizin
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is an abundance of data from human genetic studies and animal models that implies a role for the disrupted in schizophrenia 1 gene (DISC1) in the etiology of schizophrenia and other major mental illnesses.
To study the effect of previously identified risk alleles of DISC1 on quantitative intermediate phenotypes for psychosis in an unselected population.
We examined 41 single-nucleotide polymorphisms within DISC1 and performed tests of association with 4 quantitative phenotypes.
Individuals from an unselected birth cohort in Finland. Originally, everyone born in the catchment area in 1966 (N = 12 058) was included in the study. Of these, 4651 (38.6%) attended the 31-year follow-up and could be included in the study.
Scores on 4 psychometric instruments selected to function as proxies for positive and negative aspects of psychotic disorders, including the Perceptual Aberration Scale, Revised Social Anhedonia Scale, Revised Physical Anhedonia Scale, and Schizoidia Scale by Golden and Meehl.
Carriers of the minor allele of marker rs821577 had significantly higher scores on social anhedonia (P < .001). The minor allele of marker rs821633 was strongly associated with lower scores on social anhedonia when analyzed dependent on the absence of the minor alleles of markers rs1538979 and rs821577 (P < .001).
Variants in DISC1 affect the level of social anhedonia, a cardinal symptom of schizophrenia in the general population. DISC1 might be more central to human psychological functioning than previously thought, as it seems to affect the degree to which people enjoy social interactions.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2009 · Archives of general psychiatry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to describe the temperament dimension profiles assessed by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) among young adults with the DSM-III-R personality disorder (PD). Our hypothesis was that PD clusters and separate PDs can be distinguished from one another by their specific temperament profiles. As a part of the 31-year follow-up survey of the prospective Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort, the cohort members living in the city of Oulu at the age of 31 years (n=1609) were invited to participate in a two-phase field study. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R for PDs (SCID-II) was used as diagnostic instrument. The final study sample consisted of the 1311 subjects who had completed the Hopkins Symptom Check List-25 questionnaire for screening and had given a written informed consent. Of the 321 SCID interviewed subjects, 74 met the criteria for at least one PD and had completed the TCI. The mean TCI scores of subjects with PD and control subjects without PD (n=910) were compared. Low Novelty Seeking, high Harm Avoidance and low Reward Dependence characterized cluster A and C PDs. Subjects with a cluster B PD did not differ from controls, except for Novelty Seeking, which was high. The temperament dimensions could not distinguish different PDs very well, with the only exception of persons with obsessive-compulsive PD. PD clusters were associated with different profiles of temperament, lending some support for Cloninger's typology.
No preview · Article · Nov 2008 · Nordic journal of psychiatry
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heroin-assisted treatment (HAT) is a new form of treatment for heroin-dependent patients not responding to conventional interventions such as methadone maintenance treatment. No pregnancies or births under HAT have been reported until now.
The pregnancy course of a 31-year-old severely dependent multi-morbid woman receiving HAT and the birth of a healthy baby after premature delivery is described. HAT helped to reduce the use of illicit substances both before and during pregnancy. The neonatal abstinence syndrome was clinically well compensated.
HAT seems to be feasible in pregnant women and normal birth is possible under HAT, which therefore may act as a harm reduction measure for polydrug-using pregnant women not responding to methadone maintenance treatment.
No preview · Article · Feb 2008 · European Addiction Research