Mubeen Ahmad Ansari

Jamia Hamdard University, New Dilli, NCT, India

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Publications (15)42.49 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the progression of cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Considerable attention has been focused on increasing the internal antioxidant defenses in response to AD. This study was designed to examine and compare the pretreatment effects of Pycnogenol (PYC) and vitamin E (Vit E) on cognitive deficits and oxidative damage in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of intracerebroventricular streptozotocin (ICV-STZ)-infused rats. Rats pretreated with PYC (10 mg/kg), Vit E (100 mg/kg), and vehicle (intraperitoneal; once daily for 3 weeks) were bilaterally injected with ICV-STZ (3 mg/kg), whereas sham rats received the same volume of vehicle. After 2 weeks of ICV-STZ infusion, rats were tested for cognitive performance using passive avoidance and water maze tasks, and then killed for biochemical assays. ICV-STZ induced significant declines in cognitive performance and choline acetyltransferase activity in the hippocampus, which were significantly attenuated with PYC and Vit E. Pretreatment with PYC and Vit E produced a significantly enhanced glutathione level and Na+/K+-ATPase activity and decreased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and protein carbonyl. These findings suggest that PYC and Vit E may provide a promising approach for the treatment of oxidative stress-related neurodegeneration in conditions such as AD.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2009 · Behavioural pharmacology
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    ABSTRACT: Quercetin, a flavonoid found in various foodstuffs, has antioxidant properties and increases glutathione (GSH) levels and antioxidant enzyme function. Considerable attention has been focused on increasing the intracellular GSH levels in many diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Amyloid beta-peptide [Abeta(1-42)], elevated in AD brain, is associated with oxidative stress and neurotoxicity. We aimed to investigate the protective effects of quercetin on Abeta(1-42)-induced oxidative cell toxicity in cultured neurons in the present study. Decreased cell survival in neuronal cultures treated with Abeta(1-42) correlated with increased free radical production measured by dichlorofluorescein fluorescence and an increase in protein oxidation (protein carbonyl, 3-nitrotyrosine) and lipid peroxidation (protein-bound 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal). Pretreatment of primary hippocampal cultures with quercetin significantly attenuated Abeta(1-42)-induced cytotoxicity, protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation and apoptosis. A dose-response study suggested that quercetin showed protective effects against Abeta(1-42) toxicity by modulating oxidative stress at lower doses, but higher doses were not only non-neuroprotective but also toxic. These findings provide motivation to test the hypothesis that quercetin may provide a promising approach for the treatment of AD and other oxidative-stress-related neurodegenerative diseases.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2008 · The Journal of nutritional biochemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus dementia (HIVD) is the most common form of dementia occurring among young adults. In HIVD, neuronal cell loss occurs in the absence of neuronal infection. With the advent of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), the incidence of HIVD has drastically reduced, though prevalence of milder forms of HIVD continues to rise. Though these agents have been used successfully in suppressing viral production, they have also been associated with a number of side effects. Here we examine the possible role of NRTIs, in particular 2',3'-dideoxycytidine (ddC), in the neuropathology of HIVD. Synaptosomes and isolated mitochondria treated and incubated for 6 h with CSF-achievable concentrations of ddC, i.e., 6-11 ng/ml, were found to show a significant increase in oxidative stress with 40 nM ddC as measured by protein carbonyls and 3-nitrotyrosine (3NT), effects that were not observed in the more tolerable NRTI, 3TC. Protection against protein oxidation induced by ddC was observed when brain mitochondria were isolated from gerbils 1 h after injection i.p. with the brain accessible antioxidant and glutathione mimetic, tricyclodecan-9-yl-xanthogenate (D609). In addition, there is a significant reduction in the levels of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and a significant increase in cytochrome c release and also a significant increase in the expression of pro-apoptotic protein caspase-3 after mitochondria were treated with 40 nM ddC. The results reported here show that ddC at 40 nM can induce oxidative stress, cause the release of cytochrome c, and in addition, reduce the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins, increase the levels of pro-apoptotic proteins, thereby increasing the possibility for induction of apoptosis. These findings are consistent with the notion of a possible role of the NRTIs, and in particular, ddC, in the mechanisms involved in HIVD.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2007 · Experimental Neurology
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    ABSTRACT: Tricyclodecan-9-yl-xanthogenate (D609) has in vivo and in vitro antioxidant properties. D609 mimics glutathione (GSH) and has a free thiol group, which upon oxidation forms a disulfide. The resulting dixanthate is a substrate for glutathione reductase, regenerating D609. Recent studies have also shown that D609 protects brain in vivo and neuronal cultures in vitro against the potential Alzheimer's disease (AD) causative factor, Abeta(1-42)-induced oxidative stress and cytotoxicity. Mitochondria are important organelles with both pro- and antiapoptotic factor proteins. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that intraperitoneal injection of D609 would provide neuroprotection against free radical-induced, mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in vitro. Brain mitochondria were isolated from gerbils 1 h post injection intraperitoneally (ip) with D609 and subsequently treated in vitro with the oxidants Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2) (hydroxyl free radicals), 2,2-azobis-(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH, alkoxyl and peroxyl free radicals), and AD-relevant amyloid beta-peptide 1-42 [Abeta(1-42)]. Brain mitochondria isolated from the gerbils previously injected ip with D609 and subjected to these oxidative stress inducers, in vitro, showed significant reduction in levels of protein carbonyls, protein-bound hydroxynonenal [a lipid peroxidation product], 3-nitrotyrosine, and cytochrome c release compared to oxidant-treated brain mitochondria isolated from saline-injected gerbils. D609 treatment significantly maintains the GSH/GSSG ratio in oxidant-treated mitochondria. Increased activity of glutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase in brain isolated from D609-injected gerbils is consistent with the notion that D609 acts like GSH. These antiapoptotic findings are discussed with reference to the potential use of this brain-accessible glutathione mimetic in the treatment of oxidative stress-related neurodegenerative disorders, including AD.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2007 · Free Radical Biology and Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Proteolytic processing and phosphorylation of amyloid precursor protein (APP), and hyperphosphorylation of tau protein, have been shown to be increased in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains, leading to increased production of beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptides and neurofibrillary tangles, respectively. These observations suggest that phosphorylation events are critical to the understanding of the pathogenesis and treatment of this devastating disease. Pin-1, one of the peptidyl-prolyl isomerases (PPIase), catalyzes the isomerization of the peptide bond between pSer/Thr-Pro in proteins, thereby regulating their biological functions which include protein assembly, folding, intracellular transport, intracellular signaling, transcription, cell cycle progression and apoptosis. A number of previous studies have shown that Pin1 is co-localized with phosphorylated tau in AD brain, and shows an inverse relationship to the expression of tau. Pin1 protects neurons under in vitro conditions. Moreover, recent studies demonstrate that APP is a target for Pin1 and thus, in Abeta production. Furthermore, Pin1 was found to be oxidatively modified and to have reduced activity in the hippocampus in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD. Because of the diverse functions of Pin1, and the discovery that this protein is one of the oxidized proteins common to both MCI and AD brain, the question arises as to whether Pin1 is one of the driving forces for the initiation or progression of AD pathogenesis, finally leading to neurodegeneration and neuronal apoptosis. In the present review, we discuss the role of Pin1 with respect to Alzheimer's disease.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2006 · Journal of Neurochemistry
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of aqueous garlic extract (AGE) on neurobehavioral activities, malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and sodium-potassium ATPase (Na(+),K(+)-ATPase) activities, and glutamate and aspartate content in a middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion (MCAO) model of acute cerebral ischemia in rats. The right MCA of male Wistar rats was occluded for 2 hours using intraluminal 4-0 monofilament, and reperfusion was allowed for 22 hours. MCAO caused significant depletion in GSH and its dependent enzymes (GPx, GR, and GST) and significant elevation of MDA, glutamate, and aspartate. The activities of Na(+),K(+)- ATPase, SOD, and CAT were decreased significantly by MCAO. The neurobehavioral activities (grip strength, spontaneous motor activity, and motor coordination) were also decreased significantly in the MCAO group. All of the alterations induced by ischemia were significantly attenuated by pretreatment with AGE (500 mg/mL/kg of body weight, i.p.) 30 minutes before the induction of MCAO and correlated well with histopathology by decreasing the neuronal cell death following MCAO and reperfusion. These findings suggest that AGE effectively modulates neurobehavioral and neurochemical changes in focal ischemia, most probably by virtue of its antioxidant properties.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2006 · Journal of Medicinal Food
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    ABSTRACT: The modifying effects of Crocus sativus (CS) stigma extract on neurobehavioral activities, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activities, and glutamate (Glu) and aspartate (Asp) content were examined in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion (MCAO) model of acute cerebral ischemia in rats. The right MCA of male Wistar rats was occluded for 2 hours using intraluminal 4-0 monofilament, and reperfusion was allowed for 22 hours. MCAO caused significant depletion in the contents of GSH and its dependent enzymes while significant elevation of MDA, Glu, and Asp. The activities of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, SOD, and CAT were decreased significantly by MCAO. The neurobehavioral activities (grip strength, spontaneous motor activity, and motor coordination) were also decreased significantly in the MCAO group. All the alterations induced by ischemia were significantly attenuated by pretreatment of CS (100 mg/kg of body weight, p.o.) 7 days before the induction of MCAO and correlated well with histopathology by decreasing the neuronal cell death following MCAO and reperfusion. The present results may suggest the effectiveness of CS in focal ischemia most probably by virtue of its antioxidant property.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2006 · Journal of Medicinal Food
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    ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the commonest neurodegenerative diseases, and oxidative stress has been evidenced to play a vital role in its causation. In the present study, we evaluated whether ethanolic extract of Nardostachys jatamansi roots (ENj), an antioxidant and enhancer of biogenic amines, can slow the neuronal injury in a 6-OHDA-rat model of Parkinson's. Rats were treated with 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg body weight of ENj for 3 weeks. On day 21, 2 microl of 6-OHDA (12 microg in 0.01% in ascorbic acid-saline) was infused into the right striatum, while the sham-operated group received 2 microl of vehicle. Three weeks after the 6-OHDA injection, the rats were tested for neurobehavioural activity and were sacrificed after 6 weeks for the estimation of lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione content, the activities of glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase, quantification of catecholamines, dopaminergic D2 receptor binding and tyrosine hydroxylase expression. The increase in drug-induced rotations and deficits in locomotor activity and muscular coordination due to 6-OHDA injections were significantly and dose-dependently restored by ENj. Lesioning was followed by an increased lipid peroxidation and significant depletion of reduced glutathione content in the substantia nigra, which was prevented with ENj pretreatment. The activities of glutathione-dependent enzymes, catalase and superoxide dismutase in striatum, which were reduced significantly by lesioning, were dose-dependently restored by ENj. A significant decrease in the level of dopamine and its metabolites and an increase in the number of dopaminergic D2 receptors in striatum were observed after 6-OHDA injection, and both were significantly recovered following ENj treatment. All of these results were exhibited by an increased density of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive (TH-IR) fibers in the ipsilateral striatum of the lesioned rats following treatment with ENj; 6-OHDA injection had induced almost a complete loss of TH-IR fibers. This study indicates that the extract of Jatamansi might be helpful in attenuating Parkinsonism.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2006 · Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior
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    ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are implicated as the leading biochemical cause of neuronal death in various neurologic disorders, including Parkinson's disease. In the present study, neuromodulatory effects of crocetin (active constituent of Crocus sativus) in a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) model of rat Parkinsonism were investigated. Male Wistar rats were pre-treated with crocetin (25, 50 and 75 microg/kg body weight) for 7 days and subjected to unilateral intrastriatal injection of 10 microg 6-OHDA on day 8. Locomotion and rotation were observed on day 23 post-injection, and after 4 weeks, striatum and substantia nigra were dissected out by decapitation. Activity of antioxidant enzymes and content of dopamine (DA) and its metabolites were estimated in striatum, whereas glutathione (GSH) content and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) were evaluated in substantia nigra. Levels of GSH and dopamine were protected, while TBARS content was attenuated in crocetin-treated groups. The activity of antioxidant enzymes was decreased in the lesion group, but protected in the crocetin-treated groups. These findings were supported by the histopathologic findings in the substantia nigra that showed that crocetin protects neurons from deleterious effects of 6-OHDA. This study revealed that crocetin, which is an important ingredient of diet in India and also used in various systems of indigenous medicine, is helpful in preventing Parkinsonism and has therapeutic potential in combating this devastating neurologic disorder.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2005 · Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior
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    ABSTRACT: 6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) is one of the most widely used rat models for Parkinson's disease. There is ample evidence in the literature that 6-OHDA elicits its toxic manifestations through oxidant stress. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-parkinsonian effects of Withania somnifera extract, which has been reported to have potent anti-oxidant, anti-peroxidative and free radical quenching properties in various diseased conditions. Rats were pretreated with 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg b.w. of the W. somnifera extract orally for 3 weeks. On day 21, 2 microL of 6-OHDA (10 microg in 0.1% in ascorbic acid-saline) was infused into the right striatum while sham operated group received 2 microL of the vehicle. Three weeks after 6-OHDA injections, rats were tested for neurobehavioral activity and were killed 5 weeks after lesioning for the estimation of lipidperoxidation, reduced glutathione content, activities of glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase, catecholamine content, dopaminergic D2 receptor binding and tyrosine hydroxylase expression. W. somnifera extract was found to reverse all the parameters significantly in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, the study demonstrates that the extract of W. somnifera may be helpful in protecting the neuronal injury in Parkinson's disease.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2005 · Human & Experimental Toxicology
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    ABSTRACT: Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb), a potent antioxidant and monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) inhibitor, was evaluated for its anti-parkinsonian effects in a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rat model of the disease. Rats were treated with 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg EGb for 3 weeks. On day 21, 2 µL 6-OHDA (10 µg in 0.1% ascorbic acid saline) was injected into the right striatum, while the sham-operated group received 2 µL of vehicle. Three weeks after 6-OHDA injection, rats were tested for rotational behaviour, locomotor activity, and muscular coordination. After 6 weeks, they were killed to estimate the generation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) content, to measure activities of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and to quantify catecholamines, dopamine (DA) D2 receptor binding, and tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-IR) fibre density. The increase in drug-induced rotations and deficits in locomotor activity and muscular coordination due to 6-OHDA injections were significantly and dose-dependently restored by EGb. The lesion was followed by an increased generation of TBARS and significant depletion of GSH content in substantia nigra, which was gradually restored with EGb treatment. EGb also dose-dependently restored the activities of glutathione-dependent enzymes, catalase, and SOD in striatum, which had reduced significantly by lesioning. A significant decrease in the level of DA and its metabolites and an increase in the number of dopaminergic D2 receptors in striatum were observed after 6-OHDA injection, both of which were significantly recovered following EGb treatment. Finally, all of these results were exhibited by an increase in the density of TH-IR fibers in the ipsilateral substantia nigra of the lesioned group following treatment with EGb; the lesioning had induced almost a complete loss of TH-IR fibers. Considering our behavioural studies, biochemical analysis, and immunohistochemical observation, we conclude that EGb can be used as a therapeutic approach to check the neuronal loss following parkinsonism.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2005 · Journal of Neurochemistry
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 mg sodium selenite/kg body weight ip on the activities of neurobehavioral, acetyl cholinesterase, monoamine oxidase, and the content of dopamine and its metabolites in circadian rhythm centers of male Wistar rats was studied after 7 d of treatment. The results show an appreciable increase in locomotion, stereo-events, distance traveled, and average speed at the dose of 0.1 and 0.2 mg sodium selenite/kg. The data have shown hyperactivity of animals with various doses of sodium selenite, and it was significant and dose-dependent after 3 d of treatment. The activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was inhibited dose dependently, and it was significant in preoptic area with 0.1 or 0.2 mg sodium selenite/kg. Conversely, in the posterior hypothalamus its activity was significantly elevated with the dose of 0.2 mg sodium selenite/kg, but its alteration in brain stem was not significant. Monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity was increased in preoptic area with the dose of 0.1 mg sodium selenite/kg, but its alteration in posterior hypothalamus and brain stem was not significant. The content of dopamine (DA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid (DOPAC), and homovanilic acid (HVA) was elevated dose dependently and it was significant with the doss of 0.1 and 0.2 mg sodium selenite/kg, but the content of DOPAC and HVA in posterior hypothalamus was not significant with the dose of 0.1 mg sodium selenite/kg.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2005 · Biological Trace Element Research
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    ABSTRACT: Normal cellular metabolism produces oxidants that are neutralized by the cells' antioxidant enzymes and antioxidants taken from outside. An imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant has been postulated to lead to the neurodegeneration in the ischemic condition. In this study, we have demonstrated the prevention or slowdown of neuronal injury in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) by sodium selenite. Rats were pretreated with 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 mg/kg body wt of sodium selenite for 7 d. The rats of group I (sham) and group II (ischemia) were pretreated with physiological saline for 7 d. On d 8, MCAO was induced for 2 h in the right side of brain of group II, III, IV, and V rats. Brains were dissect out after 22 h of reperfusion and washed with chilled physiological saline. The right cerebral hemisphere was used for the preparation of mitochondria. The activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, and monoamine oxidase (MAO-A and MAO-B) was depleted significantly; conversely, the activity of poly(ADP-ribosyl) polymerase was elevated significantly as compared to the sham, and the pretreatment of the animals with different doses of sodium selenite has protected the activity of these enzymes significantly. The content of glutathione was decreased significantly, whereas the level of lipid peroxidation was increased significantly in the mitochondria of MCAO as compared to the sham group, and pretreatment with different doses of sodium selenite has protected their levels significantly as compared to the MCAO group. It is concluded that selenium, which is an essential part of our diet, might be helpful in protection against neurodegeneration in cerebral ischemia.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2004 · Biological Trace Element Research
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of various doses of sodium tellurite (1/50 LD50=0.4 mg/kg, 1/25 LD50=0.8 mg/kg, and 1/10 LD50=2.0 mg/kg body weight orally) on the lipid levels (cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, esterified fatty acids, gangliosides, and total lipids) in the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem of male albino mice was studied after 7 and 15 d of treatment. Sodium tellurite (2.0 mg/kg body weight) for 7 d has an apparent effect on the depletion of cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, esterified fatty acids, and total lipids. The cholesterol content was decreased significantly in the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem after 7 d of treatment with a 2.0-mg/kg dose compared to the control. On the other hand, treatment for 15 d with doses of 0.4, 0.8, and 2.0 mg/kg body weight resulted in a significant and dose-dependent increment in cholesterol level in the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem. The triglycerides content was decreased significantly in the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem with the 2.0-mg/kg dose after 7 d of treatment. The doses of 0.4, 0.8, and 2.0 mg/kg orally for 15 d resulted in a significant and dose-dependent depletion of triglycerides in the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem. All the doses of tellurium (0.4, 0.8, and 2.0 mg/kg) both for 7 and 15 d have depleted the level of phospholipids in varying degrees of significance in the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem. However, the level of esterified fatty acids was decreased significantly with the 2.0-mg/kg dose of tellurium for 7 d but increased with the 0.4-mg/kg dose for 15 d in the cerebrum and cerebellum. The level of gangliosides was depleted in the cerebrum but elevated in the cerebellum and brainstem after receiving a 2.0-mg/kg dose of sodium tellurite for 7 d. The content of gangliosides was increased with doses of 0.4 and 0.8 mg/kg but decreased with 2.0 mg/kg for 15 d in the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem. The total lipids content was depleted significantly and dose dependently after 7 and 15 d of treatment in the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem. These results suggest that sodium tellurite affects the lipids content differentially in various parts of the mice brain.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2003 · Biological Trace Element Research
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of various doses of sodium tellurite (0.4, 0.8, and 2.0 mg/kg body weight, orally) on the activity of antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase, and catalase) and content of glutathione and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs) in the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem of male albino mice was studied after 15 d of treatment. All of the doses of tellurium (0.4, 0.8, and 2.0 mg/kg body weight, orally) have depleted the activity of antioxidant enzymes and the content of glutathione dose dependently in the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brainstem and it was significant with the dose of 2.0 mg/kg. On the other hand, the 2.0-mg/kg dose of tellurium has significantly elevated the content of TBARSs in the cerebrum and cerebellum. The 0.8-mg/kg dose of tellurium has significantly depleted the activities of glutathione peroxidase in the cerebrum and brainstem, glutathione-Stransferase in the cerebrum and cerebellum, catalase in the brainstem, and the content of glutathione in the cerebrum and cerebellum. In contrast, this dose has significantly elevated the content of TBARSs in the cerebrum and cerebellum. However, the depletion in the activity of glutathione reductase with various doses of sodium tellurite was not significant in any brain part of mice. The result suggests that sodium tellurite differentially affects the antioxidant status within various parts of the mice brain.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2003 · Biological Trace Element Research