Philippe Desprès

Cyclotron Réunion Indian Ocean, Saint-Denis, Île-de-France, France

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Publications (129)496.96 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The live attenuated yellow fever virus (YFV) vaccine 17D stands as a “gold standard” for a successful vaccine. 17D was developed empirically by passaging the wild-type Asibi strain in mouse and chicken embryo tissues. Despite its immense success, the molecular determinants for virulence attenuation and immunogenicity of the 17D vaccine are poorly understood. 17D evolved several mutations in its genome, most of which lie within the envelope (E) protein. Given the major role played by the YFV E protein during virus entry, it has been hypothesized that the residues that diverge between the Asibi and 17D E proteins may be key determinants of attenuation. In this study, we define the process of YFV entry into target cells and investigate its implication in the activation of the antiviral cytokine response. We found that Asibi infects host cells exclusively via the classical clathrin-mediated endocytosis, while 17D exploits a clathrin-independent pathway for infectious entry. We demonstrate that the mutations in the 17D E protein acquired during the attenuation process are sufficient to explain the differential entry of Asibi versus 17D. Interestingly, we show that 17D binds to and infects host cells more efficiently than Asibi, which culminates in increased delivery of viral RNA into the cytosol and robust activation of the cytokine-mediated antiviral response. Overall, our study reveals that 17D vaccine and Asibi enter target cells through distinct mechanisms and highlights a link between 17D attenuation, virus entry, and immune activation. IMPORTANCE The yellow fever virus (YFV) vaccine 17D is one of the safest and most effective live virus vaccines ever developed. The molecular determinants for virulence attenuation and immunogenicity of 17D are poorly understood. 17D was generated by serially passaging the virulent Asibi strain in vertebrate tissues. Here we examined the entry mechanisms engaged by YFV Asibi and the 17D vaccine. We found the two viruses use different entry pathways. We show that the mutations differentiating the Asibi envelope (E) protein from the 17D E protein, which arose during attenuation, are key determinants for the use of these distinct entry routes. Finally, we demonstrate that 17D binds and enters host cells more efficiently than Asibi. This results in a higher uptake of viral RNA into the cytoplasm and consequently a greater cytokine-mediated antiviral response. Overall, our data provide new insights into the biology of YFV infection and the mechanisms of viral attenuation.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2016 · mBio
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    ABSTRACT: Importance: JEV is a mosquito-transmitted Flavivirus and is a medically important pathogen in Asia. The M protein is thought to be important for accommodating the structural rearrangements undergone by the virion during viral assembly, and may play additional roles in the JEV infectious cycle. In the present study, we show that a sole mutation in the M protein impairs JEV infection cycle in mammalian hosts, but not in mosquito cells. This finding highlights differences in Flavivirus assembly pathways amongst hosts. Moreover, infection of mice indicated that the mutant was completely attenuated and triggered a strong immune response to JEV, thus providing new insights for further development of JEV vaccines.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of Virology
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    ABSTRACT: According to recent statistics, 96 million apparent dengue infections were estimated worldwide in 2010. This figure is by far greater than the WHO prediction which indicates the rapid spread of this disease posing a growing threat to the economy and a major challenge to clinicians and health care services across the globe particularly in the affected areas. This article aims at bringing to light the current epidemiological and clinical status of the dengue fever. The relationship between genetic mutations, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and the pathophysiology of disease progression will be put into perspective. It will also highlight the recent advances in dengue vaccine development. Thus far, a significant progress has been made in unraveling the risk factors and understanding the molecular pathogenesis associated with the disease. However, further insights in molecular features of the disease and the development of animal models will enormously help improving the therapeutic interventions and potentially contribute to finding new preventive measures for population at risk.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Virology Journal
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    ABSTRACT: Geographical expansion and re-emerging new genotypes of the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) require the development of novel therapeutic approaches. Here, we studied a non-conventional approach for antibody therapy and show that, upon exposure to heme, a fraction of natural human immunoglobulins acquires high-affinity reactivity with the antigenic domain-III of JEV E glycoprotein. These JEV-reactive antibodies exhibited neutralizing activity against recently dominant JEV genotypes. This study opens new therapeutic options for Japanese encephalitis.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Scientific Reports
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    ABSTRACT: West Nile virus (WNV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) are flaviviruses responsible for severe neuroinvasive infections in humans and horses. The confirmation of flavivirus infections is mostly based on rapid serological tests such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). These tests suffer from poor specificity, mainly due to antigenic cross-reactivity among flavivirus members. Robust diagnosis therefore needs to be validated through virus neutralisation tests (VNTs) which are time-consuming and require BSL3 facilities. The flavivirus envelope (E) glycoprotein ectodomain is composed of three domains (D) named DI, DII, and DIII, with EDIII containing virus-specific epitopes. In order to improve the serological differentiation of flavivirus infections, the recombinant soluble ectodomain of WNV E (WNV.sE) and EDIIIs (rEDIIIs) of WNV, JEV, and TBEV were synthesised using the Drosophila S2 expression system. Purified antigens were covalently bonded to fluorescent beads. The microspheres coupled to WNV.sE or rEDIIIs were assayed with about 300 equine immune sera from natural and experimental flavivirus infections and 172 nonimmune equine sera as negative controls. rEDIII-coupled microspheres captured specific antibodies against WNV, TBEV, or JEV in positive horse sera. This innovative multiplex immunoassay is a powerful alternative to ELISAs and VNTs for veterinary diagnosis of flavivirus-related diseases.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Background Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the major cause of viral encephalitis in Southeast Asia. Vaccination of domestic pigs has been suggested as a “one health” strategy to reduce viral disease transmission to humans. The efficiency of two lentiviral TRIP/JEV vectors expressing the JEV envelope prM and E glycoproteins at eliciting protective humoral response was assessed in a mouse model and piglets. Methodology/Principal Findings A gene encoding the envelope proteins prM and E from a genotype 3 JEV strain was inserted into a lentiviral TRIP vector. Two lentiviral vectors TRIP/JEV were generated, each expressing the prM signal peptide followed by the prM protein and the E glycoprotein, the latter being expressed either in its native form or lacking its two C-terminal transmembrane domains. In vitro transduction of cells with the TRIP/JEV vector expressing the native prM and E resulted in the efficient secretion of virus-like particles of Japanese encephalitis virus. Immunization of BALB/c mice with TRIP/JEV vectors resulted in the production of IgGs against Japanese encephalitis virus, and the injection of a second dose one month after the prime injection greatly boosted antibody titers. The TRIP/JEV vectors elicited neutralizing antibodies against JEV strains belonging to genotypes 1, 3, and 5. Immunization of piglets with two doses of the lentiviral vector expressing JEV virus-like particles led to high titers of anti-JEV antibodies, that had efficient neutralizing activity regardless of the JEV genotype tested. Conclusions/Significance Immunization of pigs with the lentiviral vector expressing JEV virus-like particles is particularly efficient to prime antigen-specific humoral immunity and trigger neutralizing antibody responses against JEV genotypes 1, 3, and 5. The titers of neutralizing antibodies elicited by the TRIP/JEV vector are sufficient to confer protection in domestic pigs against different genotypes of JEV and this could be of a great utility in endemic regions where more than one genotype is circulating.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: French Polynesia is a high epidemic/endemic area for arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses). We recently reported the silent circulation of Ross River virus and absence of active transmission of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) among blood donors sampled before the emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) and CHIKV in French Polynesia. In this study, the prevalence of the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV) and the occurrence of circulation of other arboviruses were investigated in blood donors in French Polynesia. Methods: Serum samples from 593 blood donors collected between July 2011 and October 2013 were tested by ELISA for the presence of immunoglobulin G antibodies against each of the four DENV serotypes, ZIKV, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), and West Nile virus (WNV). Results: It was found that 80.3%, 0.8%, 1.3%, and 1.5% of blood donors were seropositive for at least one DENV serotype, ZIKV, JEV, and WNV, respectively. Conclusions: These results corroborate the expected high transmission of DENV and conversely suggest that no active circulation of ZIKV, JEV, and WNV occurred in French Polynesia before 2011. Information provided by this study may be useful for public health authorities to improve surveillance and implement strategies to prevent the transmission of arboviruses.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015 · International Journal of Infectious Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family, which includes dengue, West Nile, yellow fever, and Japanese encephalitis viruses, that causes a mosquito-borne disease transmitted by the Aedes genus, with recent outbreaks in the South Pacific. Here we examine the importance of human skin in the entry of ZIKV and its contribution to the induction of antiviral immune responses. We show that human dermal fibroblasts, epidermal keratinocytes, and immature dendritic cells are permissive to the most recent ZIKV isolate, responsible for the epidemic in French Polynesia. Several entry and/or adhesion factors, including DC-SIGN, AXL, Tyro3, and, to a lesser extent, TIM-1, permitted ZIKV entry, with a major role for the TAM receptor AXL. The ZIKV permissiveness of human skin fibroblasts was confirmed by the use of a neutralizing antibody and specific RNA silencing. ZIKV induced the transcription of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), RIG-I, and MDA5, as well as several interferonstimulated genes, including OAS2, ISG15, and MX1, characterized by strongly enhanced beta interferon gene expression. ZIKV was found to be sensitive to the antiviral effects of both type I and type II interferons. Finally, infection of skin fibroblasts resulted in the formation of autophagosomes, whose presence was associated with enhanced viral replication, as shown by the use of Torin 1, a chemical inducer of autophagy, and the specific autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine. The results presented herein permit us to gain further insight into the biology of ZIKV and to devise strategies aiming to interfere with the pathology caused by this emerging flavivirus.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Journal of Virology
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    ABSTRACT: Ross River is an emerging mosquito-borne disease in the Western Pacific. Ross River virus (RRV) circulation has been sporadically reported in some Pacific Island Countries and Territories but never in French Polynesia. To determine if RRV has circulated locally among the French Polynesian population, we conducted a seroprevalence study on blood donors. Sera of 593 blood donors were collected from July 2011 to October 2013 and tested by ELISA for the presence of RRV-specific Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. A total of 204 (34.40%) blood donors were found seropositive for RRV. Among the 132 blood donors that were born in French Polynesia and had never travelled abroad, 56 (42.42%) had RRV-specific IgGs. Our results support the existence of autochthonous RRV transmission and suggest that this pathogen has silently circulated in French Polynesia. These findings raise the question of possible undetected circulation of RRV in other Pacific Island Countries and Territories. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015 · International journal of infectious diseases: IJID: official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Arboviruses represent an emerging threat to human. They are transmitted to vertebrates by the bite of infected arthropods. Early transmission to vertebrates is initiated by skin puncture and deposition of virus in this organ. However, events at the bite site remain largely unknown. Here, we report that Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and West Nile virus (WNV), despite belonging to distinct viral families, elicit a common antiviral signature in primary human dermal fibroblasts, attesting for the up regulation of interferon signalling pathways and leading to an increased expression of IFN-β, interleukins and chemokines. Remarkably, CHIKV and WNV enhance IL-1β expression and induce maturation of caspase-1, indicating the capacity of these pathogens to elicit activation of the inflammasome program in resident skin cells. CHIKV and WNV also induce the expression of the inflammasome sensor AIM2 in dermal fibroblasts, whereas inhibition of caspase-1 and AIM2 with siRNA interferes with both CHIKV- and WNV-induced IL-1β production by these cells. Finally, inhibition of the inflammasome via caspase-1 silencing was found to enhance CHIKV replication in dermal fibroblasts. Together, these results indicate that the skin contributes to the pro-inflammatory and anti-viral microenvironment via the activation of the inflammasome in the early stages following infection with arboviruses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Infection, genetics and evolution: journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Japanese Encephalitis virus (JEV) can be separated into 5 genotypes (g1 to g5) based on sequence similarity. JEV g5 strains have been rarely isolated, and are poorly characterized. We report here the full characterization of a g5 virus generated using a cDNA-based technology, and its comparison with a widely studied g3 strain. We did not observe any major differences between those viruses when their infectious cycles was studied in various cell linesin vitro. Interestingly, the JEV g5 strain was highly pathogenic when inoculated to BALB/c mice, which are known to be largely resistant to JEV g3 infection. The study of chimeric viruses between JEV g3 and g5 showed that there was a poor viral clearance ofviruses that express JEV g5 structural proteins in BALB/c mice blood, that correlated with viral invasion of the central nervous system, and encephalitis. In addition, using an in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier, we were able to show that JEV g5 does not have an enhanced capacity at entering the central nervous system, when compared to JEV g3. Overall,in addition to providing a first characterization of the understudied JEV g5, our work highlights the importance of sustaining an early viremia inthe development of JEV encephalitis. Genotype 5 viruses are genetically and serologically distinct from other JEV genotypes and can been associated with human encephalitis, which warrants the need for their characterization. In this study, we characterized the in vitro and in vivo properties of a JEV g5 strain, and showed that it was more neuropathogenic in a mouse model than a well-characterized JEV g3 strain. The enhanced virulence of JEV g5 was associated with poor viral clearance but not with enhanced crossing of the blood-brain barrier, thus providing new insights into JEV pathogenesis. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of Virology
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    ABSTRACT: Although plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) represent a rare immune cell type, they are the most important source of type I interferons (IFNs) upon viral infection. Phagocytosed RNA viruses and RNA virus–infected cells are detected by pDCs with the endosomal pattern recognition receptor (PRR) toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7). We showed that replication of the yellow fever live vaccine YF-17D in human pDCs and pDC-like cell lines stimulated type I IFN production through RIG-I (retinoic acid–inducible gene I), a member of the RIG-I–like receptor (RLR) family of cytosolic PRRs. Thus, human pDCs sense replicative viral RNA. In contrast, direct contact between pDCs and YF-17D–infected cells stimulated a TLR7-dependent, viral replication–independent production of type I IFN. We also showed that the RLR pathway was dampened by the activities of interleukin-1 receptor–associated kinases 1 and 4 (IRAK1 and IRAK4), which are downstream effectors of the TLR7 pathway, suggesting that both kinases play opposing roles downstream of specific PRRs. Together, these data suggest that a virus can stimulate either TLR or RLR signaling in the same cell, depending on how its nucleic acid content is delivered.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Science Signaling
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    ABSTRACT: Although plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) represent a rare immune cell type, they are the most important source of type I interferons (IFNs) upon viral infection. Phagocytosed RNA viruses and RNA virus-infected cells are detected by pDCs with the endosomal pattern recognition receptor (PRR) toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7). We showed that replication of the yellow fever live vaccine YF-17D in human pDCs and pDC-like cell lines stimulated type I IFN production through RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene I), a member of the RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) family of cytosolic PRRs. Thus, human pDCs sense replicative viral RNA. In contrast, direct contact between pDCs and YF-17D-infected cells stimulated a TLR7-dependent, viral replication-independent production of type I IFN. We also showed that the RLR pathway was dampened by the activities of interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinases 1 and 4 (IRAK1 and IRAK4), which are downstream effectors of the TLR7 pathway, suggesting that both kinases play opposing roles downstream of specific PRRs. Together, these data suggest that a virus can stimulate either TLR or RLR signaling in the same cell, depending on how its nucleic acid content is delivered. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Science Signaling
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    ABSTRACT: Chikungunya is an emerging arthropod-borne disease that has spread from tropical endemic areas to more temperate climates of the USA and Europe. However, no specific treatment or preventive measure is yet available. We aimed to investigate the immunogenicity and safety of a live recombinant measles-virus-based chikungunya vaccine. We did a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, active-comparator, phase 1, dose-escalation study at one centre in Vienna, Austria. Healthy men and women aged 18-45 years with no comorbidities were randomly assigned, by computer-generated block randomisation (block size of 14), to receive either one of three escalating doses of the measles-virus-based candidate vaccine (low dose [1·5 × 10(4) median tissue culture infection doses (TCID50) per 0·05 mL], medium dose [7·5 × 10(4) TCID50 per 0·25 mL], or high dose [3·0 × 10(5) TCID50 per 1·0 mL]), or the active comparator-Priorix. Participants were additionally block-randomised to receive a booster injection on either day 28 or day 90 after the first vaccination. Participants and study investigators were masked to group allocation. The primary endpoint was the presence of neutralising anti-chikungunya antibodies on day 28, as assessed by 50% plaque reduction neutralisation test. Analysis was by intention to treat and per protocol. This trial is registered with EudraCT, number 2013-001084-23. Between Nov 22, 2013, and Feb 25, 2014, we randomly assigned 42 participants to receive the low dose (n=12), the medium dose (n=12), or the high dose (n=12) of the measles-virus-based candidate vaccine, or Priorix (n=6), of whom 36 participants (86%; n=9, n=12, n=10, n=5, respectively) were included in the per-protocol population. The candidate vaccine raised neutralising antibodies in all dose cohorts after one immunisation, with seroconversion rates of 44% (n=4) in the low-dose group, 92% (n=11) in the medium-dose group, and 90% (n=10) in the high-dose group. The immunogenicity of the candidate vaccine was not affected by pre-existing anti-measles immunity. The second vaccination resulted in a 100% seroconversion for all participants in the candidate vaccine groups. The candidate vaccine had an overall good safety profile, and the rate of adverse events increased with vaccine dose and volume. No vaccination-related serious adverse events were recorded. The live recombinant measles-virus-based chikungunya vaccine had good immunogenicity, even in the presence of anti-vector immunity, was safe, and had a generally acceptable tolerability profile. This vaccine is the first promising measles-virus-based candidate vaccine for use in human beings. Themis Bioscience GmBH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · The Lancet Infectious Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Dengue disease is caused by four different flavivirus serotypes, which infect 390 million people yearly with 25% symptomatic cases and for which no licensed vaccine is available. Recent phase III vaccine trials showed partial protection, and in particular no protection for dengue virus serotype 2 (refs 3, 4). Structural studies so far have characterized only epitopes recognized by serotype-specific human antibodies. We recently isolated human antibodies potently neutralizing all four dengue virus serotypes. Here we describe the X-ray structures of four of these broadly neutralizing antibodies in complex with the envelope glycoprotein E from dengue virus serotype 2, revealing that the recognition determinants are at a serotype-invariant site at the E-dimer interface, including the exposed main chain of the E fusion loop and the two conserved glycan chains. This 'E-dimer-dependent epitope' is also the binding site for the viral glycoprotein prM during virus maturation in the secretory pathway of the infected cell, explaining its conservation across serotypes and highlighting an Achilles' heel of the virus with respect to antibody neutralization. These findings will be instrumental for devising novel immunogens to protect simultaneously against all four serotypes of dengue virus.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Nature
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    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · International journal of infectious diseases: IJID: official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: The oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS) proteins are traditionally considered intracellular antiviral proteins that mediate antiviral activity through the synthesis of 2'-5'-linked oligoadenylates and subsequent activation of the endoribonuclease RNase L. However, we have recently demonstrated that exogenous recombinant OAS1 is taken up by cells and reduces viral replication both in cell culture and in vivo, independent of RNase L. These results demonstrate a novel paracrine antiviral activity of OAS working in parallel with the classical RNase L pathway. In this study, we investigate the uptake kinetics of recombinant porcine OAS1 and show that it is rapidly and efficiently internalized in a manner that can be blocked by heparin. Heparin, furthermore, abolishes the antiviral activity of OAS1, demonstrating the requirement of the intracellular localization of OAS1 to inhibit the virus. In addition, we demonstrate that exogenous OAS1 affects an early step of the viral replication cycle.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
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    ABSTRACT: Transmission of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) to humans is initiated by puncture of the skin by a blood-feeding Aedes mosquito. Despite the growing knowledge accumulated on CHIKV, the interplay between skin cells and CHIKV following inoculation still remains unclear. In this study we questioned the behavior of human keratinocytes, the predominant cell population in the skin, following viral challenge. We report that CHIKV rapidly elicits an innate immune response in these cells leading to the enhanced transcription of type I/II and type III interferon genes. Concomitantly, we show that despite viral particles internalization into Rab5-positive endosomes and efficient fusion of virus and cell membranes, keratinocytes poorly replicate CHIKV as attested by absence of nonstructural proteins and genomic RNA synthesis. Accordingly, human keratinocytes behave as an antiviral defense against CHIKV infection rather than as a primary targets for initial replication. This picture significantly differs from that reported for Dengue and West Nile mosquito-borne viruses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Virology
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    ABSTRACT: Unlabelled: The members of the oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS) family of proteins are antiviral restriction factors that target a wide range of RNA and DNA viruses. They function as intracellular double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) sensors that, upon binding to dsRNA, undergo a conformational change and are activated to synthesize 2'-5'-linked oligoadenylates (2-5As). 2-5As of sufficient length act as second messengers to activate RNase L and thereby restrict viral replication. We expressed human OAS3 using the baculovirus system and purified it to homogeneity. We show that recombinant OAS3 is activated at a substantially lower concentration of dsRNA than OAS1, making it a potent in vivo sensor of dsRNA. Moreover, we find that OAS3 synthesizes considerably longer 2-5As than previously reported, and that OAS3 can activate RNase L intracellularly. The combined high affinity for dsRNA and the capability to produce 2-5As of sufficient length to activate RNase L suggests that OAS3 is a potent activator of RNase L. In addition, we provide experimental evidence to support one active site of OAS3 located in the C-terminal OAS domain and generate a low-resolution structure of OAS3 using SAXS. Importance: We are the first to purify the OAS3 enzyme to homogeneity, which allowed us to characterize the mechanism utilized by OAS3 and identify the active site. We provide compelling evidence that OAS3 can produce 2'-5'-oligoadenylates of sufficient length to activate RNase L. This is contrary to what is described in the current literature but agrees with recent in vivo data showing that OAS3 harbors an antiviral activity requiring RNase L. Thus, our work redefines our understanding of the biological role of OAS3. Furthermore, we used a combination of mutagenesis and small-angle X-ray scattering to describe the active site and low-resolution structure of OAS3.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Journal of Virology
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    ABSTRACT: Due to climate change and the propagation of competent arthropods worldwide, arboviruses have become pathogens of major medical importance. Early transmission to vertebrates is initiated by skin puncture and deposition of virus together with arthropod saliva in the epidermis and dermis. Saliva components have the capacity to modulate skin cell responses by enhancing and/or counteracting initial replication and establishment of systemic viral infection. Here, we review the nature of the cells targeted by arboviruses at the skin level and discuss the type of cellular responses elicited by these pathogens in light of the immunomodulatory properties of arthropod vector-derived salivary factors injected at the inoculation site. Understanding cutaneous arbovirus–host interactions may provide new clues for the design of future therapeutics.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Virology

Publication Stats

5k Citations
496.96 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2015
    • Cyclotron Réunion Indian Ocean
      Saint-Denis, Île-de-France, France
    • University of La Réunion
      Saint-Denis, Réunion, Reunion
  • 1996-2015
    • Institut Pasteur
      • Department of Virology
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2011
    • Aarhus University
      Aarhus, Central Jutland, Denmark
  • 2008
    • Université René Descartes - Paris 5
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2007
    • Pierre and Marie Curie University - Paris 6
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1989
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France