[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The venom of the snake Philodryas nattereri is a mixture of proteins and toxic peptides with several important local and systemic actions, which are similar to those occurring in Bothrops snake bites. The mechanisms involved in the local and systemic actions of this venom are unknown. The aims of the work were to initial characterization of P. nattereri venom and investigate the effects of the poison in the renal perfusion system and in cultured renal tubular cells of the type MDCK (Madin-Darby canine kidney). The P. nattereri venom is composed majority of proteins (86,3%) and this poison promoted changes in all the evaluated renal parameters, mainly decreasing renal perfusion pressure (PP) and renal vascular resistance (RVR) and increasing urine flow (UF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The most relevant result was that this venom was highly detrimental to the renal tubules independent of the PP reduction, which was shown by a decrease in sodium (Na+), potassium (K+) and chloride (Cl−) electrolyte transport in the studied concentrations. The glomeruli and tubules contain protein bodies and blood extravasation, which were observed by histological analysis. The venom of P. nattereri reduced viability of the MDCK cells only at high concentrations (50 and 100 μg/mL) with an IC50 of 169,5 μg/mL.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Philodryas nattereri is distributed in arid and semiarid regions of South America and is most common in northeastern Brazil. The aims of the work were to investigate the edematogenic and myotoxic effects promoted by P. nattereri venom. In this work, mice weighing 20-30 g (n = 4 for each experimental group) were used. For the edematogenic activity mice were injected in the subplantar region of the right foot pad with 50 µL of solutions containing different amounts of venom (3 and 10 µg) measured by plethysmometry at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 6, 12 and 24 hr and pretreated with indomethacin, dexamethasone and antibothropic serum, whereas the left foot pad was injected with 50 µL of NaCl 0.15 M. Two hours after injection mice were killed by cervical dislocation and both feet were cut off and weighed individually. For the myotoxic activity mice were injected i.m. with 100 mL of solutions containing 50 µg of venom. Blood samples were extracted after 2, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48 hr of venom injection to determinate serum CK activity and mice were sacrificed at the same time intervals to obtain the inoculated gastrocnemius muscle. They were fixed with formalin solution and stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin. Results showed that P. nattereri venom exhibits a high edematogenic and myotoxic activities. Myonecrosis reached its highest level after 2 hr of venom injection as shown by plasmatic CK levels (364 ± 92 U/L) and microscopic assay. It demonstrates the potential toxicity of the venom of P. nattereri, who inhabits the North-East region of Brazil.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is a report of disseminated bacillary angiomatosis (BA) in a 23-year-old female patient, who is HIV-positive and with fever, weight loss, hepatomegaly, ascites, and papular-nodular skin lesions. The clinical and diagnostic aspects involved in the case were discussed. Bacillary angiomatosis must always be considered in the diagnosis of febrile cutaneous manifestations in AIDS.
Preview · Article · Oct 2011 · Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of the hemoxigenase-1 (HO-1) pathway in the anti-inflammatory action of a sulfated polysaccharide from the red seaweed Gracilaria birdiae (SP-Gb).
SP-Gb (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) was administered to Wistar rats in a peritonitis model using carrageenan or a paw edema model using carrageenan or dextran. To analyze the involvement of HO-1 in the anti-inflammatory activity of SP-Gb, the animals were pretreated subcutaneously with a specific HO-1 inhibitor (ZnPP IX). To evaluate the systemic effects, SP-Gb (10 mg/kg) was administered to mice intraperitoneally before waiting for 48 h or for 14 days.
SP-Gb (10 mg/kg) caused an anti-inflammatory effect that was evidenced by a decrease in leukocytes in the peritoneal cavity. SP-Gb also reduced the paw edema induced by carrageenan and inhibited the paw edema induced by dextran in the first half-hour. After being inhibited by ZnPP IX, the anti-inflammatory effect of SP-Gb on carrageenan-induced rat paw edema was not observed. SP-Gb did not cause mortality or significant changes in the biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters.
SP-Gb may be used as a tool for further investigations into the inflammatory processes associated with the hemoxigenase-1 pathway.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2011 · Agents and Actions
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Natural intoxication of livestock by ingestion of Ipomoea asarifolia leaves has been reported to occur widely in Brazil. Previous studies carried out by our research group provided strong evidence that a lectin could be involved with the toxic properties of I. asarifolia. To reinforce this hypothesis, a lectin-enriched fraction (LEF) was isolated from I. asarifolia leaves and its toxic effects were assessed. Leaves of I. asarifolia were excised from plants growing widely in the field, mechanically wounded and maintained in a chamber at 25 ± 3 °C for 72h in the dark, under near 100% relative humidity. The leaf proteins were extracted, ammonium sulfate precipitated, chromatographed on DEAE-cellulose and Phenyl-Sepharose to produce LEF that under SDS-PAGE showed a molecular mass of 44.0 kDa and after N-terminal amino acid analysis a primary sequence composed of AGYTPVLDIGAEVLAAGEPY. The in vivo toxicity of LEF assessed by intraorbital injection in mice showed induced severe uncoordinated movements without death. LEF reduced the muscular contraction in a dose depend way and at 29.8 μg/mL (CE(50)) it produces 50% inhibition of contraction, suggesting that LEF blunts autonomic neurotransmission. Isolated rat kidneys were perfused with LEF and no effects on the perfusion pressure or renal vascular resistance were observed, but urinary flow and glomerular filtration rate increased. Moreover, the percentage of tubular transport of Na(+), K(+) and Cl(-) decreased. Histological examination of the kidneys perfused with LEF exhibited little alterations. These toxic effects observed above were concomitant with the increase of LEF hemagglutination activity, which strongly suggest that one of the toxic principles of I. asarifolia is a lectin present in its leaves.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Amyloidosis is a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by extracellular deposits of a material composed of aggregates of amyloid--a poorly coupled protein--far from the site of synthesis, causing target organ dysfunction and clinical disease. Systemic amyloidosis A (AA), secondary to infections and chronic inflammation, especially rheumatoid arthritis (RA), is the most common form of amyloid deposition. Treatment of AA consists in the control or resolution of the baseline condition. The objective of the present study was to report a case of secondary renal amyloidosis in a patient with long-term refractory RA who presented sustained clinical improvement after the use of anti-TNFα (etanercept).
Full-text · Article · Apr 2010 · Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thalassophryne nattereri (niquim) is a venomous fish responsible for numerous accidents involving fishermen in northern and northeastern Brazil. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the action of antivenom on renal effects caused by Thalassophryne nattereri venom. Isolated kidneys of Wistar rats were perfused with a previously dialyzed Krebs-Henseleit solution containing 6 g% bovine serum albumin. The antivenom action was studied through perfusion pressure (PP), renal vascular resistance (RVR), urinary flow (UF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The niquim venom (1 µg/mL), the antivenom alone (1 µg/mL) or the venom incubated with antivenom were added to the system 30 minutes after the beginning of each perfusion. Previous works have shown venom induced-alterations of renal function parameters. In the isolated rat kidney, T. nattereri venom (1 µg/mL) increased the perfusion pressure and renal vascular resistance at 60, 90 and 120 minutes. UF and GFR also increased at 60, 90 and 120 minutes when compared with the control group; however, no effects were observed on the percent of sodium (%TNa+control = 81.1 ±0.86; %TNa+60 = 78.04 ±1.18; %TNa+90 = 76.16 ±3.34; %TNa+120 = 79.49 ±0.87) and potassium (%TK+control = 72.29 ±1.12; %TK+60 = 75.41 ±0.65; %TK+90 = 71.23 ±2.55; %TK+120 = 76.62 ±1.04) tubular transport. The administration of the antivenom (1 µg/mL) incubated with venom (1 µg/mL) reduced the changes in PP, RVR, UF and GFR provoked by Thalassophryne nattereri venom. The group perfused with venom alone showed a moderate deposit of a proteinaceous material in the tubules and urinary space. The group perfused with the antivenom presented similar results to the control group. In conclusion, the antivenom was able to decrease the effects induced by T. nattereri venom in isolated rat kidney.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2009 · Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Castleman's disease is a rare disorder of the lymphoid tissue. We report the case of a female patient with bilateral otosclerosis, no respiratory symptoms, and pleural effusion discovered as an incidental finding on a chest X-ray. Computed tomography of the chest revealed a mediastinal mass. The biopsy findings demonstrated that it was a plasmacytic variant of Castleman's disease. The patient underwent mediastinal mass resection. This resulted in near-total resolution of the effusion, which remained as a small loculation within the left pleural space.
Preview · Article · Sep 2008 · Jornal brasileiro de pneumologia: publicacao oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A doença de Castleman é uma rara afecção do tecido linfóide. Relatamos o caso de uma paciente do sexo feminino com otosclerose bilateral, sem sintomas respiratórios e com achado incidental de derrame pleural esquerdo em uma radiografia de tórax. A tomografia computadorizada de tórax revelou uma massa mediastinal. A biópsia demonstrou tratar-se de variante plasmocitária da doença de Castleman. A paciente foi submetida à ressecção da massa mediastinal. Houve regressão do derrame, o qual persistiu como pequena loculação no espaço pleural esquerdo.
Preview · Article · Aug 2008 · Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pulmonary sequestration represents an abnormal pulmonary mass that does not communicate with the tracheobronchial tree. It is a rare malformation (MF), accountable for 0.15%-6.45% of pulmonary congenital MFs. When it has its own pleural covering, it is called extralobar (EBPS). This work describes two cases of EBPS in stillbirths (SB), at 32 (1) and 34 (2) weeks' gestation, with clinical diagnosis of intrauterine hypoxia and cystic adenomatosis, respectively. It also reviews the literature on the subject. The diagnosis involved ultrasonographic, syndromic, macroscopic and microscopic analysis. The macroscopy showed a supradiaphragmatic mass in the left hemithorax linked to thoracic aorta (1) and diaphragm (2). The associated MFs were: thymic agenesis (2), pulmonary hypoplasia (2), clubfoot (1) and achondroplasia (2). Microscopy demonstrated, in both cases, immature pulmonary tissue and vascularized and innervated pedicle.
Preview · Article · Jun 2008 · Jornal Brasileiro de Patologia e Medicina Laboratorial
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bothrops insularis is a snake from Ilha da Queimada Grande, an island located about 20 miles away from the Southeastern coast of Brazil. Compared with other Brazilian species of Bothrops, the toxinology of B. insularis is still poorly understood, and so far, no fraction from this venom with amino acid oxidase activity had been isolated or its biological activity tested. We investigated the biochemical and biological effects of one l-amino acid oxidase enzyme isolated from B. insularis snake venom (BiLAO), which was purified using HPLC and sequence grade. We also evaluated the renal effects induced by BiLAO. Chromatographic profile of B. insularis whole venom disclosed seven main fractions (I, II, III, IV, V, VI and VII) and the main LAO enzymatic activity was detected in fraction II. The group treated with BiLAO showed a decrease in perfusion pressure (C(120)=110.28+/-3.69; BiLAO(120)=82.2+/-5.6 mmHg*); renal vascular resistance (C(120)=5.48+/-0.53; BiLAO(120)=4.12+/-0.42 mmHg/mL/g/min*), urinary flow (C(120)=0.160+/-0.020; BiLAO(120)=0.064+/-0.012 mL/g/min*), glomerular filtration rate (C(120)=0.697+/-0.084; BiLAO(120)=0.176+/-0.017 mL/g/min*), sodium (C(120)=79.76+/-0.56; BiLAO(120)=65.39+/-6.19%*), potassium (C(120)=69.94+/-6.86; BiLAO(120)=60.26+/-2.24%*) and chloride tubular reabsortion (C(120)=78.53+/-2.33; BiLAO(120)=64.58+/-6.68%*). Acute tubular necrosis foci were observed in the group treated with the LAO fraction of the B. insularis snake venom. Some findings have the same morphological aspect of apoptosis, more evident cortically; otherwise, reversible degenerative phenomena represented by hydropic ballooning with extensive cytoplasmic vacuolization and discontinuity of the cell brush borders in the proximal tubular epithelium were observed; furthermore, necrotic detachment of these cells into the tubular lumina, and increased amount of protein deposits in the distal and proximal tubules were observed. In conclusion, the slowness of blood flow and of glomerular filtration resulted in more time for filtration and tubular reabsorption, with elevation of the total percentage of sodium and chlorine reabsorption. The maintenance of the decrease in glomerular filtration rate would determine the subsequent decreases, which were noticed in these parameters. The necrosis observed was the result of damage cell induced by l-amino acid oxidase isolated from B. insularis venom.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bothrops insularis venom contains a variety of substances presumably responsible for several pharmacological effects. We investigated the biochemical and biological effects of phospholipase A(2) protein isolated from B. insularis venom and the chromatographic profile showed 7 main fractions and the main phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) enzymatic activity was detected in fractions IV and V. Fraction IV was submitted to a new chromatographic procedure on ion exchange chromatography, which allowed the elution of 5 main fractions designated as IV-1 to IV-5, from which IV-4 constituted the main fraction. The molecular homogeneity of this fraction was characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and demonstrated by mass spectrometry (MS), which showed a molecular mass of 13984.20 Da; its N-terminal sequence presented a high amino acid identity (up to 95%) with the PLA(2) of Bothrops jararaca and Bothrops asper. Phospholipase A(2) isolated from B. insularis (Bi PLA(2) ) venom (10 microg/mL) was also studied as to its effect on the renal function of isolated perfused kidneys of Wistar rats (n=6). Bi PLA(2) increased perfusion pressure (PP), renal vascular resistance (RVR), urinary flow (UF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Sodium (%TNa(+)) and chloride tubular reabsorption (%TCl(-)) decreased at 120 min, without alteration in potassium transport. In conclusion, PLA(2) isolated from B. insularis venom promoted renal alterations in the isolated perfused rat kidney.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumors of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses are unusual pathologies found in clinical practice. Approximately 0.8% of all human cancers are located in this area. Despite being rare, nasosinusal neoplasms usually manifest through nonspecific symptoms that are common to numerous inflammatory pathologies. The aim of this study is to describe a series of rare nasosinusal tumors, including esthesioneuroblastomas, central giant cell granulomas, extramedullary plasmocytomas, nasosinusal hemangiopericytomas, neurofibromas and cemento-ossifying fibromas, diagnosed at the Fortaleza General Hospital. We, hereby, briefly review each of the aforementioned pathologies, stressing the need for a precise histological diagnosis for proper treatment in each case.
No preview · Article · Mar 2008 · Brazilian journal of otorhinolaryngology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Renal changes determined by Lys49 myotoxin I (BmTx I), isolated from Bothrops moojeni are well known. The scope of the present study was to investigate the possible mechanisms involved in the production of these effects by using indomethacin (10 microg/mL), a non-selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase, and tezosentan (10 microg/mL), an endothelin antagonist. By means of the method of mesenteric vascular bed, it has been observed that B. moojeni myotoxin (5 microg/mL) affects neither basal perfusion pressure nor phenylephrine-preconstricted vessels. This fact suggests that the increase in renal perfusion pressure and in renal vascular resistance did not occur by a direct effect on renal vasculature. Isolated kidneys from Wistar rats, weighing 240-280 g, were perfused with Krebs-Henseleit solution. The infusion of BmTx-I increased perfusion pressure, renal vascular resistance, urinary flow and glomerular filtration rate. Sodium, potassium and chloride tubular transport was reduced after addition of BmTx-I. Indomethacin blocked the effects induced by BmTx-I on perfusion pressure and renal vascular resistance, however, it did not revert the effect on urinary flow and sodium, potassium and chloride tubular transport. The alterations of glomerular filtration rate were inhibited only at 90 min of perfusion. The partial blockade exerted by indomethacin treatment showed that prostaglandins could have been important mediators of BmTx-I renal effects, but the participation of other substances cannot be excluded. The blockage of all renal alterations observed after tezosentan treatment support the hypothesis that endothelin is the major substance involved in the renal pathophysiologic alterations promoted by the Lys49 PLA(2) myotoxin I, isolated from B. moojeni. In conclusion, the rather intense renal effects promoted by B. moojeni myotoxin-I were probably caused by the release of renal endothelin, interfering with the renal parameters studied.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bothrops insularis is a snake from Queimada Grande Island, which is an island located about 20 miles away from the southeastern coast of Brazil. Compared to other Brazilian species of Bothrops, the toxinology of B. insularis is still poorly understood. Its C-type lectin is involved in several biological processes including anticoagulant and platelet-modulating activities. We purified the C-type lectin (BiLec) from Bothrops insularis venom and investigated its effect in the isolated kidney. BiLec was purified after two chromatographic steps; firstly, the whole venom was submitted to an HPLC molecular exclusion chromatography followed by a second purification through affinity chromatography. B. insularis lectin (BiLec) was studied as to its effect on the renal function of isolated perfused rat kidneys with the use of six Wistar rats. The concentration of 10mug/mL increased perfusion pressure (PP; control(60)=108.27+/-4.9; BiLec(60)=112.9+/-5.4 mmHg; *p<0.05) and renal vascular resistance (RVR; control(60)=5.38+/-0.51; BiLec(60)=6.01+/-0.57 mmHg; *p<0.05). The urinary flow reduced significantly at 90 and 120 min of perfusion (UF; control(120)=0.160+/-0.020; BiLec(120)=0.082+/-0.008 mL g(-1) min(-1); *p<0.05). Glomerular filtration rate (GFR; control(120)=0.697+/-0.084; BiLec(120)=0.394+/-0.063 mL g(-1) min(-1); *p<0.05) diminished only at 120 min. BiLec did not change the percentage of sodium (TNa(+)), potassium (TK(+)) and chloride tubular transport (TCl(-)). The histological alterations probably reflected direct injury on glomerular and tubular renal cells, as demonstrated by the rise in permeability of glomerular endothelial cells, revealed by the presence of a proteinaceous material in the Bowman space. We postulate that the C-type lectin B. insularis promoted its effects probably through interactions with endothelial cells or through the release of other mediators by tubular, mesangial and endothelial cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Evaluate, from a histologic view point, the action of the aqueous extract of aroeira-do-sertão on the healing of colonic anastomosis, in Wistar rats.
There were used 48 Wistar rats, males, with average weight of 320g, distributed in two groups, with 24 animals, each. All animals were subjected to a complete transverse section of the descending colon, followed by colonic anastomosis. The rats on group A received daily post-operative enemas of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) based vehicle. The animals on group B received post-operative enemas of 10% aqueous extract of aroeira-do-sertão in CMC based vehicle, until the date of euthanasia. On days 3, 7, 14 and 21 of the experiment, six rats in each group were subjected to removal of a colonic segment, including the anastomosis, destined to histological evaluation and qualitative analysis of inflammatory and healing cell response.
The morphologic analysis reveals a significant difference between groups, on day 7 (ñ < 0.05), when the group studied showed lower score than the control group. The collagen deposition on the aroeira group was lower, on days 3, 7 and 14 (ñ < 0.05), compared to the control group.
The aqueous extract of aroeira-do-sertão has anti-inflammatory action. It also has inhibitory effect on collagen deposition during the phases of inflammation and fibroplasia of the healing process of colonic anastomoses, in Wistar rats, but in advanced phases (day 21) the healing process is similar to that in the animals of the control group.
No preview · Article · Mar 2005 · Acta Cirurgica Brasileira
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Verify, from a morphologic and tensional view point, the effect of the 10% aqueous extract of aroeira-do-sertão on the colonic anastomosis, during the occurrence of 10% acetic acid induced colitis, in Wistar rats.
There were used 48 Wistar rats, distributed in two groups. All animals were subjected to induction of colitis by aqueous solution of 10% acetic acid. Twenty-four hours later, the animals were subjected to laparotomy, transverse total colotomy and end-to-end anastomosis with 5-0 polypropylene. Group A (vehicle), animals treated with carboxymethylcellulose based vehicle. Group B (aroeira), animals treated with 10% aroeira aqueous extract. Both treatments were by means of enema. Groups A and B were distributed in subgroups A3, A7, A14 and A21; B3, B7, B 14 and B21, according to the foreseen euthanasia date (days 3, 7, 14 and 21). On these dates, the animals were relaparotomized, the colonic segment containing the anastomosis was ressected subjected to the pressure test and then to the, histological analysis. For the momphologic study, the slides were dyed with hematoxilin-eosine and the healing status was evaluated based on a score chart that ranked from 0 to 16. The higher the score, the better the healing.
On the evaluation of the morphologic study, which quantifies the evolution and degree of healing, as a final result of the healing process, the group aroeira was superior to the group vehicle (p<0.05) on the twenty-first day, showing higher velocity on tissue repair that occurs by regeneration and not by fibrosis. With respect to the tension test, there was a statistically significant difference on day 3, with predominance of the group aroeira over the group vehicle (p<0.05).
The 10% aroeira-do-sertão aqueous extract, has healing activity on the colonic anstomosis during the occurrence of 10% acetic acid induced colitis. It improves the resistance to tension on the colonic anastomosis zone on the 3rd day.
No preview · Article · Mar 2005 · Acta Cirurgica Brasileira