Jonathan R Dillman

Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States

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Publications (145)461.48 Total impact

  • Ryan Stidham · Jonathan Dillman · Jonathan Rubin · Peter Higgins

    No preview · Article · Mar 2016 · Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To determine if utility measures of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in pediatric small bowel Crohn disease (a) change in response to infliximab therapy, (b) correlate with proxy parent or guardian assessments, and (c) correlate with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and laboratory markers of intestinal active inflammation. Materials and Methods This prospective single-center cohort study was approved by the institutional review board and was compliant with HIPAA. Parental informed consent and subject assent were obtained from all study participants. Twenty-six children with newly diagnosed small bowel Crohn disease receiving infliximab therapy were prospectively enrolled. All subjects underwent measurement of HRQOL utilities (visual analog scale [VAS], time trade-off [TTO], and standard gamble [SG]), MR enterography, and laboratory assessment at baseline and 6 months later. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare paired nonparametric data; Spearman correlation (ρ) was used to assess bivariate relationships. Results The median VAS score was 47.5 (interquartile range [IQR]: 20.0-52.2) before infliximab therapy and 83.0 (IQR: 62.0-92.0) at follow-up (P = .0003). There was positive correlation between subject and parent or guardian change in VAS score between baseline and follow-up (ρ = 0.71; P = .0006). The authors identified significant negative correlations between VAS score and MR imaging bowel wall arterial phase enhancement after contrast material administration at baseline (ρ = -0.57, P = .0032) as well as between change in VAS score and change in bowel wall enhancement in the arterial phase at contrast-enhanced MR imaging over time (ρ = -0.51, P = .02). No correlations between VAS score and laboratory inflammatory markers were identified. Conclusion VAS assessment of HRQOL changes over time in response to infliximab therapy in children with small bowel Crohn disease. There are statistically significant correlations between child-reported VAS score and (a) the degree of bowel wall enhancement in the arterial phase at contrast-enhanced MR imaging and (b) parent or guardian assessment. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · Radiology

  • No preview · Article · Feb 2016 · American Journal of Roentgenology
  • Andrew T. Trout · Daniel J. Podberesky · Jonathan R. Dillman

    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Radiology
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    ABSTRACT: Background There is a paucity of published literature describing ultrasound (US)-US and US-MR enterography (MRE) inter-radiologist agreement in pediatric small bowel Crohn disease. Objective To prospectively assess US-US and US-MRE inter-radiologist agreement in pediatric small bowel Crohn disease. Materials and methods Institutional Review Board approval and informed consent/assent were obtained for this HIPAA-compliant prospective cohort study of children with newly diagnosed distal small bowel Crohn disease (July 2012 to December 2014). Enrolled subjects (n = 29) underwent two small bowel US examinations performed by blinded independent radiologists both before and at multiple time points after initiation of medical therapy (231 unique US examinations, in total); 134 US examinations were associated with concurrent MRE. The MRE examination was interpreted by a third blinded radiologist. The following was documented on each examination: involved length of ileum (cm); maximum bowel wall thickness (mm); amount of bowel wall and mesenteric Doppler signal, and presence of stricture, penetrating disease and/or abscess. Inter-radiologist agreement was assessed with single-measure, three-way, mixed-model intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and prevalence-adjusted, bias-adjusted kappa statistics (κ). Numbers in brackets are 95% confidence intervals. Results Ultrasound-US agreement was moderate for involved length (ICC: 0.41 [0.35-0.49]); substantial for maximum bowel wall thickness (ICC: 0.67 [0.64-0.70]); moderate for bowel wall Doppler signal (ICC: 0.53 [0.48-0.59]); slight for mesenteric Doppler signal (ICC: 0.25 [0.18-0.42]), and moderate to almost perfect for stricture (κ: 0.54), penetrating disease (κ: 0.80), and abscess (κ: 0.96). US-MRE agreement was moderate for involved length (ICC: 0.42 [0.37-0.49]); substantial for maximum bowel wall thickness (ICC: 0.66 [0.65-0.69]), and substantial to almost perfect for stricture (κ: 0.61), penetrating disease (κ: 0.72) and abscess (κ: 0.88). Conclusion Ultrasound-US agreement was similar to US-MRE agreement for assessing pediatric small bowel Crohn disease. Discrepancies in US-US and US-MRE reporting question the utility of US as an accurate, reproducible radiologic biomarker for assessing response to medical therapy and disease-related complications.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Pediatric Radiology
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: The congenital pulmonary airway malformation volume ratio (CVR) is a widely used sonographic measure of relative mass size in fetuses with lung malformations. The purpose of this study was to examine serial CVR measurements to understand longitudinal growth patterns and to determine correlation with postnatal imaging. Methods: An IRB-approved retrospective review was performed on fetuses referred for an echogenic lung malformation between 2002 and 2014. For each fetus, the CVR was prospectively calculated using 2D ultrasound and followed with advancing gestation. Results: Based on 40 fetuses, the mean initial CVR was 0.51 ± 0.07 at 20.5 ± 0.3 weeks gestation. The CVR increased after 24 weeks gestation (p = 0.0014), peaking at a CVR of 0.96 ± 0.11 at 25.5 ± 0.05 weeks, followed by a significant decrease in the CVR to 0.43 ± 0.07 prior to term (p < 0.0001). However, approximately one-third showed no appreciable increase in size. The mean CVR was significantly correlated with postnatal chest CT size dimensions (p = 0.0032) and likelihood for lung resection (p = 0.0055). Conclusions: Fetal lung malformations tend to follow one of two distinct growth patterns, characterized by either (1) a maximal CVR between 25 and 26 weeks gestation or (2) minimal change in relative growth. The mean CVR correlates with postnatal CT size and operative management.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Prenatal Diagnosis
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    ABSTRACT: Background Crohn disease is a chronic inflammatory condition that can lead to intestinal strictures. The presence of fibrosis within strictures alters optimal management but is not reliably detected by current imaging methods. Objective To correlate the MRI features of surgically resected small-bowel strictures in pediatric Crohn disease with histological inflammation and fibrosis scoring. Materials and methods We included children with Crohn disease who had symptomatic small-bowel strictures requiring surgical resection and had preoperative MR enterography (MRE) within 3 months of surgery (n = 20). Two blinded radiologists reviewed MRE examinations to document stricture-related findings. A pediatric pathologist scored stricture histological specimens for fibrosis (0–4) and inflammation (0–4). MRE findings were correlated with histological data using Spearman correlation (ρ) and exact logistic regression analysis. Results There was significant positive correlation between histological bowel wall fibrosis and inflammation in resected strictures (ρ = 0.55; P = 0.01). Confluent transmural histological fibrosis was associated with pre-stricture upstream small-bowel dilatation >3 cm at univariate (odds ratio [OR] = 51.7; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.6– > 999.9; P = 0.0002) and multivariate (OR = 43.4; 95% CI: 6.1– > 999.9; P = 0.0006, adjusted for age) analysis. The degree of bowel wall T2-weighted signal intensity failed to correlate with histological bowel wall fibrosis or inflammation (P-values >0.05). There were significant negative correlations between histological fibrosis score and patient age at resection (ρ = −0.48, P = 0.03), and time from diagnosis to surgery (ρ = −0.73, P = 0.0002). Conclusion Histological fibrosis and inflammation co-exist in symptomatic pediatric Crohn disease small-bowel strictures and are positively correlated. Pre-stenotic upstream small-bowel dilatation greater than 3 cm is significantly associated with confluent transmural fibrosis.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Pediatric Radiology
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    ABSTRACT: Background The role of US-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (US-FNAB) of thyroid nodules is not well-established in children. Objective To retrospectively assess the utility of US-FNAB of pediatric thyroid nodules. Materials and methods We reviewed Department of Radiology records to identify children who underwent US-FNAB of the thyroid between 2005 and 2013. Two board-certified pediatric radiologists reviewed pre-procedural thyroid US exams and documented findings by consensus. We recorded cytopathology findings and compared them to surgical pathology diagnoses if the nodule was resected. We also recorded demographic information, use of sedation or general anesthesia, and presence of on-site cytopathological feedback. The Student’s t-test was used to compare continuous data; the Fisher exact test was used to compare proportions. Results US-FNAB was conducted on a total of 86 thyroid nodules in 70 children; 56 were girls (80%). Seventy-eight of the 86 (90.7%) US-FNAB procedures were diagnostic; 69/78 (88.5%) diagnostic specimens were benign (including six indeterminate follicular lesions that were proved at surgery to be benign) and 9/78 (11.5%) were malignant/suspicious for malignancy (all proved to be papillary carcinomas). There was no difference in size of benign vs. malignant lesions (P = 0.82) or diagnostic vs. non-diagnostic lesions (P = 0.87). Gender (P = 0.19), use of sedation/general anesthesia (P = 0.99), and presence of onsite cytopathological feedback (P = 0.99) did not affect diagnostic adequacy. Microcalcifications (P < 0.0001; odds ratio [OR] = 113.7) and coarse calcifications (P = 0.03; OR = 19.4) were associated with malignancy. Diagnoses at cytopathology and surgical pathology were concordant in 27/29 (93.1%) nodules; no US-FNAB procedure yielded false-positive or false-negative results for malignancy. Conclusion US-FNAB of pediatric thyroid nodules is feasible, allows diagnostic cytopathological evaluation, and correlates with surgical pathology results in resected nodules.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Pediatric Radiology
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To estimate the effect of an oral 13-hour inpatient corticosteroid premedication regimen on length of stay, hospital cost, and hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) by using a combination of real and hypothetical study populations. Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval was obtained and informed consent waived for this HIPAA-compliant retrospective study. Inpatients who received an oral 13-hour corticosteroid premedication regimen before contrast material-enhanced CT (n = 1424) from 2008 to 2013 were matched by age, sex, and year when CT was performed to a control cohort (n = 1425) of patients who underwent contrast-enhanced CT without premedication and who had similar rates of 13 comorbid diseases. Length of stay in the hospital and time from admission to CT were compared by using the Mann-Whitney U test. Rates of prospectively reported HAIs were compared by using χ(2) tests. The indirect cost and risk of HAI with premedication were estimated by using published data. Results Premedicated inpatients had a significantly longer median length of stay (+25 hours; 158 vs 133 hours, P < .001), a significantly longer median time to CT (+25 hours, 42 vs 17 hours, respectively; P < .001), and a significantly greater risk of HAI (5.1% [72 of 1424] vs 3.1% [44 of 1424], respectively; P = .008) compared with nonpremedicated control subjects. On the basis of these data and existing references, the prolonged length of stay was estimated to result in 0.04 HAI-related deaths and a cost of $159 131 (in U.S. dollars) for each prevented reaction of any severity and 32 HAI-related deaths and a cost of $131 211 400 for each prevented reaction-related death. Conclusion Oral 13-hour inpatient corticosteroid prophylaxis is associated with substantial cost relative to its modest benefit, and may cause more indirect harm than the direct harm that it prevents. (©) RSNA, 2015.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Radiology
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    ABSTRACT: Background The American Pediatric Surgical Association (APSA) advocates for the use of a clinical practice guideline to direct management of hemodynamically stable pediatric spleen injuries. The clinical practice guideline is based on the CT score of the spleen injury according to the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) CT scoring system. Objective To determine the potential effect of radiologist agreement for CT scoring of pediatric spleen injuries on an established APSA clinical practice guideline. Materials and methods We retrospectively analyzed blunt splenic injuries occurring in children from January 2007 to January 2012 at a single level 1 trauma center (n = 90). Abdominal CT exams performed at clinical presentation were reviewed by four radiologists who documented the following: (1) splenic injury grade (AAST system), (2) arterial extravasation and (3) pseudoaneurysm. Inter-rater agreement for AAST injury grade was assessed using the multi-rater Fleiss kappa and Kendall coefficient of concordance. Inter-rater agreement was assessed using weighted (AAST injury grade) or prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted (binary measures) kappa statistics; 95% confidence intervals were calculated. We evaluated the hypothetical effect of radiologist disagreement on an established APSA clinical practice guideline. Results Inter-rater agreement was good for absolute AAST injury grade (kappa: 0.64 [0.59–0.69]) and excellent for relative AAST injury grade (Kendall w: 0.90). All radiologists agreed on the AAST grade in 52% of cases. Based on an established clinical practice guideline, radiologist disagreement could have changed the decision for intensive care management in 11% (10/90) of children, changed the length of hospital stay in 44% (40/90), and changed the time to return to normal activity in 44% (40/90). Conclusion Radiologist agreement when assigning splenic AAST injury grades is less than perfect, and disagreements have the potential to change management in a substantial number of pediatric patients.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Pediatric Radiology
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To determine retrospectively the clinical effectiveness of an unenhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging protocol for evaluation of equivocal appendicitis in children. Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval was obtained. Pediatric patients (≤18 years old) underwent unenhanced MR imaging and contrast material-enhanced computed tomography (CT) of the appendix between December 2013 and November 2014 and December 2012 and November 2013, respectively, within 24 hours after an abdominal ultrasonographic examination with results equivocal for appendicitis. Pertinent MR imaging and CT reports were reviewed for visibility of the appendix, presence of appendicitis and appendiceal perforation, and establishment of an alternative diagnosis. Surgical reports, pathologic reports, and 30-day follow-up medical records were used as reference standards. Diagnostic performance with MR imaging and CT was calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for diagnosis of appendicitis and appendiceal perforation. The Fisher exact test was used to compare proportions; the Student t test was used to compare means. Results Diagnostic performance with MR imaging was comparable to that with CT for equivocal pediatric appendicitis. For MR imaging (n = 103), sensitivity was 94.4% (95% CI: 72.7%, 99.9%) and specificity was 100% (95% CI: 95.8%, 100%); for CT [n = 58], sensitivity was 100% (95% CI: 71.5%, 100%), specificity was 97.9% (95% CI: 88.7%, 100%). Diagnostic performance with MR imaging and CT also was comparable for detection of appendiceal perforation, with MR imaging (n = 103) sensitivity of 90.0% (95% CI: 55.5%, 99.8%) and specificity of 85.7% (95% CI: 42.1%, 99.6%) and CT (n = 58) sensitivity of 75.0% (95% CI: 19.4%, 99.4%) and specificity of 85.7% (95% CI: 42.1%, 99.6%). The proportion of examinations with identifiable alternative diagnoses was similar at MR imaging to that at CT (19 of 103 [18.4%] vs eight of 58 [13.8%], respectively; P = .52). The proportion of appendixes seen at MR imaging and at CT also was similar (77 of 103 [74.8%] vs 50 of 58 [86.2%], respectively; P = .11). Conclusion Unenhanced MR imaging is sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of equivocal appendicitis in nonsedated pediatric patients. (©) RSNA, 2015.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Radiology
  • Thomas J Wilson · Jacob R Joseph · Jonathan R Dillman · Amer Heider · Lynda J S Yang
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    ABSTRACT: Patients presenting with enlarging fibrofatty masses in the extremities pose an interesting dilemma to clinicians, as the differential diagnosis in such cases ranges from benign to malignant, and from lesions optimally managed operatively to those managed nonoperatively. The differential diagnosis includes benign lipoma, liposarcoma, lipoblastoma, and fibro-lipomatous hamartoma (lipomatosis) of the nerves. The authors present the case of a 14-year-old girl with an enlarging fibrofatty mass of the forearm, initially thought, based on diagnostic imaging, to be a fibrolipomatous hamartoma of the median nerve, but found to be a lipoblastoma without direct nerve involvement based on histopathological examination of the operative specimen. This case serves to illustrate the diagnostic predicament that can exist with such masses. The authors advocate the need to establish a tissue diagnosis while having a contingency plan for each of the diagnostic possibilities because the management of each lesion is markedly different. In this report, the authors consider the differential diagnosis of fibrofatty masses of the extremities that the peripheral nerve surgeon may encounter, and they highlight the significant differences in management strategies for each possible diagnosis.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of Neurosurgery Pediatrics
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    ABSTRACT: Crohn disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder involving the gastrointestinal tract, characterized by episodic flares and times of remission. Underlying structural damage occurs progressively, with recurrent bouts of inflammation. The diagnosis and management of this disease process is dependent on several clinical, laboratory, imaging, endoscopic, and histologic factors. In recent years, with the maturation of CT enterography, and MR enterography, imaging has played an increasingly important role in relation to Crohn Disease. In addition to these specialized examination modalities, ultrasound and routine CT have potential uses. Fluoroscopy, radiography, and nuclear medicine may be less beneficial depending on the clinical scenario. The imaging modality best suited to evaluating this disease may change, depending on the target population, severity of presentation, and specific clinical situation. This document presents seven clinical scenarios (variants) in both the adult and pediatric populations and rates the appropriateness of the available imaging options. They are summarized in a consolidated table, and the underlying rationale and supporting literature are presented in the accompanying narrative. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every three years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Journal of the American College of Radiology
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    ABSTRACT: Importance Cancer is caused by a diverse array of somatic and germline genomic aberrations. Advances in genomic sequencing technologies have improved the ability to detect these molecular aberrations with greater sensitivity. However, integrating them into clinical management in an individualized manner has proven challenging.Objective To evaluate the use of integrative clinical sequencing and genetic counseling in the assessment and treatment of children and young adults with cancer.Design, Setting, and Participants Single-site, observational, consecutive case series (May 2012-October 2014) involving 102 children and young adults (mean age, 10.6 years; median age, 11.5 years, range, 0-22 years) with relapsed, refractory, or rare cancer.Exposures Participants underwent integrative clinical exome (tumor and germline DNA) and transcriptome (tumor RNA) sequencing and genetic counseling. Results were discussed by a precision medicine tumor board, which made recommendations to families and their physicians.Main Outcomes and Measures Proportion of patients with potentially actionable findings, results of clinical actions based on integrative clinical sequencing, and estimated proportion of patients or their families at risk of future cancer.Results Of the 104 screened patients, 102 enrolled with 91 (89%) having adequate tumor tissue to complete sequencing. Only the 91 patients were included in all calculations, including 28 (31%) with hematological malignancies and 63 (69%) with solid tumors. Forty-two patients (46%) had actionable findings that changed their cancer management: 15 of 28 (54%) with hematological malignancies and 27 of 63 (43%) with solid tumors. Individualized actions were taken in 23 of the 91 (25%) based on actionable integrative clinical sequencing findings, including change in treatment for 14 patients (15%) and genetic counseling for future risk for 9 patients (10%). Nine of 91 (10%) of the personalized clinical interventions resulted in ongoing partial clinical remission of 8 to 16 months or helped sustain complete clinical remission of 6 to 21 months. All 9 patients and families with actionable incidental genetic findings agreed to genetic counseling and screening.Conclusions and Relevance In this single-center case series involving young patients with relapsed or refractory cancer, incorporation of integrative clinical sequencing data into clinical management was feasible, revealed potentially actionable findings in 46% of patients, and was associated with change in treatment and family genetic counseling for a small proportion of patients. The lack of a control group limited assessing whether better clinical outcomes resulted from this approach than outcomes that would have occurred with standard care.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association
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    ABSTRACT: Vomiting is a commonly reported symptom in infants less than three months of age. There are a multitude of pathologies to consider, both within and outside the gastrointestinal tract. In addition to conducting a thorough history and physical examination, a clinician formulates a reasonable differential diagnosis by consideration of two main factors: the infant's age and the characterization of the vomit as bilious or nonbilious. In this endeavor, the clinician is able to determine if an imaging study is needed and, if so, the urgency of the request. A review of the appropriate imaging evaluation of vomiting infants in the newborn to three-month-old age group is provided by organizing the discussion around the following three clinical scenarios: bilious vomiting, intermittent nonbilious vomiting since birth, and new-onset bilious vomiting. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every three years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. Copyright © 2015 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
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    ABSTRACT: MR enterography (MRE) plays a major role in the imaging of pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) but can be challenging to perform in young children. To review our institutional experience regarding the performance of MRE in children younger than 10 years of age, including the use of general anesthesia (GA). Institutional review board approval was obtained. Radiology and anesthesia records were searched to identify MRE exams in children younger than 10 years old between June 2009 and May 2013. The following information was documented: demographics, indications for MRE, use of GA, imaging diagnoses, and documented GA-related side effects or adverse events. Imaging was reviewed to document study length, quality and progression of oral contrast material. One hundred six children (59 boys [56%]) younger than 10 years old underwent 119 MRE examinations (age range: 1 month to 9 years, 11 months). Common indications for MRE included known IBD (42%) and suspected IBD (38%). One hundred ten (92%) examinations were performed under GA. Mean exam length was 52 ± 13 min for GA patients with a range of 31--113 min. Median time under GA was 155 min. Oral contrast material reached the terminal ileum in 31%. Side effects/adverse events associated with GA were uncommon and minor, including transient nausea in 13 children (11%) and emesis in 9 (8%). Diagnostic-quality MRE can be performed successfully in young children. The majority of MRE exams were performed under GA, with only occasional minor side effects/adverse events.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Pediatric Radiology
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    ABSTRACT: MR Urography (MRU) is an increasingly used imaging modality for the evaluation of pediatric genitourinary obstruction. To determine whether pediatric MR urography (MRU) reliably detects crossing vessels in the setting of suspected ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction. The clinical significance of these vessels was also evaluated. We identified pediatric patients diagnosed with UPJ obstruction by MRU between May 2009 and June 2014. MRU studies were evaluated by two pediatric radiologists for the presence or absence of crossing vessels. Ancillary imaging findings such as laterality, parenchymal thinning/scarring, trapped fluid in the proximal ureter, and presence of renal parenchymal edema were also evaluated. Imaging findings were compared to surgical findings. We used the Mann-Whitney U test to compare continuous data and the Fisher exact test to compare proportions. Twenty-four of 25 (96%) UPJ obstructions identified by MRU were surgically confirmed. MRU identified crossing vessels in 10 of these cases, with 9 cases confirmed intraoperatively (κ = 0.92 [95% CI: 0.75, 1.0]). Crossing vessels were determined to be the primary cause of UPJ obstruction in 7/9 children intraoperatively, while in two children the vessels were deemed incidental and noncontributory to the urinary tract obstruction. There was no significant difference in age or the proportions of ancillary findings when comparing children without and with obstructing vessels. MRU allows detection of crossing vessels in pediatric UPJ obstruction. Although these vessels are the primary cause of obstruction in some children, they are incidental and non-contributory in others. Our study failed to convincingly identify any significant predictors (e.g., age or presence of renal parenchymal edema) that indicate when a crossing vessel is the primary cause of obstruction.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Pediatric Radiology
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    ABSTRACT: Magnetic resonance (MR) urography is a valuable imaging modality for assessing disorders of the pediatric urinary tract. It allows comprehensive evaluation of the kidneys and urinary tract in children by providing both morphologic and functional information without exposing the child to ionizing radiation. Pediatric MR urography can be used to thoroughly evaluate renal and urinary tract abnormalities that are difficult to identify or fully characterize with other imaging techniques, and it has the potential to allow earlier diagnosis while decreasing the number of imaging studies performed. Common indications for pediatric MR urography include evaluation of complex renal and urinary tract anatomy, suspected urinary tract obstruction, operative planning, and postoperative assessment. MR hydrography (T2-weighted imaging of urine) excellently depicts dilated or obstructed urinary systems, whereas postcontrast imaging (gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted imaging of the kidneys and urinary system) excellently depicts nondilated or nonobstructed urinary systems. Postcontrast MR urography also allows a functional evaluation of the kidneys and urinary tract that includes estimation of differential renal function. The authors review common indications for pediatric MR urography, detail MR urography techniques, compare the strengths and weaknesses of MR urography with those of alternative imaging strategies for children, and describe numerous common and uncommon abnormalities of the pediatric kidneys and urinary tract. (©)RSNA, 2015.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · Radiographics
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    ABSTRACT: Pediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) commonly need repetitive imaging to assess disease activity and complications. Recently, MR enterography has become a first-line radiologic study in children with IBD because of improved image quality, excellent soft-tissue contrast resolution, and lack of ionizing radiation. The purpose of this article is to describe the use of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in MR enterography and the evaluation of pediatric IBD. Several contemporary publications have shown that DWI can be useful for assessing both pediatric and adult patients with IBD as an important adjunct pulse sequence. Specifically, DWI can be used to identify abnormal bowel segments, assess disease inflammatory activity, and detect and characterize a variety of extraintestinal IBD-related manifestations and complications.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · American Journal of Roentgenology
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To determine if ultrasonographic (US) renal shear-wave speed (SWS) measurements obtained either before or after intravenous diuretic administration can be used to discriminate obstructive hydronephrosis from unobstructive hydronephrosis in children, with diuretic renal scintigraphy as the reference standard. Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval and parental informed consent were obtained for this HIPAA-compliant prospective cross-sectional blind comparison with a reference standard. Between November 2012 and September 2014, 37 children (mean age, 4.1 years; age range, 1 month to 17 years) underwent shear-wave elastography of the kidneys immediately before and immediately after diuretic renal scintigraphy (reference standard for presence of urinary tract obstruction). Median SWS measurements (in meters per second), as well as change in median SWS (median SWS after diuretic administration minus median SWS before diuretic administration) were correlated with the amount of time required for kidney radiotracer activity to fall by 50% after intravenous administration of the diuretic (T1/2). Median SWS measurements were compared with degree of obstruction and degree of hydronephrosis with analysis of variance. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were created. Results Radiotracer T1/2 values after diuretic administration did not correlate with median SWS measurements obtained before (r = -0.08, P = .53) or after (r = -0.0004, P >.99) diuretic administration, nor did they correlate with intraindividual change in median SWS (r = 0.07, P = .56). There was no significant difference in pre- or postdiuretic median SWS measurements between kidneys with scintigraphic evidence of no, equivocal, or definite urinary tract obstruction (P > .5) or for median SWS measurements between kidneys with increasing degree of hydronephrosis (P > .5). ROC curves showed poor diagnostic performance of median SWS in discerning no, equivocal, or definite urinary tract obstruction (area under the ROC curve ranged from 0.50 to 0.62). Conclusion US SWS measurements did not enable discrimination of obstructive hydronephrosis from unobstructive hydronephrosis in children. (©) RSNA, 2015 Online supplemental material is available for this article.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Radiology

Publication Stats

1k Citations
461.48 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2015-2016
    • Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center
      Cincinnati, Ohio, United States
  • 2008-2015
    • Concordia University–Ann Arbor
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
  • 2007-2015
    • University of Michigan
      • Department of Radiology
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      San Luis, Missouri, United States
  • 2014
    • Children's Hospital of Michigan
      Detroit, Michigan, United States
  • 2013
    • University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
      Houston, Texas, United States