[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prolonged and/or repeated damage to the skin barrier followed by atopic dermatitis (AD) is an initial step in atopic march that ultimately progresses to respiratory allergy. Maintaining normal stratum corneum (SC) acidity has been suggested as a therapeutic or preventive strategy for barrier impairment caused by skin inflammation. We determined whether a representative AD murine model, NC/Nga mice, develops airway inflammation after repeated epicutaneous application followed by inhalation of house dust mite (HDM), implying atopic march, and whether prolongation of non-proper SC acidity accelerates respiratory allergy. HDM was applied to the skin of NC/Nga mice, accompanied by the application of neutral cream (pH 7.4) or acidic cream (pH 2.8) for 6 weeks. Intranasal inhalation of HDM was administered daily during the last 3 days. Repeated epicutaneous applications followed by inhalation of HDM in NC/Nga mice induced an atopic march-like progression from AD lesions to respiratory allergy. Concurrent neutral cream treatment accelerated or aggravated the allergic inflammation in the skin and respiratory system, whereas an acidic cream partially alleviated these symptoms. Collectively, we developed an atopic march in NC/Nga mice by HDM application, and found that prevention of a neutral environment in the SC may be an interventional method to inhibit the march.Journal of Investigative Dermatology advance online publication, 24 September 2015; doi:10.1038/jid.2015.333.
No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of Investigative Dermatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Dry skin in atopic dermatitis (AD) mainly results from barrier impairment due to deficiency of ceramide and natural moisturizing factors including pyrrolidone carboxylic acid (PCA) in stratum corneum (SC). Caspase-14 cleaves filaggrin monomers to free amino acids and their derivatives such as PCA, contributing natural moisturizing factors. Cytokines in the corneocytes represent cutaneous inflammation severity of AD patients.
To analyze the correlations of PCA, caspase-14 and cytokines in corneocytes with clinical severity, barrier function and skin inflammation, those were quantitated.
A total of 73 persons were enrolled: 21 patients with mild AD, 21 with moderate-to-severe AD, 13 with X-linked ichthyosis (XLI) as a negative control for filaggrin gene (FLG) mutation, and 18 healthy controls. Skin barrier functions such as basal transepidermal water loss (TEWL), stratum corneum (SC) hydration and skin surface pH were measured. To collect corneocytes, stripping with D-squame® discs was done on lesional and non-lesional skin. And then PCA was isolated from D-squame® discs and quantitated by LC–MS/MS. Cytokine assays were performed.
The quantity of PCA and caspase-14 was decreased in inflammatory lesions compared to non-lesion in AD patients. And the amounts of PCA and caspase-14 in the lesion of AD patients correlated with clinical severity as determined by eczema area and severity index score and the skin barrier functions. Also, the expressions of TNF-α and IL-13 inversely correlated with PCA quantity.
The quantity of PCA or caspase-14 in the corneocytes of the lesional skin of AD patients reflects the clinical severity, skin barrier function and the degree of lesional inflammation.
No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · Journal of Dermatological Science
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Long-standing or repeated skin barrier damage followed by atopic dermatitis (AD) is the initial step of the atopic march that eventually progresses to respiratory allergies. Maintenance of an acidic pH in the stratum corneum (SC) is an important factor for normal skin barrier function. We performed this study in order to determine whether an oxazolone (Ox)-induced AD murine model can develop airway inflammation by topical application and nasal inhalation of a house dust mite, Dermatofagoides pteronyssinus (Dp), which is a novel ‘atopic march animal model’, and whether an acidic SC environment, made by repeated application of acidic cream, can interrupt this atopic march. During repeated treatment with Ox and Dp to make an atopic march murine model, acidic cream (pH 2.8) and neutral cream (pH 7.4) adjusted by citric acid and sodium hydroxide mixed with vehicle were applied twice daily. Repeated treatment with Ox and Dp to hairless mice induced AD-like skin lesions followed by respiratory allergy, defining it as an atopic march model. Acidic cream inhibited the occurrence of respiratory allergic inflammation as well as AD-like skin lesions. These results indicate that a novel atopic march animal model can be developed by repeated topical and nasal treatments with house dust mite on Ox-induced AD mice, and that the acidification of SC could be a novel intervention method to block the atopic march.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Experimental Dermatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite the increasing use of topical tacrolimus, there is little information about its effect on skin wound healing. To determine effects on acute cutaneous wound healing, two full-thickness skin wounds were imparted on the backs of 45 hairless mice, which were then divided into vehicle-, topical tacrolimus- and topical steroid-treated group. Each drug was topically applied once daily. The wound area was assessed by using dermoscopic images every two days after wounding. At 3, 7 and 11 days after wounding, 10 wounds in each group were collected for semi-quantitative analysis of histological features including re-epithelialization, polymorphonuclear leucocytes, fibroblasts and collagen. We also checked the mRNA expression levels of EGF, TGF-β, TNF-α and IL-1α. While topical application of clobetasol propionate was found to delay re-epithelialization and infiltration of polymorphonuclear leucocyte, topical treatment with tacrolimus showed patterns similar to that of the vehicle. In the tacrolimus-treated group, mRNA expression levels of IL-1α and TGF-β were slightly decreased, while the others were similar with the vehicle-treated group. Unlike steroid, topical tacrolimus, therefore, did not disturb the wound healing process in a murine skin wound model.
Preview · Article · May 2013 · Experimental Dermatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A stem cell is an undifferentiated cell that has the potential for self-renewal and differentiation. Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) have advantages in accessibility and abundance compared to other kinds of stem cells and produce many growth factors and hormones.
We investigated whether ADSC cultured media could be used as a therapy for atopic dermatitis.
ADSC cultured media was topically applied twice daily for 5 days to oxazolone-treated atopic dermatitis-like hairless mice.
Topical application of ADSC cultured media improved the epidermal permeability barrier and keratinocyte differentiation, and restored the predominant Th2 phenotype when compared to vehicle. ADSC cultured media-treated epidermis also showed an increase in the expression of antimicrobial peptides cathelin-related antimicrobial peptide, mouse beta-defensein 3.
Topical ADSC cultured media could be useful in the treatment of atopic dermatitis.
Full-text · Article · May 2012 · Annals of Dermatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Uncontrolled chronic hyperglycaemia including type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) induces many skin problems related to chronic impaired skin barrier state. However, little is known about the skin barrier state of chronic hyperglycaemia patients, the dysfunction of which may be a major cause of their skin problems. In this study, we investigated whether a long-standing hyperglycaemic condition including type 2 DM impairs skin barrier homoeostasis in proportion to the duration and its pathomechanism. We utilized the Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats as an animal model of long-standing hyperglycaemia and Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka rats as a control strain. We confirmed that a long-standing hyperglycaemia delayed skin barrier homoeostasis, which correlated with haemoglobin A1c levels. OLETF rats as a long-standing hyperglycaemia model exhibited decreased epidermal lipid synthesis and antimicrobial peptide expression with increasing age. Decreased epidermal lipid synthesis accounted for decreased lamellar body production. In addition, OLETF rats had significantly higher serum levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and elevated levels of the receptor for AGE in the epidermis. A long-standing hyperglycaemic condition impairs skin barrier function including permeability and antimicrobial barriers by accelerating skin ageing process in proportion to the duration of hyperglycaemia, which could be a major pathophysiology underlying cutaneous complications of DM.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2011 · Experimental Dermatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a previous study, we showed that barrier recovery was delayed after acute barrier disruption in the skin treated with topical calcineurin inhibitors. Tacrolimus decreases lipid synthesis and the expressions of antimicrobial peptide (AMP) and IL-1α in the epidermis. IL-1α is an important cytokine for improving barrier function, lamellar body (LB) production, and lipid synthesis in keratinocytes (KCs). We aimed to evaluate whether IL-1α stimulation could restore the barrier dysfunction observed in tacrolimus-treated skin. Topical imiquimod, an IL-1α inducer, restored the epidermal permeability barrier recovery that had been inhibited by tacrolimus treatment in human (n=15) and murine (n=10) skins, and improved stratum corneum integrity by restoring corneodosmosomes in murine skin (n=6). Imiquimod co-applied on the epidermis resulted in an increase in the production of LB and three major lipid synthesis-related enzymes, and in the expressions of mBD3, CRAMP, and IL-1α (n=5). Furthermore, intracutaneous injection of IL-1α restored permeability barrier recovery (n=6). In IL-1 type 1 receptor knockout mice, topical imiquimod was unable to restore permeability barrier recovery after tacrolimus treatment (n=21). In conclusion, IL-1α stimulation induced positive effects on epidermal permeability and antimicrobial barrier functions in tacrolimus-treated skin. These positive effects were mediated by an increase in epidermal lipid synthesis, LB production, and AMP expression.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2011 · Journal of Investigative Dermatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, we reported on the anti-ageing effects of K6PC-5. This compound induced keratinocyte differentiation and fibroblast proliferation by increasing sphingosine-1 phosphate synthesis. We performed this study to confirm the anti-ageing effects of new synthetic products (the K6EAA series) derived from K6PC-5 through an amino group induction. Cellular responses such as differentiation, proliferation and calcium mobilization were investigated using cultured human keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Also, we measured the expressions of collagen mRNA and protein using real time RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. The K6EAA-L12 product, selected by in vitro screening, was evaluated for anti-ageing effects on intrinsically and extrinsically (photo) aged models of hairless mice. In the intrinsically aged murine skin, K6EAA-L12 showed anti-ageing effects by activating collagen synthesis, eventually causing dermal thickening. Also, in the photo-aged skin, the dermal collagen density and dermal thickness were increased. In photo-aged murine skin, K6EAA-L12 increased stratum corneum integrity by increasing corneodesmosome density and improved the barrier recovery rate. However, there were no changes in the expressions of epidermal differentiation maker proteins. In conclusion, topical K6EAA-L12, a new synthetic K6PC-5 derivative, improves intrinsically and extrinsically (photo) aged skin by increasing the collagen density and improving the skin barrier function.
No preview · Article · Mar 2011 · Experimental Dermatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stem cells are undifferentiated cells, which have the important properties of self-renewal and differentiation. Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) have relative advantages in accessibility and abundance compared to other kinds of stem cells. Regeneration therapy using ADSC has received attention in the treatment of various dermatologic diseases. In previous studies, ADSC were shown to have antioxidant, whitening and wound-healing effects in the skin through secretion of growth factors and by activating fibroblasts. In this study, we investigated whether ADSC could be used as an anti-ageing therapy, especially by dermal collagen synthesis and angiogenesis. Subcutaneous injection of ADSC significantly increased collagen synthesis in hairless mice, and dermal thickness, collagen density and fibroblast number also increased. In addition, procollagen type I protein and mRNA expression increased, which accounts for the increased dermal collagen density. Angiogenesis, which was visualized by CD31 and NG2 immunofluorescence stains, also increased in ADSC-treated skin. Our results suggest that ADSC therapy may be useful in ageing skin. Its effects are mainly mediated by stimulating collagen synthesis in dermal fibroblasts and increasing angiogenesis.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · Experimental Dermatology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Topical calcineurin inhibitors (TCIs) such as pimecrolimus and tacrolimus have recently been used for dermatologic diseases including atopic dermatitis instead of topical glucocorticoids, because they display comparable efficacy, but less-frequent side effects. Although even short-term topical glucocorticoid compromise epidermal permeability barrier homeostasis, the effects of TCI on barrier function have not yet been reported. However, viral infections such as eczema herpeticum and molluscum contagiosum, which could indicate an impaired skin barrier, continue to occur with TCI use in atopic dermatitis.
We determined here whether TCIs disrupt epidermal permeability barrier and antimicrobial function, and whether these effects can be prevented.
In normal humans, topical pimecrolimus and tacrolimus applied twice-daily for 5 days, delay barrier recovery without an increase in basal transepidermal water loss was observed. Co-application of physiologic lipid mixture (PLM) containing an equimolar ratio of ceramides, cholesterol and free fatty acids normalized barrier homeostasis in the face of topical TCIs. In hairless mice, 4 days of TCI treatment also disrupted barrier function significantly. TCIs-treated epidermis showed the decrease of epidermal lipid content, lamellar body number and secretion, and lipid synthesis-related enzymes such as 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase, serine-palmitoyl transferase and fatty acid synthase, implying decreased lipid synthesis. TCIs also suppressed expression of IL-1alpha and antimicrobial peptides, CRAMP and mouse beta-defensin 3. However, these TCI-induced abnormalities can be overridden by topical replacement with PLM.
Our results demonstrate that TCIs induce negative effects on the skin barrier including permeability and antimicrobial functions, which are mediated by decreasing epidermal lipid synthesis, lamellar body secretion and antimicrobial peptides expression through suppression of cytokine such as IL-1alpha, therefore co-treatment with PLM would be helpful to overcome these negative effects.