Zhu Gong

Tongji University, Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China

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Publications (36)110.37 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing has been widely used to risk stratify patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Peak oxygen consumption (peakVO2) was regarded as a powerful predictor of survival, as it is a surrogate for peak cardiac output (CO), which by most is considered the "true" measure of heart failure. Therefore, it is reasonable to hypothesize that CO is an even stronger predictor than peak VO2. The present study is aimed to investigate the prognostic value of peak cardiac power output (peak CPO) in comparison with peakVO2 in Chinese patients with CHF. Methods: Participants provided written informed consent to participate in this study. Totally 129 patients with CHF underwent symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET), with mean age 59.1±11.4 years, 87.6% male, 57.4% ischemic etiology, body mass index (BMI) 24.7±3.7 kg/m2 and LVEF 38±9%. CO was measured using an inert gas rebreathing method. The primary endpoints are cardiac deaths. Results: Over median 33.7-month follow-up, 19 cardiac deaths were reported. Among peak VO2,VE/VCO2 slope and Peak CPO, their area under ROC were 0.64, 0.67, 0.68, respectively (Ρ<0.05).The optimal thresholds for predicting cardiac deaths were peak VO2≤13.4 ml.kg-1.min-1, and VE/VCO2 slope≥39.3 and peak CPO≤ 1.1 respectively by ROC analysis. Finally, in patients with a peak VO2≤13.4 ml.kg-1.min-1 those with peak CPO>1.1W had better survival than those with peak CPO ≤ 1.1W. However, by multivariate analysis adjusted for age, sex, BMI, resting heart rate, LVMI, LVEF, Peak CPO was not an independent predictor of cardiac deaths (P> 0.05). Conclusions: Peak CPO was not a predictor of cardiac death in Chinese CHF patients.
    Preview · Article · Jan 2016 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To identify differentially expressed T cells-related genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and compare their differences in T cell activation and subset functions in different stages of coronary atherosclerosis disease (CAD). Methods: 20 patients with acute myocardial infarction patients (AMI), 20 patients with stable angina pectoris (SA) and 20 healthy volunteers were recruited into the study. Whole human genome microarray analysis was used to detect the expression of T cell related genes among three groups. Results: mRNA expression of 68 genes involved in T cell was detected. 1) Antigen recognition: in the AMI patients 12 genes were down-regulated and 9 were significantly down-regulated among all 13 genes, compared with those of the SA and the control group, respectively. 2) Co-stimulators and regulators of T cell activation: among 16 genes in the AMI patients, 15 genes were lower and 8 were significantly lower than the other two groups. 3) T cell subsets, CTL: all 11 genes in the AMI patients were down-regulated, particularly GZMM and CASP8 were significantly down-regulated compared with the SA patients and controls. Th1/Th2: in the AMI patients, gene expressions including IL1 and IL18 were significantly higher, whereas GATA3 mRNA was significantly lower than those in other two groups. Th17/Treg: in the AMI group, RORC and CCR6 mRNAs were significantly down-regulated compared with the control group, while CD25 and CD127 expressions were significantly lower than SA group. There was no difference in T cell related genes between the SA patients and the controls. Conclusions: In the AMI patients, the mRNA expression of T cell antigen recognition, activation and subset functions was imbalanced or decreased, indicating the dysfunction of cellular immunity in patients with AMI. Then improving T cell mediated cellular immunity may be considered as a potential target for medical interventions in the patients with AMI.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: The high morbidity, mortality and misdiagnosis rate render pulmonary embolism (PE) as a worldwide health problem. However, the etiology and pathogenesis of this disease have not been well characterized. Increasing studies indicate infection and immunity play a crucial role in PE. Natural killer (NK) cells act as a bridge between the innate immune and acquired immune. This study aimed to investigate the possible function of NK cells in PE. Human cDNA microarray analysis was employed to detect genes associated with NK cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Random variance model corrected t-test was used for statistical analysis of differential gene expression. Flow cytometry was performed to detect the CD16+CD56+ NK cells. In the present study, based on gene expression microarray analysis, we showed four inhibitory receptors (KLRB1, KLRD1, KLRF1, KLRG1) and four activating receptors (KLRC1, KLRC3, KLRK1 and NCR1) on NK cells were remarkably down-regulated and the cytological experiment demonstrated the proportion of CD16+CD56+ NK cells among PBMCs decreased in the PE group. We confirmed the presence of reduced expression of critical activating as well as inhibitory NK cell receptors and low proportion of CD16+CD56+ NK cells in PE. The consistence between genomic and cytological examination suggests compromised NK cells may contribute to the pathogenesis of PE.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · International journal of clinical and experimental pathology
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    ABSTRACT: Our previous studies have shown that integrin subunits β1, β2 and β3 were the core proteins of venous thrombi and potential useful biomarker of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Patients with acute infection have a high risk of VTE. In this study we explored that is there any relevance between core proteins and acute infection. A total of 230 patients (112 females) with clinically proven acute infection in the emergency unit were recruited into this study, meanwhile 230 patients without acute infection matched in sex and age were recruited as control group. Flow cytometry was done to measure the expressions of blood integrin β1, β2, β3 and cellular immunity (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD4/CD8, CD16CD56 and CD19). The association degree between increased core proteins and acute infection was analyzed by calculating the relative risk (RR). The expression of integrin β1, β2 and β3 was markedly increased in patients with acute infection (P=0.000, 0.000 and 0.015, respectively). The relative risk ratio (RR) of increased integrin β1, β2 and β3 in acute infection patients was 1.424 (95%CI: 1.156-1.755, P=0.001), 1.535 (95%CI: 1.263-1.865, P=0.000) and 1.20 (95%CI: 0.947-1.521, P=0.148), respectively. Combined integrin β1, β2 and β3 analysis showed that the relative risk ratio (RR) of increased in patients with acute infection was 2.962 (95%CI: 1.621-5.410, P=0.001), and this relative risk (RR) rise to 3.176 (95%CI: 1.730-5.829, P=0.000) in patients with respiratory tract infection (RTI). As the core proteins of venous thrombi, integrinβ1, β2 and β3 were markedly increased expression in patients with acute infection, which maybe explain the increased risk of VTE in acute infection patients. A weakened immune system could be the basic condition of VTE occurrence.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2015 · International journal of medical sciences
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    ABSTRACT: To compare different expression of core proteins among venous thromboembolism (VTE) and those with risk factor groups and analyze the relative risk for VTE after integrating integrin β1, β2 and β3 expression. A total of 1006 subjects were recruited and divided into VTE group, risk factor groups and control (non- risk factor) group. Flow cytometry was performed to detect the expression of integrin β1, β2 and β3. The relative risk for VTE was evaluated with independent, parallel and serial methods. The expression of integrin β1 increased markedly in VTE patients, and those with risk factors (acute infection, malignancy, and autoimmune diseases), respectively (P < 0.001 or 0.01). The expression of integrin β1 in trauma/surgery group was not significantly different with control group (P > 0.05). The expression of integrin β2 or β3 significantly increased in VTE group, but that in risk factor groups was not significantly increased (P > 0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed the trauma/surgery groups had no significantly increased risk for VTE. VTE group patients have significantly increased expression of integrin β1, β2 and β3, and risk factor groups (acute infection, malignancy and autoimmune disease) have significantly increased expression of integrin β1. The significant increase in integrin β2, β3 expression is a marker differentiating of VTE group patients with other risk factor groups. Trauma/surgery group has no increased expression of integrin β1, β2 and β3 as other risk factors. Thus, that trauma/surgery may be not the "true" risk factor for VTE.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · American Journal of Translational Research
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate expression differences of neutrophil and mononuclear phagocyte related gene mRNAs among acute myocardial infarction (AMI), stable angina (SA) and control groups, and then discuss their expression characteristics in the stable angina pectoris (SAP) and AMI stages of coronary artery disease (CAD). Whole Human Genome Oligo Microarrays were applied to assess the differential expression characteristics of neutrophil and mononuclear phagocyte related mRNAs in patients with AMI (n = 20), SA (n = 20) and controls (n = 20). (1) Almost all colony-stimulating factors (CSF) and their receptors related mRNAs was up-regulated in AMI and SA groups compared with the control group, and the expression of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor receptor (GM-CSFR) and granulocyte colony stimulating factor receptor (G-CSFR) mRNAs in the AMI group was significantly up-regulated compared with the other two groups (P < 0.01). (2) The expression of mRNAs related to monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), CCR2 (MCP-1 receptor) and CXCR2 (IL-8 receptor) was significantly up-regulated (P < 0.01) in AMI group compared with SA and control groups. IL-8 mRNA expression in the AMI group was clearly higher than the controls (P < 0.05). (3) All mRNAs expression related to opsonic receptors (IgG FcR and C3bR/C4bR) was significantly up-regulated in AMI group compared with SA and control group (P < 0.01), and the SA group showed an upward trend compared with controls. (4) Most pattern recognition receptor (PRR)-related mRNAs expression was up-regulated in AMI group compared with SA and control groups. Most toll-like receptor (TLR) mRNAs expression was significantly up-regulated (P < 0.01) than the SA and control groups; macrophage scavenger receptor (MSR) mRNA was significantly up-regulated in AMI group compared with the control group (P < 0.01), and the SA group showed an upward trend compared with the controls. The expression of most neutrophil and mononuclear-macrophage function related genes mRNAs was significantly up-regulated by stages during the progression of CAD, suggesting that the adhesive, chemotactic and phagocytic functions of neutrophil and mononuclear-macrophage were strengthened in the occurrence and development of coronary atherosclerosis and AMI. This also showed a stepped upward trend as the disease progressed.
    Preview · Article · May 2015 · Journal of Geriatric Cardiology
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    ABSTRACT: Cancer is one of the most common risk factor of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Our previous studies have shown that integrin subunits β1, β2 and β3 were the core proteins of venous thrombi and potential useful biomarker of VTE. This study aimed to explore the expression status of core proteins (integrin subunits β1, β2 and β3) in cancer patients. This is a case-control study. A total of 144 inpatients (54 females) with clinically proven cancers were recruited into this study, meanwhile 200 inpatients without cancer matched in sex and age were recruited as control group. Flow cytometry was done to measure the expressions of blood integrin β1, β2, β3 and cellular immunity related variables (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD4/CD8, CD16CD56 and CD19). The association degree between increased core proteins and cancers was analyzed by calculating the relative risk (RR). The expression of integrin β1 and β3 were markedly increased in patients with cancer (P=0.001 and 0.008). Integrin β2 was also mildly increased in patients with cancer (P=0.274). The relative risk ratio (RR) of increased integrin β1, β2 and β3 in cancer patients was 1.655 (95% CI: 1.321-2.074, P=0.000), 1.314 (95% CI: 1.052-1.642, P=0.021) and 1.852, (95% CI: 1.097-3.126, P=0.028), respectively. Combined analysis with integrin β1, β2 and β3 showed that the relative risk ratio (RR) of increased in cancer patients was 4.895 (95% CI: 1.645-14.563, P=0.002). CD3, CD4, CD4/CD8 and CD19 were significantly decreased (P=0.004, P=0.000, P=0.000, P=0.000, respectively) in patients with cancer, while CD8 and CD16CD56 were markedly increased in cancer patients (P=0.005, P=0.035). As the core proteins of venous thrombi, integrin β1 and β3 were markedly increased expression in patients with cancer, which maybe explain the increased risk of VTE in cancer patients. A weakened or disordered immune system might be the basis of VTE in condition.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: The minute ventilation/carbon dioxide production (VE/VCO2) slope has been widely demonstrated to have strong prognostic value in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), and the risk of mortality is believed to increase when the VE/VCO2 slope is >32.8; however, there is little evidence concerning the prognostic value of the VE/VCO2 slope in Chinese patients. In the present study, the prognostic value of the VE/VCO2 slope was investigated in patients with CHF. A total of 258 subjects underwent symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and were divided into CHF (113 males and 16 females; LVEF <0.49) and control (106 males and 23 females) groups. The cardiac-related events over a median 33.7-month follow-up period subsequent to the CPET were evaluated using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The VE/VCO2 slope was significantly different between the CHF and control groups (P<0.001). The area under the curve (AUC) for the VE/VCO2 slope in predicting cardiac-related mortalities in the patients with CHF was 0.670 (P<0.05), and the sensitivity and specificity of the VE/VCO2 slope were 0.667 and 0.620, respectively. The optimal threshold of the VE/VCO2 slope for predicting cardiac-related mortalities in patients with CHF was ≥39.3. The AUC for the VE/VCO2 slope in predicting cardiac-related hospitalizations in patients with CHF was 0.682 (P<0.05), and the sensitivity and specificity of the VE/VCO2 slope were 0.631 and 0.778, respectively. The optimal threshold of the VE/VCO2 slope for predicting cardiac-related hospitalizations in patients with CHF was ≥32.9. In conclusion, ventilatory efficiency decreases in patients with CHF. The VE/VCO2 slope is a strong predictor of cardiac-related mortalities in the patients with CHF analyzed.
    Preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Experimental and therapeutic medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Whole human genome oligo microarrays were employed to systematically investigate the mRNA expression profile of 5-HT synthetase, transporter, receptor, and factors in 5-HT signaling pathway in peripheral blood karyocytes from pulmonary embolism (PE) patients. A total of 20 PE patients and 20 healthy subjects matched in gender and age were recruited. The human genome microarrays were performed to detect the mRNA expression profile of 5-HT synthetase, transporter, receptor, and factors in 5-HT signal pathway of two groups. The random variance model corrected t-test was used for analysis. Our results showed (1) tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH1)-related gene expression was markedly down-regulated in PE patients (P < 0.01); (2) monoamine oxidases (MAO)-related gene (MAOB) expression was significantly up-regulated in PE patients (P < 0.01); (3) the expression of 17 genes of 7 5-HT receptors showed a down-regulated tendency in PE patients, and significant difference was observed in the expression of HTR1E, HTR3B, HTR4 and HTR5A between them (P < 0.05); (4) the expression of DalDAG-GEF I, Tubby, PKA and EPAC in 5-HT signal pathways was dramatically up-regulated in PE patients (P < 0.05); the expression of SPA1, RIAM, RAPL, Talin, PKC, PLC and Pyk2 was remarkably up-regulated in PE patients (P < 0.05); (5) the expression of integrin genes ITGA2B, ITGB1 and ITGB3 was significantly up-regulated in PE patients (P < 0.05). In PE patients, the expression of TPH1 and HTR4 was down-regulated as a negative feedback; the MAOB expression was up-regulated. Consistent with the expression of 5-HTR1E and 5-HTR4 and the abnormally activated Tubby, the expression of integrins in platelets was activated.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: The aim of this study is to observe the T cell immune function in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Materials and methods: Expressions of T cell surface antigens including CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ and CD4+/CD8+ ratio were examined in 16 patients with CTEPH, with a follow-up of 1 year. Follow-up data were acquired from 9 patients (56%). mRNA expression of T cell immunity related genes was measured by whole human genome microarray in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of some patients and 20 controls. Results: Of 16 patients, 7 (44%) had abnormal CD3+ expression (2 were increased, 5 were decreased), 5 (31%) had increased CD4+ expression, 8 (50%) had decreased CD8+ expression, and 10 had abnormal CD4+/CD8+ ratio (8 were increased, 2 were decreased). Of 9 patients followed up, 7 (78%) had decreased CD3+ expression, 5 (55%) had abnormal CD4+ expression (1 was increased, 4 were decreased), 6 (67%) had decreased CD8+ expression, and 6 had increased CD4+/CD8+ ratio. When compared with controls, the mRNA expressions of CD3D, CD3G, GZMA, GZMB and ZAP70 were markedly down-regulated in 10 CTEPH patients (P<0.05). Conclusion: The T cell functions of antigen recognition, signal transduction and killing pathogens in patients with CTEPH were reduced, and T cell immune dysfunction may play an important role in the occurrence and development of CTEPH.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Acta Medica Mediterranea
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    ABSTRACT: Background: To compare different expression of core proteins among venous thromboembolism (VTE) and those with risk factor groups and analyze the relative risk for VTE after integrating integrin beta 1, beta 2 and beta 3 expression. Methods: A total of 1006 subjects were recruited and divided into VTE group, risk factor groups and control (non-risk factor) group. Flow cytometry was performed to detect the expression of integrin beta 1, beta 2 and beta 3. The relative risk for VTE was evaluated with independent, parallel and serial methods. Results: The expression of integrin beta 1 increased markedly in VTE patients, and those with risk factors (acute infection, malignancy, and autoimmune diseases), respectively (P < 0.001 or 0.01). The expression of integrin beta 1 in trauma/surgery group was not significantly different with control group (P > 0.05). The expression of integrin beta 2 or beta 3 significantly increased in VTE group, but that in risk factor groups was not significantly increased (P > 0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed the trauma/surgery groups had no significantly increased risk for VTE. Conclusions: VTE group patients have significantly increased expression of integrin beta 1, beta 2 and beta 3, and risk factor groups (acute infection, malignancy and autoimmune disease) have significantly increased expression of integrin beta 1. The significant increase in integrin beta 2, beta 3 expression is a marker differentiating of VTE group patients with other risk factor groups. Trauma/surgery group has no increased expression of integrin beta 1, beta 2 and beta 3 as other risk factors. Thus, that trauma/surgery may be not the "true" risk factor for VTE.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · American Journal of Translational Research
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to explore the function and interaction of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in pulmonary embolism (PE). The gene expression profile GSE13535, was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. The DEGs 2 and 18 h post‑PE initiation were identified using the affy package in R software. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways of the DEGs were analyzed using Database for Annotation Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) online analytical tools. In addition, protein‑protein interaction (PPI) networks of the DEGs were constructed using the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins. The PPI network at 18 h was modularized using Clusterone, and a functional enrichment analysis of the DEGs in the top three modules was performed with DAVID. Overall, 80 and 346 DEGs were identified 2 and 18 h after PE initiation, respectively. The KEGG pathways, including chemokine signaling and toll‑like receptor signaling, were shown to be significantly enriched. The five highest degree nodes in the PPI networks at 2 or 18 h were screened. The module analysis of the PPI network at 18 h revealed 11 hub nodes. A Gene Ontology terms analysis demonstrated that the DEGs in the top three modules were associated with the inflammatory, defense and immune responses. The results of the present study suggest that the DEGs identified, including chemokine‑related genes TFPI2 and TNF, may be potential target genes for the treatment of PE. The chemokine signaling pathway, inflammatory response and immune response were explored, and it may be suggested that these pathways have important roles in PE.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · Molecular Medicine Reports
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to identify differentially expressed B‑cell‑associated genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and investigate the gene expression characteristics of the different stages of B‑cell activation. A total of 20 patients with pulmonary embolisms (PE) and 20 age‑ and gender‑matched controls were enrolled in the present study. Human complementary DNA microarray analysis was used in order to detect the differential expression of B‑cell‑associated genes between the PE and control groups. Messenger (m)RNA expression was detected for 82 genes involved in B‑cell activation. The results showed that PE patients exhibited significantly increased expression levels of the B‑cell receptor genes LYN, CD22, SYK, BTK, PTPRC and NFAM1, whereas expression levels of FYN, FCRL4 and LAX1 were significantly decreased compared to those of the control group. Expression levels of T‑cell‑dependent B‑cell‑activation genes, including EMR2, TNFSF9, CD86, ICOSLG, CD37 and CD97, were significantly upregulated in PE patients, whereas SPN mRNA expression was significantly downregulated compared with those of the control group. LILRA1 and TLR9 T cell‑independent B‑cell activation mRNAs were significantly upregulated in PE patients compared with those of the control group. In addition, the expression levels of B‑cell‑activation regulator genes, including CR1, LILRB4 and VAV1, were significantly increased, whereas SLAMF7 expression levels were significantly decreased in PE patients compared with those of the control group. Furthermore, the expression levels of B‑cell‑activation‑associated cytokine genes demonstrated a significant upregulation of LTA and IL10 and downregulation of L1A, IFNA5, IFNA6, IFNA8, IFNA14, IL2, IL13 and IFNG in PE patients compared to those of the control group. In conclusion, the differential gene expression at different stages of B‑cell activation between healthy controls and PE patients indicated that B‑cell function was reduced or disorganized in patients with symptomatic PE.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Molecular Medicine Reports
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To investigate the core proteins (integrin subunits β1, β2 and β3) in the acute venous thrombi and validate the specificity and sensitivity of increased expression of integrin subunits β1, β2 and β3 in patients with venous thromboembolism. Methods: A total of 120 patients (73 females) with clinically proven acute VTE and aged between 24-90 years, and 120 non-VTE patients and healthy controls receiving physical examination matched in the sex and age were recruited. Flow cytometry was done to measure the expressions of blood integrin β1, β2 and β3. The receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was conducted to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of integrin β1, β2 and β3. Results: The median levels of integrin β1, β2 and β3 were significantly higher in VTE patients than in non-VTE patients (P=0.000, 0.000 and 0.000, respectively) and healthy controls (P=0.000, 0.000 and 0.000, respectively). The ROC curves showed that integrin β1, β2 and β3 were specific diagnostic predictors of VTE with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.870, 0.821, and 0.731, respectively. When three integrins were combined for diagnosis, the AUC of ROC curve was 0.916, and the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 84.6%, 90.8%, 81.7% and 92.0%, respectively. Conclusion: The increased integrin β1, β2 and β3, as the core protein of venous thrombosis, have relatively high specificity and sensitivity for VTE and thus may serve as useful new biomarkers for the diagnoses of VTE.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine

  • No preview · Article · Oct 2014 · Journal of the American College of Cardiology
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    ABSTRACT: In patients with pulmonary embolism (PE), forepart components of complements were activated. However there are interruption/decrease of cascade reaction and cytolytic effects in complement system. This study detected CRP, CH50, C3 and C4 levels in patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) and compare with the imbalance of complement associated gene mRNA expression in PE patients. There was significant increase of CH50 in acute VTE patients. Even though CH50 increased significantly in acute VTE patients and had a relatively high sensitivity, cytolytic effects of complements might decrease, based on the genomics results of complement cascade reactions imbalance/interruption and increased total complements in VTE patients.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction and objectives: Recent studies have shown that the major risk factors for arterial thrombotic diseases are closely associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE). This study aimed to investigate the expression of CD3, CD4 and CD8 in T lymphocytes, the CD4/CD8 ratio and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels in patients with VTE, coronary artery atherosclerosis (CAA) and healthy subjects. Methods: A total of 82 healthy subjects, 51 VTE patients and 114 CAA patients were recruited, and the expression of CD3, CD4 and CD8 in T lymphocytes and the CD4/CD8 ratio were determined. Serum hs-CRP was also measured. Results: Compared to healthy subjects, VTE patients had significantly reduced CD3 expression (p=0.019), comparable CD4 expression (p=0.868), significantly reduced CD8 expression (p<0.001) and increased CD4/CD8 ratio (p=0.044). However, VTE patients had comparable expression of CD3, CD4 and CD8 and CD4/CD8 ratio to CAA patients. In addition, among patients with VTE or CAA, the proportion of patients with reduced CD3+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes or increased CD4/CD8 ratio was significantly higher than in healthy subjects. In addition, hs-CRP in both VTE and CAA groups was significantly higher than in healthy subjects. Conclusions: The antigen recognition and signal transduction activation of T cells is significantly reduced in patients with VTE or CAA, and the killing effect of T cells on pathogens, including viruses, is also significantly compromised. In addition, inflammatory and immune mechanisms are involved in the occurrence and development of venous and arterial thrombosis.
    Preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Revista portuguesa de cardiologia: orgao oficial da Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia = Portuguese journal of cardiology: an official journal of the Portuguese Society of Cardiology
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    ABSTRACT: Introdução e objetivos Estudos recentes mostraram que os fatores de risco major das doenças trombóticas arteriais estão de forma muito próxima relacionados com a trombose venosa. Este estudo visou investigar as expressões CD3, CD4 e CD8 nos linfócitos T, a razão CD4/CD8 e a proteína reativa-C de alta sensibilidade (HsCRP) nos doentes com tromboembolismo venoso (TEV), com aterosclerose das artérias coronárias (AAC) e nos indivíduos saudáveis. Métodos Foi recrutado um total de 82 indivíduos saudáveis, de 51 doentes com TEV e de 114 doentes com AAC e foram determinadas as expressões CD3, CD4 e CD8 nos linfócitos T e razão CD4/CD8. Foi também determinada a HsCRP sérica. Resultados Quando comparados com os indivíduos saudáveis, os doentes com TEV tiveram expressões significativamente reduzidas: CD3 (p=0,019) comparável com a expressão CD4 (p=0,868) e CD8 (p<0,001) e razão CD4/CD8 (p=0,044) aumentada. No entanto, os doentes com TEV tiveram expressões CD3, CD4 e CD8 e razão CD4/CD8 comparáveis aos doentes com AAC. Além disso, os resultados mostraram, nos doentes com TEV ou AAC, a proporção de doentes com expressão CD3+ reduzida e linfócitos CD8+T ou razão CD4+/CD8+ ou razão aumentada CD4+/CD8+ significativamente aumentada, quando comparados com os indivíduos saudáveis. Além disso, a HsCRP no grupo com TEV e no grupo com AAC foi significativamente superior do que no grupo dos indivíduos saudáveis. Conclusão O reconhecimento do antigénio e a ativação do sinal da transdução das células T estão significativamente reduzidos nos doentes com TEV ou com AAC e o efeito mortífero das células T nos patogéneos, incluindo os vírus, está significativamente comprometido. Além disso, os mecanismos inflamatórios e imunológicos estão envolvidos na ocorrência e no desenvolvimento da trombose venosa e arterial.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014
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    ABSTRACT: The pathogenesis of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with cancer is related to the destruction of small veins and the intravenous formation of filamentous mesh-like structure by fibrinogen. The filamentous mesh-like filter can block hematogenous metastasis of cancer cells and also can stagnate blood cells, leading to venous thrombosis. Cancer cells have characteristics of malignancy and fast proliferation, and ischemic necrosis frequently occurs, and small veins were invaded and damaged. The formation of filamentous mesh-like structure has defense function and also may cause the occurrence of VTE. VTE is a product of the proliferation process of malignant cells.
    No preview · Article · May 2014 · International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the capability of impedance cardiography (ICG) in reflecting the cardiac functions of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients. 99 inpatients with initial AMI were recruited. Venous blood was obtained for detection of N-terminal brain-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), B-Type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and c troponin-T (cTnT) followed by ICG. Thorax fluid capacity (TFC), pre-ejection period (PEP), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), cardiac output (CO), stroke volume (SV), stroke index (SI), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI), cardiac index (CI), end-diastolic volume (EDV) and systolic time ratio (STR) were measured. All these patients underwent ICG and echocardiography 2 days after surgery. Our results indicated NT-proBNP and BNP were associated with SVR, SVRI, PEP and STR, independently (P < 0.05). cTnT was associated with SVR and SVRI (P < 0.05). And the outcomes showed correlation between ICG and echocardiography in SV, SI, EDV, LEVT, STR, LVEF (P < 0.01), CO and CI (P < 0.05). However, no correlation was noted in PEP. In addition, changes were also found in the blood pressure and heart rate 7 days after PCI. May be ICG data could reflect the early cardiac functions of AMI patients, but the accuracy of ICG in evaluating cardiac functions should be combined with detection of blood NT-proBNP, BNP and cTnT and echocardiography.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2014 · International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine