[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated whether a meridian-like distribution of Alcian blue existed after having injected it into a fish’s body and suggested a new animal model for meridian study. Twenty Gephyrocharax Melanocheir fish with translucent bodies were injected with Alcian blue (AB) at a point near the spinal column or the dorsal fin. The distribution of AB was observed by using a digital camera and a stereomicroscope. Three or more obvious blue tracks were found: one along the spinal column, another along the posterior margin of the abdomen extending to the superior margin of the anal fin, and a third along both sides of the dorsal fin. They were similar to the locations of the Governor, Conceptual Vessel, and Urinary Bladder meridian, respectively, on the human body in the classic theory of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). A few other blue tracks were also found that apparently did not correspond to known meridians. The results show that the tracks of AB share important similarities with the locations of classically-described meridians and that they are mainly distributed in the interstitial space around bones and blood vessels and inside muscular interstices. This study may provide a new experimental animal model for exploring acupuncture meridians.
Preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The specificity of acupuncture points (acupoints) is one of the key concepts in traditional acupuncture theory, but the question of whether there is adequate scientific evidence to prove or disprove specificity has been vigorously debated in recent years. Laterality, or the tendency for acupoints on the right or left side of the body to produce different physiological effects, is an important aspect of acupoint specificity. Data is particularly scarce regarding the laterality of the same channel, same-named acupoint located on opposite sides of the body. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Neiguan (PC6) has laterality. A total of eighteen healthy female volunteers were recruited for this study. Electrocardiograms were recorded and heart rate variability was analyzed before, during, and after PC6 was stimulated on either the left or the right side. The results show that during acupuncture, there were significant differences in the standard deviation of RR intervals (STDRR), root mean square of successive differences between RR intervals (RMSSD), and total power between the left PC6 stimulation group and the right PC6 stimulation group, which indicates that PC6 may have laterality.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many studies have explored the relationship between skin microcirculation and meridian activation. However, few studies have examined blood perfusion coherence along the meridians, and other studies have suggested that the skin vasodilator response relates to age. This study investigated blood perfusion coherence characteristics along the meridian of the forearm in healthy volunteers.
A total of 15 young subjects (25.53 +/- 2.20) and 15 middle-aged subjects (50.07 +/- 3.37) were recruited for this study. Before experiments, each subject was placed in a temperature-controlled room for 60 min. Skin blood perfusion from five points was recorded simultaneously using a full-field laser perfusion imager before and after inflatable occlusion. The five points comprised three points located on the pericardium meridian, and two points from different locations. Coherence analysis between these points was performed at different frequency intervals from 0.0095 to 2 Hz.
In young subjects, the coherence value was unchanged before and after occlusion, and there was no significant difference in coherence value between meridian-meridian points (M-M) and meridian-parameridian points (M-P). In middle-aged subjects, the coherence value increased significantly in both M-M and M-P at frequency intervals of 0.14-0.4 Hz, 0.4-1.6 Hz, and 1.6-2 Hz. However, there was no significant difference in coherence values between M-M and M-P.
Inflatable occlusion can increase middle-aged subjects' blood perfusion coherence value of the forearm. However, there is no specificity in meridian location.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was performed to observe the influence of sham and different verum acupuncture manipulations on skin temperature of the stimulated acupoint in healthy volunteers. Thirty-seven healthy volunteers with a mean age of 25.4 ± 2.2 years were enrolled in the study. All volunteers had experienced acupuncture before. They received sham acupuncture and two different kinds of verum acupuncture stimulation (lifting-thrusting and twisting-rotating) on Zusanli (ST36). The skin temperature of ST36 was measured before acupuncture, after needle insertion, after needle manipulation, immediately after removal of the needle, and as further control 5 minutes after removal of the needle using a FLIR i7 infrared thermal camera. During the measurement, the needling sensations of volunteers were enquired and recorded. During the sham acupuncture stimulation, the skin temperature of ST36 decreased in the first 5 minutes, when the point was exposed, and then increased gradually. During verum acupuncture stimulations, the skin temperature increased continually and then decreased in the last phase. The increase in temperature caused by lifting-thrusting stimulation was significantly higher than that of twisting-rotating manipulation, which may be related to the stimulation intensity.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2013 · Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to observe possible changes of the skin microvascular perfusion on the acupoints and related areas and to quantify influences of acupuncture stimulation on the volunteers' blood pressure, heart rate, and heart rate variability (HRV). During the measurement, the needling sensations of volunteers were enquired and recorded. Ten healthy volunteers with a mean age ± SD of 25.4 ± 2.6 years were enrolled, and acupuncture stimulation was performed on ST36 (Zusanli, right side), in pure lifting-thrusting or twisting-rotating manipulation. During needling, we observed the changing of microvascular perfusion on ST36, 37, 38, and a control point using MOOR speckle laser blood flow scanning. Electrocardiogram and blood pressure were registered before, during, and after needling. Both lifting-thrusting and twisting-rotating needle manipulations could decrease blood pressure and heart rate while improving HRV significantly. There were significant differences in microvascular perfusion on acupoints ST36, 37, 38, and the control point following these two kinds of needle manipulation. The needling sensation caused by lifting-thrusting is stronger than that of twisting-rotating manipulation. Significant differences between lifting-thrusting and twisting-rotating acupuncture stimulation methods show that the mechanisms may be different and need to be researched thoroughly in the future.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our previous studies suggested that the MBF in contralateral Hegu acupoint (IL4) increased after ipsilateral Hegu acupoint was stimulated with manual acupuncture. In this study, twenty-eight (28) healthy volunteers were recruited and were randomly divided into Hegu acupoint stimulation group and Non-Hegu stimulation group. All subjects received the same model stimulation of the laser needle for 30 min in right Hegu acupoint and Non-Hegu acupoint, respectively. MBF of left LI4 was measured by the laser Doppler perfusion imaging system. The original data dealt with morlet wavelet analysis and the average amplitude and power spectral density of different frequency intervals was acquired. The results indicated that right Hegu stimulation with the laser needle might result in the increase of left Hegu acupoint MBF. 40 min later after ceased stimulation, the MBF is still increasing significantly, whereas the MBF has no significantly change in Non-Hegu stimulation group. The wavelet analysis result suggested that compared to Non-Hegu stimulation, stimulated to right Hegu acupoint might result in the increase of average amplitude in frequency intervals of 0.0095-0.02 Hz, 0.02-0.06 Hz, and 0.06-0.15 Hz, which might be influenced by the endothelial, neurogenic, and the intrinsic myogenic activity of the vessel wall, respectively.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. Acupoints (belonging to 12 meridians) which have the same names are symmetrically distributed on the body. It has been proved that acupoints have certain biological specificities different from the normal parts of the body. However, there is little evidence that acupoints which have the same name and are located bilaterally and symmetrically have lateralized specificity. Thus, researching the lateralized specificity and the relationship between left-side and right-side acupuncture is of special importance. Methodology and Principal Findings. The mean blood flux (MBF) in both Hegu acupoints was measured by Moor full-field laser perfusion imager. With the method of system identification algorithm, the output distribution in different groups was acquired, based on different acupoint stimulation and standard signal input. It is demonstrated that after stimulation of the right Hegu acupoint by needle, the output value of MBF in contralateral Hegu acupoint was strongly amplified, while after acupuncturing the left Hegu acupoint, the output value of MBF in either side Hegu acupoint was amplified moderately. Conclusions and Significance. This paper indicates that the Hegu acupoint has lateralized specificity. After stimulating the ipsilateral Hegu acupoint, symmetry breaking will be produced in contrast to contralateral Hegu acupoint stimulation.
Full-text · Article · May 2012 · Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infrared thermography for temperature distribution monitoring was performed in ten healthy volunteers (M/F, 5/5; mean age ± SD, 24.9 ± 3.3 years) before, during, and after stimulation by noninvasive violet (405 nm) laser needle at the Dazhui (GV14) acupoint. Significant (p<0.001) increases of temperature at a region of interest around the acupoint were observed. Furthermore, temperature also increased significantly (p<0.05) at a so-called "far field" area Zhiyang (GV9). In two persons, however, needle acupuncture and placebo (deactivated laser) did not have the same temperature effects. Violet laser induces changes in skin surface temperature distributions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare the difference of remote effects of acupuncture between metal needle and laser needle on facial blood perfusion (FBP).
Hand acupuncture and laser-needle acupuncture were randomly used on Hegu (LI4) in 20 healthy volunteers. FBP was observed by speckle contrast imager before, during, and after the acupunctures.
For hand acupuncture there were gradual increases on the nose and left and right visor areas (p<0.05 or p<0.01) during the acupuncture and on an immediate increase (p<0.01) that remained constant during the acupuncture on the forehead area but no significant increase on mouth area. During laser-needle acupuncture, on the other hand, there was a tendency of increase on the nose, left visor, and right visor areas but these were non significant.
Hand acupuncture can influence FBP in remote places connected by meridians.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/Objective: The goal of this study was to investigate and compare the effects of fire-cupping and vacuum-cupping, by evaluating local blood perfusion using laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI). Subjects: Ten females and 3 males (mean age±standard deviation 35.5±9.1 years) were enrolled in the experiment. Intervention: Using specially developed jars with manometers, each of the volunteers was given traditional fire-cupping on one side of the back first, and the pressure in the jars was measured. Then vacuum-cupping was applied on the other side of the back and the pressure was adjusted to that of the fire-cupping jars. Both jars stayed on each subject's back for 5 minutes. Changes of local capillary perfusion of the body surface were observed with LDPI before applying the jars, immediately after removal of the jars, and 8 minutes and 21 minutes following removal of the jars. Results: Elevation of local blood perfusion with vacuum-cupping was of longer duration and more pronounced than that of traditional fire-cupping, but for both methods, the instant efficacy was nearly the same. Conclusions: LDPI is a useful method for evaluating cupping effects. Although Chinese patients generally still prefer the traditional method of fire-cupping, the new vacuum-cupping method can enable a more standardized and faster procedure in future.
No preview · Article · Mar 2011 · Medical Acupuncture
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Laser Doppler flowmetry for microcirculation monitoring was performed in 10 healthy volunteers (mean age ± SD: 24.9 ± 3.3 years; 5 females, 5 males) prior to, during, and after stimulation using a noninvasive violet (405 nm) laser needle at the Dazhui (GV14) acupoint. The results of this controlled study (control point at the shoulder) showed significant (p < 0.05) increases in Flux (product of concentration and velocity of erythrocytes) at a distance of 3 cm from the acupoint. At the same time, no changes were found at the control point. Furthermore, 5 minutes after stimulation the microcirculation still flowed at a higher level than baseline values at the beginning of the investigation. In a single individual it was demonstrated that needle acupuncture enhanced this effect and placebo (deactivated laser) did not have a significant effect. The results suggest that violet laser acupuncture at the acupoint Dazhui can increase vascular effects on microcirculation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tai Chi is a famous training method in China, and jogging is a popular kind of exercise both in Austria and China. Nevertheless, there is little information concerning online monitoring of biosignals during both training activities in parallel. Within the last years innovative scientific monitoring tools for evaluating features of neurocardial fitness have been developed.
The goal of this study was to demonstrate heart rate and heart rate variability analysis for the first time during Tai Chi and jogging.
Continuous electrocardiographic monitoring over a period of 75 minutes was performed simultaneously in two healthy volunteers using the same type of equipment (medilog AR12 systems). Two healthy persons (both male, 49 years and 52 years, respectively), both hobby sportsmen, were monitored continuously during two resting periods before and after active sport and also during Tai Chi and jogging, respectively.
Data acquisition was performed without any technical problems in both subjects. Poincaré plots of sequential R-R intervals (beat to beat variability) show two ellipses of different shape and magnitude. During resting periods blood pressure effects can be clearly seen in one subject (jogging). The same effects, however reduced, are obvious in the other volunteer during Tai Chi.
The present investigations during Tai Chi and jogging highlight the potential value of heart rate and heart rate variability monitoring even under difficult conditions. The innovative kind of analysis helps to show how well the human body reacts to sport, stress and recovery.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2011 · North American Journal of Medical Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Violet laser acupuncture using a wavelength of 405 nm has been investigated in only a few scientific studies. The aim of this study was to provide selective evidence of a specific effect of violet laser acupuncture on mean cerebral blood flow velocity using a Doppler ultrasound technique. A transcranial Doppler sonography construction was developed especially for this study to monitor blood flow profiles in the basilar and middle cerebral arteries simultaneously and continuously. The acupuncture point Dazhui on the upper back was tested in a controlled study with 10 healthy volunteers (24.9 ± 3.3 years, mean age ± SD; 5 females, 5 males). In addition to an on/off-effect, violet laser stimulation increased the blood flow velocity in the basilar artery significantly (p < 0.001) compared with the reference interval before laser acupuncture. In the middle cerebral artery, only minimal, nonsignificant changes in blood flow velocity were seen. Metal needle acupuncture at the same point intensified the effects; however, blood flow profiles did not change significantly during and after stimulation with a deactivated violet laser.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the role of meridians in the formation and development of diseases, a pathological model of obstructed channel was established by injecting polyacrylamide hydrogel. The effects of blocking low hydraulic resistance channel (LHRC), produced by injecting polyacrylamide hydrogel and by injecting normal saline, were compared by examining the change in transmission of interstitial fluid pressure wave. The results showed that there was significant decrease (P < 0.01) in interstitial fluid pressure wave after more than 0.5 ml polyacrylamide hydrogel was injected into the channel, whereas no significant changes were found after normal saline was injected or when the hydrogel was outside the channel. The above findings demonstrate that the low hydraulic resistance channel can be blocked by injecting certain amount of polyacrylamide hydrogel and a pathological model of obstructed channel has been established preliminarily.
No preview · Article · Aug 2009 · Sheng wu yi xue gong cheng xue za zhi = Journal of biomedical engineering = Shengwu yixue gongchengxue zazhi
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Moxibustion is an Asian healing method that is able to achieve specific warming effects at acupoints. We discuss a new Japanese needle-moxa-system. Objective: To evaluate the effects of this new system in a transcontinental study using high-tech measuring methods. Design, Setting, and Participants: The study was conducted in 3 centers (Graz, Austria; Beijing, China; and Seoul, Korea). Beside basic technical temperature measurements in Seoul, 9 investigations were carried out in 6 healthy volunteers (3 women, 3 men; mean [SD] age, 27.2 [5.7] years) using different methods (thermography, laser Doppler flowmetry, laser Doppler imaging, and heart rate variability). Four persons were examined in Graz, 2 in Beijing. Intervention: Moxibustion was always applied at acupoint CV 6 (Qihai). In addition, biosignal registrations were carried out in Graz during painless laser acupuncture of acupoint CV 12 (Zhongwan). Main Outcome Measures: Changes in temperature, microcirculation, and heart rate. Results: Temperature distributions, changes in microcirculation (at isolated spots and as a large-area image), and trends of heart rate variability were registered. The dimensions of local and temporal effects of heat stimulation could be visualized objectively. Conclusions: Effects of the new moxibustion method can be quantified reliably by modern measuring equipment. Using this system, moxibustion under standardized conditions can be performed with a minimum of smoke emission and high degree of safety.
No preview · Article · Jun 2009 · Medical Acupuncture