[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is used for treatment of hematopoietic diseases. Assessment of T- and B-cell reconstitution after HCT is crucial because poor immune recovery has a major effect on the clinical course. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) as well as signal and coding joint kappa-deleting recombination excision circles (sjKRECs and cjKRECs, respectively) as markers of newly produced lymphocytes in 133 patients (56 primary immunodeficient and 77 malignant cases, median (range): 12 (0-62) years old). We analyzed the kinetics of TREC and KREC recovery and determined the factors that contributed to better immune recovery. KRECs became positive earlier than TRECs and increased thereafter. Younger recipient age had a favorable effect on recovery of sjKRECs and cjKRECs. Compared with BM and peripheral blood, our data suggested that cord blood (CB) provided rapid B-cell recovery. CB also provided better B-cell neogenesis in adult HCT recipients. Chronic GVHD was associated with low TRECs, but not increased sjKRECs/cjKRECs. Finally, positive sjKRECs 1 month after HCT were associated with fewer infectious episodes. Monitoring of TRECs and KRECs may serve as a useful tool for assessment of immune reconstitution post HCT.Bone Marrow Transplantation advance online publication, 30 June 2014; doi:10.1038/bmt.2014.123.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Bone Marrow Transplantation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) results from an inherited defect in the phagocytic cells of the immune system. It is a genetically heterogenous disease caused by defects in one of the five major subunits of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase complex. There is a paucity of data from India on CGD. We herein describe the clinical features in 17 children with CGD from a single tertiary referral center in India. A detailed analysis of the clinical features, laboratory investigations and outcome of 17 children 7 with X-linked (XL) and 10 with autosomal recessive (AR) form was performed. Diagnosis of CGD was based on an abnormal granulocyte oxidative burst evaluated by either Nitroblue Tetrazolium (NBT) test or flow cytometry based Dihyrorhodamine 123 assay or both. The molecular diagnosis was confirmed by genetic mutation analysis in 13 cases. The mean age at diagnosis and the age at onset of symptoms was significantly lower in children diagnosed with XL- CGD compared those with AR disease. Mutations were detected in CYBB gene in 6 patients with XL-CGD and NCF-1 gene mutations were observed in 7 cases of AR- CGD. The course and outcome of the disease was much worse in children diagnosed with X-linked form of disease compared to AR forms of the disease; 4/7 (57 %) children with X-CGD were dead at the time of data analysis. This is one of the largest series on chronic granulomatous disease from any developing country.
Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Journal of Clinical Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reversion mosaicism is increasingly being reported in primary immunodeficiency diseases, but there have been few cases with clinically improved immune function. Here, a case is reported of X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1) with multiple somatic reversions in T cells, which restored sufficient cell-mediated immunity to overcome viral infection. Lineage-specific analysis revealed multiple reversions in T cell receptor (TCR) αβ+ and TCRγδ+ T cells. Diversity of the TCRVβ repertoire was comparable to normal and, furthermore, mitogen-induced proliferation of the patient's T cells was minimally impaired compared to healthy controls. In vivo and in vitro varicella antigen-specific T cell responses were comparable to those of healthy controls, although a reduced level of T cell receptor excision circles suggested that recent thymic output was low. During long-term evaluation of the patient's immunologic status, both the number of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and T cell proliferation responses were stable and the patient remained healthy. This case demonstrates that multiple but restricted somatic reversions in T cell progenitors can improve the clinical phenotype of SCID-X1.
No preview · Article · Mar 2012 · Journal of Clinical Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is a rare X-linked immunodeficiency disorder characterized by thrombocytopenia with small sized platelets, eczema, and recurrent infections. There is paucity of information on WAS from the Indian subcontinent. We describe the clinical and molecular profile of 8 patients with WAS as seen in the Pediatric Immunodeficiency Clinic at the Advanced Pediatrics Centre, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.
A detailed analysis of the clinical profiles, investigations and outcome of the 8 children diagnosed with WAS during the period 2006- 2010 was performed. Confirmation of the genetic diagnosis was done at the Service d'Hématologie, d'Immunologie et de Cytogénétique, Hôpital de Bicêtre, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France and the National Defense Medical College, Saitama, Japan.
8 patients were diagnosed as WAS in 5 years. The ages at diagnosis ranged from 13 weeks to 9 years while the mean age of onset of the symptoms was 117 days +/- 136 days. The diagnosis was established within a mean period of 31 months (ranging 1-108 months) from the onset of symptoms. Recurrent infections and diarrhea were seen in 6 and 7 out of the 8 patients, respectively, while eczema was variable. Autoimmunity manifestations were observed in 2 children. Thrombocytopenia and small platelet size was the hallmark of the disease and the main clinical clue to diagnosis in our patients. Mutations in the WASP gene were seen in 8 children, out of which 2 were novel mutations. While one child successfully underwent bone marrow transplantation, two children are doing well on immunoglobulin replacement and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis. Out of 8 children 4 children in our cohort died--all had high WAS scores and could not be offered hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
WAS should be suspected clinically in any male infant with persistent unexplained thrombocytopenia and especially if the platelet size is small. Clinical presentation can be very variable and it is therefore important to recognize the entire spectrum of the disease. Understanding the molecular basis has important implications for the diagnosis, treatment, and genetic counseling of patients with WAS.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · Asian Pacific journal of allergy and immunology / launched by the Allergy and Immunology Society of Thailand
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many immunedeficiency syndromes are associated with autoimmune disorders. We here report on a girl with a systemic lupus erythematosus-like disease who suffered from both hyperimmunoglobulin M syndrome (HIGMS) and C1q deficiency. Despite severe central nervous system-lupus like disease, probably due to C1q deficiency, kidney function was relatively spared. IgM autoantibody might play a protective role against lupus-glomerulonephritis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) and hyper-immunoglobulin M (HIGM) syndrome are both primary immunodeficiency diseases caused by different genetic defects. While a small proportion of AT patients have increased serum immunoglobulin (Ig) M concentrations during the course of a disease, a high level of IgM at onset is rare. We report the case of an 8-year-old girl who had experienced recurrent respiratory infection, cutaneous abscesses, and hepatosplenomegaly since the age of 2 years. She was diagnosed with HIGM based on the results of immunological studies, including low IgG and IgA levels and raised serum IgM concentrations. However, at the age of 4 years, a neurological examination revealed gait disturbance and telangiectatic lesions on the conjunctiva; therefore, a diagnosis of AT was suggested. In spite of regular intravenous immunoglobulin infusions and antimicrobial prophylaxis, the patient experienced several episodes of respiratory infection and eventually died of respiratory failure at the age of 8 years. Further molecular analysis revealed a novel homozygous missense mutation in exon 53 (c.8250C>T, p.2622Ala>Val) of the ATM gene. Patients with AT and the HIGM phenotype may not develop clinical characteristics of AT for some time. While patients with AT and increased serum IgM levels could have a considerably more severe disease course and a shorter survival, IgM levels could be considered a prognostic factor.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2010 · Journal of investigational allergology & clinical immunology: official organ of the International Association of Asthmology (INTERASMA) and Sociedad Latinoamericana de Alergia e Inmunología
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the feasibility of T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) quantification for neonatal mass screening of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID).
Real-time PCR based quantification of TRECs for 471 healthy control patients and 18 patients with SCID with various genetic abnormalities (IL2RG, JAK3, ADA, LIG4, RAG1) were performed, including patients with maternal T-cell engraftment (n = 4) and leaky T cells (n = 3).
TRECs were detectable in all normal neonatal Guthrie cards (n = 326) at the levels of 10(4) to 10(5) copies/microg DNA. In contrast, TRECs were extremely low in all neonatal Guthrie cards (n = 15) and peripheral blood (n = 14) from patients with SCID, including those with maternal T-cell engraftment or leaky T cells with hypomorphic RAG1 mutations or LIG4 deficiency. There were no false-positive or negative results in this study.
TRECs quantification can be used as a neonatal mass screening for patients with SCID.
No preview · Article · Aug 2009 · The Journal of pediatrics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HSCT is the optimal treatment for patients with SCID. In particular, HSCT from a HLA-identical donor gives rise to successful engraftment with long survival. We report a six-month-old girl with JAK3-deficient SCID who developed hemophagocytosis after BMT without conditioning from her HLA-identical father. She had suffered from pneumonia and hepatitis before BMT. Prophylaxis for GVHD was short-term methotrexate and tacrolimus. On day 18 after BMT, the patient developed hemophagocytosis in bone marrow when donor lymphocytes were increasing in peripheral blood. Analysis of chimerism confirmed host origin of macrophages and donor origin of lymphocytes. Thus, host macrophage activation was presumably induced in response to donor lymphocytes through immunoreaction to infections and/or alloantigens. HSCT for SCID necessitates caution with respect to hemophagocytosis.
No preview · Article · Aug 2009 · Pediatric Transplantation