Edward J Boyko

VA Puget Sound Health Care System, Washington, Washington, D.C., United States

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Publications (256)1444.71 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Functional gastrointestinal disorders occur more frequently among deployed veterans, although studies evaluating the relative impact of risk factors, including stress and antecedent infectious gastroenteritis (IGE), are limited. We examined risk factors for new-onset irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) among active duty participants in the military's Millennium Cohort Study. Methods: Medical encounter data from 2001 to 2009, limited to Cohort members on active duty, were used to identify incident IBS cases (any and highly probable). IGE was identified using medical encounter or self-report. Covariate data were obtained from the Millennium Cohort Study surveys and analyzed using Cox proportional hazards methods. Results: Overall, 41,175 Cohort members met the eligibility criteria for inclusion and 314 new-onset cases of IBS were identified among these. Significant risk factors (adjusted hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval) included antecedent IGE (2.05, 1.53-2.75), female gender (1.96, 1.53-2.52), number of life stressors (1: 1.82, 1.37-2.41; 2: 2.86, 2.01-4.06; 3+: 6.69, 4.59-9.77), and anxiety syndrome (1.74, 1.17-2.58). Limited to highly probable IBS, a stronger association with antecedent IGE was observed, particularly when based on medical encounter records (any IGE: 2.20, 1.10-4.43; medical encounter IGE only: 2.84, 1.33-6.09). Precedent anxiety or depression and IGE interacted with increased IBS risk compared with IGE alone. Conclusions: These results confirm previous studies on the association between sociodemographic or life stressors and IBS. IGE was significantly associated with IBS risk. Whether deployed or not, US service members often encounter repeated exposure to high levels of stress, which, combined with other environmental factors such as IGE, may result in long-term debilitating functional gastrointestinal disorders.Am J Gastroenterol advance online publication, 5 January 2016; doi:10.1038/ajg.2015.386.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · The American Journal of Gastroenterology
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    ABSTRACT: Context: Atherogenic dyslipidemia is frequently observed in persons with a greater amount of visceral adipose tissue (VAT). However, it is still uncertain whether VAT is independently associated with the future development of atherogenic dyslipidemia. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine whether baseline and changes in VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) are associated with future development of atherogenic dyslipidemia independent of baseline lipid levels and standard anthropometric indices. Design and setting: Community-based prospective cohort study with 5 years of follow-up. Participants: A total of 452 Japanese Americans (240 men, 212 women), aged 34-75 years were assessed at baseline and after 5 years of follow-up. Main outcome measures: Abdominal fat areas were measured by computed tomography. Atherogenic dyslipidemia was defined as one or more abnormalities in HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, or non-HDL cholesterol levels. Results: Baseline VAT and change in VAT over 5 years were independently associated with log transformed HDL cholesterol, log transformed triglyceride, and non-HDL cholesterol after 5 years (standardized β=-0.126, 0.277, and 0.066 for baseline VAT, respectively and -0.095, 0.223, and 0.090 for change in VAT, respectively). However, baseline and change in SAT were not associated with any future atherogenic lipid level. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, incremental change in VAT (OR (95% confidence interval) 1.73 (1.20 - 2.48), P=0.003), triglycerides (4.01 (1.72 - 9.33), P=0.001), HDL cholesterol (0.32 (0.18 - 0.58), P<0.001), and non-HDL cholesterol (7.58 (4.43 - 12.95), P<0.001) were significantly associated with the future development of atherogenic dyslipidemia independent of age, sex, diastolic blood pressure, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance, body mass index (BMI), change in BMI, SAT, and baseline atherogenic lipid levels. Conclusion: Baseline and change in VAT were independent predictors for future development of atherogenic dyslipidemia. However, BMI, waist circumference, and SAT were not associated with future development of atherogenic dyslipidemia.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Multiple physical symptoms (MPS) have historically been observed after deployment to a combat zone and are often disabling in nature. This study examined longitudinal trends in MPS status and its relationship to deployment in U.S. military service members. Methods: Using longitudinal data from panel 1 participants in the Millennium Cohort Study (n = 76,924), MPS status was assessed at three time points (2001-2008) using the 15-item Patient Health Questionnaire. Probability of reporting MPS was analyzed using mixed-effects multinomial logit regression, with time and deployment experience as main explanatory variables. Results: After adjustment for demographic, military, and health characteristics, service members who deployed with combat were significantly more likely to report MPS at each time point compared with those not deployed (odds ratio [OR] and 95% confidence interval [CI] for wave 1 = 1.49 [1.47-1.52], wave 2 = 1.73 [1.69-1.78], wave 3 = 2.08 [2.03-2.12]), and those who deployed without combat (OR and CI for wave 1 = 2.66 [2.59-2.74], wave 2 = 1.81 [1.75-1.87]; wave 3 = 1.68 [1.63-1.74]). Conclusions: Longitudinal trends indicate that the probability of reporting MPS has increased consistently over time only for those deployed, regardless of combat experience.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Annals of epidemiology
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    ABSTRACT: Problem: The role of plasma estradiol in the accumulation of intra-abdominal fat (IAF) in men is uncertain. Cross-sectional studies using imaging of IAF have shown either a positive or no association. In contrast, a randomised controlled trial using an aromatase inhibitor to suppress estradiol production found an association between oestrogen deficiency and short-term IAF accumulation. No longitudinal study has been conducted to examine the relationship between plasma estradiol concentration and the change in IAF area measured using direct imaging. Methods: This is a longitudinal observational study in community-dwelling Japanese-American men (n=215, mean age 52 years, BMI 25.4kg/m(2)). IAF and subcutaneous fat areas were assessed using computerized tomography (CT) at baseline, 5 and 10 years. Baseline plasma estradiol concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Univariate analysis found no association between baseline estradiol concentration and baseline IAF, or 5- or 10-year changes in IAF area (r=-0.05 for both time points, p=0.45 and p=0.43, respectively). Multivariate linear regression analysis of the change in IAF area by baseline estradiol concentration adjusted for age, baseline IAF area, and weight change found no association with either the 5- or 10-year IAF area change (p=0.52 and p=0.55, respectively). Conclusions: Plasma estradiol concentration was not associated with baseline IAF nor with change in IAF area over 5 or 10 years based on serial CT scans in community-dwelling Japanese-American men. These results do not support a role for oestrogen deficiency in IAF accumulation in men.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
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    Edward J. Boyko

    Preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Diabetes Care
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    ABSTRACT: Free text in electronic health records resists large-scale analysis. Text records facts of interest not found in encoded data, and text mining enables their retrieval and quantification. The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) clinical data repository affords an opportunity to apply text-mining methodology to study clinical questions in large populations. To assess the feasibility of text mining, investigation of the relationship between exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and recorded diagnoses was conducted among all VA-treated Gulf war veterans, utilizing all progress notes recorded from 2000-2011. Text processing extracted ACE exposures recorded among 44.7 million clinical notes belonging to 243,973 veterans. The relationship of ACE exposure to adult illnesses was analyzed using logistic regression. Bias considerations were assessed. ACE score was strongly associated with suicide attempts and serious mental disorders (ORs = 1.84 to 1.97), and less so with behaviorally mediated and somatic conditions (ORs = 1.02 to 1.36) per unit. Bias adjustments did not remove persistent associations between ACE score and most illnesses. Text mining to detect ACE exposure in a large population was feasible. Analysis of the relationship between ACE score and adult health conditions yielded patterns of association consistent with prior research.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of Traumatic Stress
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Electronic health data are routinely used to conduct studies of cardiovascular disease in the setting of the Veterans Health Administration (VA). Previous studies have estimated the positive predictive value (PPV) of International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes for acute myocardial infarction (MI), but the sensitivity of these codes for all true events and the accuracy of coding algorithms for prevalent disease status at baseline are largely unknown. Methods: We randomly sampled 180 Veterans from the VA Puget Sound Health Care System who initiated diabetes treatment. The full electronic medical record was reviewed to identify prevalent conditions at baseline and acute MI events during follow-up. The accuracy of various coding algorithms was assessed. Results: Algorithms for previous acute events at baseline had high PPV (previous MI: 97%; previous stroke: 81%) but low sensitivity (previous MI: 38%; previous stroke: 52%). Algorithms for chronic conditions at baseline had high PPV (heart failure: 72%; coronary heart disease [CHD]: 85%) and high sensitivity (heart failure: 90%, CHD: 84%). For current smoking status at baseline, ICD-9 codes with pharmacy data had a PPV of 77% and sensitivity of 73%. The coding algorithm for acute MI events during follow-up had high PPV (80%) and sensitivity (89%) CONCLUSIONS: ICD-9 codes for acute MI events during follow-up had high PPV and sensitivity. The sensitivity of ICD-9 codes for previous acute events at baseline was low, but a composite variable for baseline CHD had good accuracy. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To characterize weight change following amputation by identifying typical weight trajectories in men with incident lower limb amputation (LLA) and describing characteristics associated with each trajectory. Design: Retrospective cohort study and analyzed using group-based trajectory modeling. Setting: Department of Veteran's Affairs inpatient and outpatient administrative data. Participants: Male veterans (n=759) in the Northwest United States who had an incident toe, foot, or leg amputation between 1997 and 2008 and at least 18 months of amputation-free survival thereafter. Interventions: Not applicable. Main outcome measures: Post-amputation weight and BMI change. Results: The mean weight at baseline was 202 pounds (91.6 kilograms) (SD=53 pounds (24 kg)) and average follow-up was 2.4 years. We identified four trajectory groups for weight change: weight loss (13% of sample), stable weight (47%), slow weight gain (33%), and rapid weight gain (7%). Men with a toe or foot amputation most frequently were assigned to the stable weight group (58%), while men with transtibial or transfemoral amputations were most commonly assigned to the slow weight gain group (42% each). Men who died during follow-up were more likely to be assigned to the weight loss group (24%) compared to men who did not die (11%). Conclusions: We identified distinct weight change trajectories that represent heterogeneity in weight change following LLA. An improved understanding of factors predictive of weight gain or loss in people with LLA may help better target rehabilitation and prosthetic prescription. Additional research is needed to fully understand the relationship between weight change and health status following amputation.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To examine cross-sectionally whether intra-abdominal fat area (IAFA), i.e., visceral fat, and liver fat assessed by computed tomography (CT) are independently associated with hyperuricemia. Methods: We included 801 Japanese men not taking antidiabetic, antihypertensive, or urate lowering medications, without any history of renal disease, cardiovascular disease, or cancer, and with serum creatinine <1.5 mg/dL. Abdominal, thoracic, and thigh fat areas were measured by CT. Total fat area (TFA) was the sum of these fat areas. Total subcutaneous fat area (TSFA) was TFA minus IAFA. Liver fat was assessed by liver-to-spleen (L/S) ratio measured by CT. Hyperuricemia was defined as serum uric acid level >7.0 mg/dL. Its association with adiposity was tested using logistic regression. Results: Prevalence of hyperuricemia was 19.6% (157 men). Both greater IAFA and lower L/S ratio were independently associated with hyperuricemia in models that simultaneously included IAFA and L/S ratio: multiple-adjusted odds ratios of hyperuricemia for quintile 3, 4, and 5 of IAFA were 2.16 (95% confidence interval, 1.02-4.59), 2.41 (1.13-5.16), and 4.00 (1.81-8.85), respectively, compared to quintile 1, and those for quintile 3, 2, and 1 of L/S ratio were 2.34 (1.16-4.75), 2.15 (1.06-4.34), and 2.79 (1.35-5.76), respectively, compared to quintile 5. Both IAFA and L/S ratio remained significant even after adjusting for abdominal subcutaneous fat area, TFA, TSFA, body mass index, or waist circumference. Of all fat measurements, IAFA had the strongest association with hyperuricemia by Akaike's information criteria. Conclusion: Both greater amounts of visceral and liver fat were independently associated with hyperuricemia. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Recent studies have suggested that HDL cholesterol is inversely associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. However, little is known about the association between different HDL subclasses and the risk for future type 2 diabetes. Research design and methods: The study enrolled 406 Japanese Americans (51% male) without diabetes, aged 34-75 years. Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed to determine type 2 diabetes status at baseline, 2.5 years, 5 years, and 10 years after enrollment. HDL2, HDL3, total HDL cholesterol, and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) area by computed tomography were measured at baseline. Results: In univariate analysis, total HDL and HDL2 cholesterol were inversely associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes, but HDL3 cholesterol was not. In multivariate analysis, total HDL cholesterol (odds ratio per 1-SD increment, 0.72 [95% CI 0.52-0.995], P = 0.047) and HDL2 cholesterol (odds ratio per 1-SD increment, 0.64 [95% CI 0.44-0.93], P = 0.018) were inversely associated with the risk for type 2 diabetes independent of age, sex, BMI, waist circumference, family history of diabetes, lifestyle factors, systolic blood pressure, lipid-lowering medication use, triglyceride level, HOMA-insulin resistance, and 2-h glucose; however, HDL3 cholesterol was not associated with diabetes risk. The association between diabetes risk and total HDL and HDL2 cholesterol became insignificant after adjustment for VAT area. Conclusions: Subjects with higher HDL2 cholesterol were at lower risk for incident type 2 diabetes, but this association was confounded by and not independent of VAT. Higher HDL3 cholesterol was not associated with diabetes risk.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Diabetes care
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    ABSTRACT: Little is known about the relationship between lower-limb amputation (LLA) and subsequent changes in body weight. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using clinical and administrative databases to identify and follow weight changes in 759 males with amputation (partial foot amputation [PFA], n = 396; transtibial amputation [TTA], n = 267; and transfemoral amputation [TFA], n = 96) and 3,790 nondisabled persons frequency-matched (5:1) on age, body mass index, diabetes, and calendar year from eight Department of Veterans Affairs medical care facilities in the Pacific Northwest. We estimated and compared longitudinal percent weight change from baseline during up to 39 mo of follow-up in participants with and without amputation. Weight gain in the 2 yr after amputation was significantly more in men with an amputation than without, and in men with a TTA or TFA (8%-9% increase) than in men with a PFA (3%-6% increase). Generally, percent weight gain peaked at 2 yr and was followed by some weight loss in the third year. These findings indicate that LLA is often followed by clinically important weight gain. Future studies are needed to better understand the reasons for weight gain and to identify intervention strategies to prevent excess weight gain and the deleterious consequences that may ensue.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · The Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development
  • Edward J Boyko

    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Diabetes research and clinical practice
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    ABSTRACT: Culture of isolated rodent islets is widely used in diabetes research to assess different endpoints, including outcomes requiring histochemical staining. As islet yields during isolation are limited, we determined the number of islets required to obtain reliable data by histology. We found that mean values for insulin-positive β-cell area/islet area, thioflavin S-positive amyloid area/islet area and β-cell apoptosis do not vary markedly when more than 30 islets are examined. Measurement variability declines as more islets are quantified, so that the variability of the coefficient of variation (CV) in human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) transgenic islets for β-cell area/islet area, amyloid area/islet area and β-cell apoptosis are 13.20% ± 1.52%, 10.03% ± 1.76% and 6.78% ± 1.53%, respectively (non-transgenic: 7.65% ± 1.17% β-cell area/islet area and 8.93% ± 1.56% β-cell apoptosis). Increasing the number of islets beyond 30 had marginal effects on the CV. Using 30 islets, 6 hIAPP-transgenic preparations are required to detect treatment effects of 14% for β-cell area/islet area, 30% for amyloid area/islet area and 23% for β-cell apoptosis (non-transgenic: 9% for β-cell area/islet area and 45% for β-cell apoptosis). This information will be of value in the design of studies using isolated islets to examine β cells and islet amyloid. © The Author(s) 2015.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry

  • No preview · Conference Paper · Jun 2015
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    ABSTRACT: In Japanese Americans, intra-abdominal fat area measured by computed tomography is positively associated with the prevalence and incidence of hypertension. Evidence in other populations suggests that other fat areas may be protective. We sought to determine whether a change in specific fat depots predicts the development of hypertension. We prospectively followed up 286 subjects (mean age, 49.5 years; 50.4% men) from the Japanese American Community Diabetes Study for 10 years. At baseline, subjects did not have hypertension (defined as blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg) and were not taking blood pressure or glucose-lowering medications. Mid-thigh subcutaneous fat area, abdominal subcutaneous fat area, and intra-abdominal fat area were directly measured by computed tomography at baseline and 5 years. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds of incident hypertension over 10 years in relation to a 5-year change in fat area. The relative odds of developing hypertension for a 5-year increase in intra-abdominal fat was 1.74 (95% confidence interval, 1.28-2.37), after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, baseline intra-abdominal fat, alcohol use, smoking status, and weekly exercise energy expenditure. This relationship remained significant when adjusted for baseline fasting insulin and 2-hour glucose levels or for diabetes mellitus and pre-diabetes mellitus classification. There were no significant associations between baseline and change in thigh or abdominal subcutaneous fat areas and incident hypertension. In conclusion, in this cohort of Japanese Americans, the risk of developing hypertension is related to the accumulation of intra-abdominal fat rather than the accrual of subcutaneous fat in either the thigh or the abdominal areas. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Hypertension
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    ABSTRACT: We examined whether military service, including deployment and combat experience, were related to smoking initiation and relapse. We included older (panel 1) and younger (panel 2) participants in the Millennium Cohort Study. Never smokers were followed for 3 to 6 years for smoking initiation, and former smokers were followed for relapse. Complementary log-log regression models estimated the relative risk (RR) of initiation and relapse by military exposure while adjusting for demographic, health, and lifestyle factors. Deployment with combat experience predicted higher initiation rate (panel 1: RR = 1.44; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.28, 1.62; panel 2: RR = 1.26; 95% CI = 1.04, 1.54) and relapse rate (panel 1 only: RR = 1.48; 95% CI = 1.36, 1.62). Depending on the panel, previous mental health disorders, life stressors, and other military and nonmilitary characteristics independently predicted initiation and relapse. Deployment with combat experience and previous mental disorder may identify military service members in need of intervention to prevent smoking initiation and relapse. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print April 16, 2015: e1-e10. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2014.302538).
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · American Journal of Public Health
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    ABSTRACT: To prospectively examine the association between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and weight change. Longitudinal analysis techniques were used to examine data (2001-2008) from Millennium Cohort Study participants, consisting of U.S. service members and veterans. Using the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version, PTSD was assessed as none, resolved, new onset, or persistent. Subsequent weight change was assessed as stable (≤3% loss or gain), >3% weight loss, >3% but <10% weight gain, and ≥10% weight gain. Of the 38,352 participants, 2391 (6.2%) had PTSD (838 resolved, 1024 new onset, and 529 persistent), and 11% of participants subsequently had ≥10% weight gain. In multivariable models, PTSD was associated with higher odds of ≥10% weight gain (new onset OR: 1.44 [95% CI: 1.20-1.73]; persistent OR: 1.51 [CI: 1.17-1.96]; resolved OR: 1.30 [CI: 1.05-1.60]) compared with those without PTSD. New-onset and persistent PTSD were also associated with higher odds of >3% weight loss (OR: 1.41 [CI: 1.17-1.71]; OR: 1.42 [CI: 1.09-1.86], respectively). PTSD is independently associated with a higher risk of weight gain and loss, the former of which leads to a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity and a higher risk of comorbidities associated with excessive body adiposity. © 2015 The Obesity Society.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Obesity
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    ABSTRACT: Many HIV antiretroviral medications have been associated with chronic liver injury. HIV-infected patients frequently develop HIV and highly active antiretroviral treatment-associated lipodystrophy syndrome (HALS), characterized by accumulation of intra-abdominal fat, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis. We sought to determine whether long-term exposure to specific antiretroviral medications or the presence of HALS predispose HIV-infected patients to the development of cirrhosis. HIV-infected patients with cirrhosis who received care in the Veterans Affairs Healthcare System nationally in 2009 were matched by hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection status and year of first visit for HIV to the Veterans Affairs Healthcare System with HIV-infected patients without cirrhosis in a 1 : 3 ratio. Among HIV/HCV coinfected patients (593 with cirrhosis and 1591 matched controls), HALS was associated with a significantly increased risk for cirrhosis (adjusted odds ratio 1.6, 95% confidence interval 1.1-2.3), especially among Black patients (adjusted odds ratio 2.9, 95% confidence interval 1.6-5.2). In addition, among HIV/HCV coinfected patients, longer cumulative exposures to all antiretroviral medications, all nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, all protease inhibitors, and selected individual medications (didanosine, stavudine, and nelfinavir) were found to be significantly associated with cirrhosis. In contrast, among HIV-infected patients not coinfected with HCV (245 with cirrhosis and 658 matched controls), HALS or exposure to antiretroviral medications was found not to be significantly associated with cirrhosis, with the exception of didanosine. HALS and cumulative exposure to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors, especially stavudine, didanosine, and nelfinavir, were found to be associated with the development of cirrhosis in HIV/HCV coinfected patients, but not in HIV-monoinfected patients.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
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    ABSTRACT: Asian Americans manifest type 2 diabetes at low BMI levels but may not undergo diagnostic testing for diabetes if the currently recommended BMI screening cut point of ≥25 kg/m(2) is followed. We aimed to ascertain an appropriate lower BMI cut point among Asian-American adults without a prior diabetes diagnosis. We consolidated data from 1,663 participants, ages ≥45 years, without a prior diabetes diagnosis, from population- and community-based studies, including the Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America study, the North Kohala Study, the Seattle Japanese American Community Diabetes Study, and the University of California San Diego Filipino Health Study. Clinical measures included a 2-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test, BMI, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Mean age was 59.7 years, mean BMI was 25.4 kg/m(2), 58% were women, and type 2 diabetes prevalence (American Diabetes Association 2010 criteria) was 16.9%. At BMI ≥25 kg/m(2), sensitivity (63.7%), specificity (52.8%), and Youden index (0.16) values were low; limiting screening to BMI ≥25 kg/m(2) would miss 36% of Asian Americans with type 2 diabetes. For screening purposes, higher sensitivity is desirable to minimize missing cases, especially if the diagnostic test is relatively simple and inexpensive. At BMI ≥23 kg/m(2), sensitivity (84.7%) was high in the total sample and by sex and Asian-American subgroup and would miss only ∼15% of Asian Americans with diabetes. The BMI cut point for identifying Asian Americans who should be screened for undiagnosed type 2 diabetes should be <25 kg/m(2), and ≥23 kg/m(2) may be the most practical. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Diabetes Care
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to define the risk of hearing loss among US military members in relation to their deployment experiences. Data were drawn from the Millennium Cohort Study. Self-reported data and objective military service data were used to assess exposures and outcomes. Among all 48,540 participants, 7.5% self-reported new-onset hearing loss. Self-reported hearing loss showed moderate to substantial agreement (k = 0.57-0.69) with objective audiometric measures. New-onset hearing loss was associated with combat deployment (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.49-1.77), as well as male sex and older age. Among deployers, new-onset hearing loss was also associated with proximity to improvised explosive devices (AOR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.62-2.73) and with experiencing a combat-related head injury (AOR = 6.88, 95% CI = 3.77-12.54). These findings have implications for health care and disability planning, as well as for prevention programs.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Noise and Health

Publication Stats

10k Citations
1,444.71 Total Impact Points


  • 1997-2015
    • VA Puget Sound Health Care System
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 1990-2015
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Health Services
      • • Department of Epidemiology
      • • Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology and Nutrition
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 2004-2014
    • San Francisco VA Medical Center
      San Francisco, California, United States
  • 2009-2013
    • United States Department of Veterans Affairs
      Бедфорд, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2012
    • Osaka City University
      • Graduate School of Medicine
      Ōsaka-shi, Osaka-fu, Japan
  • 2007-2012
    • Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Hospital
      Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      San Luis, Missouri, United States
  • 2011
    • Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences
      • Department of Preventive Medicine & Biometrics
      베서스다, Maryland, United States
  • 2009-2011
    • Naval Health Research Center
      • Department of Warfighter Performance
      San Diego, California, United States
  • 2006
    • City University of Seattle
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 2005
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • Department of Epidemiology
      Chapel Hill, NC, United States
  • 2002
    • University of California, Davis
      • Department of Nutrition
      Davis, California, United States
  • 1989
    • University of Colorado
      • Department of Medicine
      Denver, CO, United States