[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Recent studies highlight the role of Treg in preventing unnecessary responses to allergens and maintaining functional immune tolerance in the lung. We investigated the role of Treg during the sensitization phase in a murine model of experimental allergic airway inflammation by selectively depleting the Treg population in vivo. DEpletion of REGulatory T cells (DEREG) mice were depleted of Treg by diphtheria toxin injection. Allergic airway inflammation was induced using OVA as a model allergen. Pathology was assessed by scoring for differential cellular infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage, IgE and IgG1 levels in serum, cytokine secretion analysis of lymphocytes from lung draining lymph nodes and lung histology. Use of DEREG mice allowed us for the first time to track and specifically deplete both CD25(+) and CD25(-) Foxp3(+) Treg, and to analyze their significance in limiting pathology in allergic airway inflammation. We observed that depletion of Treg during the priming phase of an active immune response led to a dramatic exacerbation of allergic airway inflammation in mice, suggesting an essential role played by Treg in regulating immune responses against allergens as early as the sensitization phase via maintenance of functional tolerance.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2010 · European Journal of Immunology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: The last decades have shown an increase in the number of people suffering from allergies and asthma in industrialized nations. Although not knowing the exact mechanisms behind that phenomenon, regulatory immune cells like Dendritic cells (DC) and regulatory T cells seem to play a crucial role. To investigate these cells in more detail, transgenic mouse models have been generated on the one hand to address DC and on the other hand, CCL17 k/o mice as well as DEREG (depletion of regulatory T cells) mice were examined in an in vivo model of allergic airway inflammation. It could be shown, that the cytokine CCL17 secreted by DCs, is partially involved in establishing features of asthma using subcutaneous immunization. The depletion of regulatory T cells during sensitization or challenge in a murine model revealed the outstanding role of those cells in keeping the immune system in balance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Parapoxvirus ovis (PPVO) is a member of the Poxviridae family and belongs to the genus Parapoxvirus. It displays only limited homology with orthopoxviruses and has some molecular features such as an unusual high GC content distinct from orthopoxviruses. Inactivated PPVO (iPPVO) displays strong immunostimulatory capacities mediating antiviral activity in vivo. The role of dendritic cells (DC) and the pattern recognition receptors and signaling requirements responsible for immunostimulation by iPPVO are unknown. We demonstrate here that bone marrow-derived plasmacytoid DC (BM-pDC) and bone marrow-derived conventional DC (BM-cDC) secrete alpha/beta interferon (IFN-alpha/beta) in response to iPPVO. Furthermore, iPPVO induces tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-12/23p40 (IL-12/23p40) release and major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II), MHC-I, and CD86 upregulation by bone marrow-derived DC (BMDC). After engulfment, iPPVO is located in endosomal compartments and in the cytosol of BMDC. iPPVO elicits IFN-alpha/beta by Toll-like receptor (TLR)-independent pathways in BM-cDC, since IFN-alpha/beta release does not require myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) or TIR-domain containing adaptor protein inducing interferon (TRIF). In contrast, iPPVO-induced TNF-alpha release and enhanced expression of MHC-I and CD86 but not of MHC-II by BMDC chiefly requires MyD88 but not TLR2 or TLR4. Induction of IFN-alpha by iPPVO in BM-cDC occurred in the absence of IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) but required the presence of IRF7, whereas iPPVO-triggered IFN-beta production required the presence of either IRF7 or IRF3. These results provide the first evidence that iPPVO mediates its immunostimulatory properties by TLR-independent and TLR-dependent pathways and demonstrate an important role of cDC for IFN-alpha/beta production.
Full-text · Article · Aug 2009 · Journal of Virology