[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in intron 1 of fat mass- and obesity-associated gene (FTO) are strongly associated with human adiposity, whereas Fto(-/-) mice are lean and Fto(+/-) mice are resistant to diet-induced obesity. We aimed to determine whether FTO mutations are disproportionately represented in lean or obese humans and to use these mutations to understand structure-function relationships within FTO.
We sequenced all coding exons of FTO in 1,433 severely obese and 1,433 lean individuals. We studied the enzymatic activity of selected nonsynonymous variants.
We identified 33 heterozygous nonsynonymous variants in lean (2.3%) and 35 in obese (2.4%) individuals, with 8 mutations unique to the obese and 11 unique to the lean. Two novel mutations replace absolutely conserved residues: R322Q in the catalytic domain and R96H in the predicted substrate recognition lid. R322Q was unable to catalyze the conversion of 2-oxoglutarate to succinate in the presence or absence of 3-methylthymidine. R96H retained some basal activity, which was not enhanced by 3-methylthymidine. However, both were found in lean and obese individuals.
Heterozygous, loss-of-function mutations in FTO exist but are found in both lean and obese subjects. Although intron 1 SNPs are unequivocally associated with obesity in multiple populations and murine studies strongly suggest that FTO has a role in energy balance, it appears that loss of one functional copy of FTO in humans is compatible with being either lean or obese. Functional analyses of FTO mutations have given novel insights into structure-function relationships in this enzyme.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: FTO is a nuclear protein belonging to the AlkB-related non-haem iron- and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase family. Although polymorphisms within the first intron of the FTO gene have been associated with obesity, the physiological role of FTO remains unknown. Here we show that a R316Q mutation, inactivating FTO enzymatic activity, is responsible for an autosomal-recessive lethal syndrome. Cultured skin fibroblasts from affected subjects showed impaired proliferation and accelerated senescence. These findings indicate that FTO is essential for normal development of the central nervous and cardiovascular systems in human and establish that a mutation in a human member of the AlkB-related dioxygenase family results in a severe polymalformation syndrome.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2009 · The American Journal of Human Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between receptor occupancy and in vivo pharmacological activity of mGluR1 antagonists. The tritiated mGluR1-selective allosteric antagonist [(3)H]FTIDC (4-[1-(2-fluoropyridin-3-yl)-5-methyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl]-N-isopropyl-N-methyl-3,6-dihydropyridine-1(2H)-carboxamide) was identified as a radioligand having high affinity for mGluR1-expressing CHO cells (K(D) = 2.1 nM) and mouse cerebellum (K(D) = 3.7 nM). [(3)H]FTIDC bound to mGluR1 was displaced by structurally unrelated allosteric antagonists, suggesting there is a mutual binding pocket shared with different allosteric antagonists. The binding specificity of [(3)H]FTIDC for mGluR1 in brain sections was demonstrated by the lack of significant binding to brain sections prepared from mGluR1-knockout mice. Ex vivo receptor occupancy with [(3)H]FTIDC revealed that the receptor occupancy level by FTIDC correlated well with FTIDC dosage and plasma concentration. Intracerebroventricular administration of (S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine is known to elicit face washing behavior that is mainly mediated by mGluR1. Inhibition of this behavioral change by FTIDC correlated with the receptor occupancy level of mGluR1 in the brain. A linear relationship between the receptor occupancy and in vivo activity was also demonstrated using structurally diverse mGluR1 antagonists. The receptor occupancy assays could help provide guidelines for selecting appropriate doses of allosteric mGluR1 antagonist for examining the function of mGluR1 in vivo.
No preview · Article · Jul 2009 · Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A newly discovered metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) 1 allosteric antagonist, 2-cyclopropyl-5-[1-(2-fluoro-3-pyridinyl)-5-methyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl]-2,3-dihydro-1H-isoindol-1-one (CFMTI), was tested both in vitro and in vivo for its pharmacological effects. CFMTI demonstrated potent and selective antagonistic activity on mGluR1 in vitro and in vivo after oral administration. CFMTI inhibited L-glutamate-induced intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing human and rat mGluR1a, with IC(50) values of 2.6 and 2.3 nM, respectively. The selectivity of CFMTI to mGluR1 over mGluR5 was >2000-fold, and CFMTI at 10 microM showed no agonistic or antagonistic activities toward other mGluR subtypes and other receptors. It antagonized face-washing behavior in mice induced by (S)-3,5-dihidroxyphenylglycine at a dose range of 3 to 30 mg/kg, for which receptor occupancy was 73 to 94%. As with the classical neuroleptic haloperidol and an atypical antipsychotic, clozapine, orally administered CFMTI reduced methamphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion and disruption of prepulse inhibition (PPI) at the same dose range as required to antagonize the face-washing behavior. CFMTI and clozapine improved ketamine-induced hyperlocomotion, PPI disruption and (5S,10R)-(+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine maleate (MK-801)-induced social withdrawal without any cataleptogenic activities, whereas haloperidol only improved ketamine-induced hyperlocomotion. CFMTI, unlike clozapine, caused neither hypolocomotion nor motor incoordination at therapeutic doses. In c-fos expression studies, CFMTI and clozapine increased the number of fos-positive neurons in the nucleus accumbens and medial prefrontal cortex but not in the dorsolateral striatum. These results suggest that the antipsychotic activities of mGluR1 antagonists are more similar to those of atypical antipsychotics than those of typical antipsychotics.
No preview · Article · May 2009 · Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A highly potent and selective metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) 1 antagonist, 4-[1-(2-fluoropyridin-3-yl)-5-methyl-1H-1,2, 3-triazol-4-yl]-N-isopropyl-N-methyl-3,6-dihydropyridine-1(2H)-carboxamide (FTIDC), is described. FTIDC inhibits, with equal potency, l-glutamate-induced intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing human, rat, or mouse mGluR1a. The IC(50) value of FTIDC is 5.8 nM for human mGluR1a and 6200 nM for human mGluR5. The maximal response in agonist concentration-response curves was reduced in the presence of higher concentrations of FTIDC, suggesting the inhibition in a noncompetitive manner. FTIDC at 10 microM showed no agonistic, antagonistic, or positive allosteric modulatory activity toward mGluR2, mGluR4, mGluR6, mGluR7, or mGluR8. FTIDC did not displace [(3)H]l-quisqualate binding to human mGluR1a, indicating FTIDC is an allosteric antagonist. Studies using chimeric and mutant receptors of mGluR1 showed that transmembrane (TM) domains 4 to 7, especially Phe801 in TM6 and Thr815 in TM7, play pivotal roles in the antagonism of FTIDC. FTIDC inhibited the constitutive activity of mGluR1a, suggesting that FTIDC acts as an inverse agonist of mGluR1a. Intraperitoneally administered FTIDC inhibited face-washing behavior elicited by a group I mGluR agonist, (S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine in mice at doses that did not produce motor impairment. Oral administration of FTIDC also inhibited the face-washing behavior. FTIDC is a highly potent and selective allosteric mGluR1 antagonist and a compound having oral activity without species differences in its antagonistic activity on recombinant human, mouse, and rat mGluR1. FTIDC could therefore be a valuable tool for elucidating the functions of mGluR1 not only in rodents but also in humans.
Preview · Article · Jul 2007 · Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SmaI is a short interspersed element (SINE) of the salmon genome, and is derived from tRNA(Lys). We probed the secondary structure of SmaI SINE RNA by enzymatic cleavage and found that the RNA structure comprises three separate domains. The 5'-terminal region (the 5' domain) forms a tRNA-like cloverleaf structure, whereas the 3'-terminal region (the 3' domain) forms an extended stem-loop. The loop region is thought to be recognized by the reverse transcriptase (RT) encoded by the long interspersed element (LINE). The two structural domains are linked by a single-stranded region (the linker domain). Our melting profile analyses indicated the presence of two structural domains having different thermal stabilities, thus supporting the domain composition described above. Based on these results, we discuss the structural generality and evolutionary advantage of the domain composition of SINE RNA.