Publications (2)2.06 Total impact
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ABSTRACT: Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) has increasingly become an accepted therapy for melanoma in situ on chronically sun damaged skin (CSDS). However, melanocytes are difficult to locate in frozen material on hematoxylin and eosin. In addition, determining the cut-off between the melanoma and the "atypical melanocytic hyperplasia" in CSDS can be challenging in frozen or formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections, with or without immunohistochemistry (IHC). In this article, we report the use of a rapid, 35-minute protocol using microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) IHC for identifying melanocytes in frozen tissue for its potential use in MMS. In contrast to melanoma antigen recognized by T cells (MART-1), MITF is a nuclear stain, which simplifies identification of melanocytes and quantification of melanocytic parameters. In this study, MITF IHC in frozen sections yielded equivalent melanocyte nuclear diameter and density measurements compared with formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections. Nuclear diameter measurements obtained with MITF were similar to that previously reported with MART-1, but the melanocyte density figures were lower. Reliable labeling of melanocytes in frozen sections required the use of diaminobenzidine (DAB) chromogen with Giemsa counterstaining and a buffer devoid of surfactant. Our experience with MITF IHC indicates that it is a dependable immunostain in frozen sections, and may prove to be useful in MMS as an adjunct to hematoxylin and eosin and MART-1 IHC for interpretation of margins for melanoma in situ on CSDS.
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ABSTRACT: For melanoma in situ (MIS) arising in chronically photodamaged skin (a.k.a. lentigo maligna, LM), the preferred treatment remains surgical excision. Yet, the standard 5-mm margins of excision recommended for other subtypes of MIS have proven insufficient for LM, due to the its indistinct borders. In this report, authors review specialized surgical techniques for the treatment of LM that focus on meticulous assessment of peripheral margins prior to closure (staged margin control) conducted with analysis of either frozen or permanent histologic sections. Techniques utilizing permanent sections include variations of the ''square'', ''perimeter'', and ''contoured'' excisions, and recurrence rates with these techniques are reportedly low based on short-term follow-up. Similarly, Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) has been reported to be effective in LM, with recurrence rates generally less than 1% over three-five years of follow-up. In order to simplify margin assessment for MMS, many investigators have begun to rely on intraoperative immunohistochemistry (IHC) to identify melanocytes in frozen sections, and MART-1 is surrently the preferred immunostain for this purpose. Other methods of IHC are currently under investigation. Regardless, surgical methods that employ this degree of margin assessment offer superior cure rates compared to standard excision, and should be seriously considered when encountering patients with LM. Total peripheral margin assessment using staged excisions and analysis of permanent sections appears to be a simple and effective alternative to MMS, especially for institutions that prefer examination of permanent sections to frozen sections.
University of South Florida
Tampa, Florida, United States
- Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery