[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The main nonmedullary form of thyroid cancer is papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) that accounts for 80-90% of all thyroid malignancies. Only 3-10% of PTC patients have a positive family history of PTC yet the familiality is one of the highest of all cancers as measured by case control studies. A handful of genes have been implicated accounting for a small fraction of this genetic predisposition. It was therefore of considerable interest that a mutation in the HABP2 gene was recently implicated in familial PTC. The present work was undertaken to examine the extent of HABP2 variant involvement in PTC. The HABP2 G534E variant (rs7080536) was genotyped in blood DNA from 179 PTC families (one affected individual per family), 1160 sporadic PTC cases and 1395 controls. RNA expression of HABP2 was tested by qPCR in RNA extracted from tumor and normal thyroid tissue from individuals that are homozygous wild-type or heterozygous for the variant. The variant was found to be present in 6.1% familial cases, 8.0% sporadic cases (2 individuals were homozygous for the variant) and 8.7% controls. The variant did not segregate with PTC in one large and 6 smaller families in which it occurred. In keeping with data from the literature and databases the expression of HABP2 was highest in the liver, much lower in 3 other tested tissues (breast, kidney, brain) but not found in thyroid. Given these results showing lack of any involvement we suggest that the putative role of variant HABP2 in PTC should be carefully scrutinized.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To the Editor: Gara et al. (July 30 issue)(1) report that the G534E variant of HABP2 could be the causative mutation in familial nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma. The genetic evidence included segregation of this heterozygous variant in a family with papillary thyroid cancer and a significant difference in the frequency of the mutation between patients with papillary thyroid cancer and persons with unknown disease status (4.7% vs. 0.7%). Further functional studies also provided support for the role of the variant in papillary thyroid cancer. We sequenced all 13 exons and their flanking intronic regions of HABP2 in the probands of 12 . . .
No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · New England Journal of Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously showed that a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) gene (PTCSC3) located close to the variant rs944289 that predisposes to papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) might target the S100A4 gene.
The aim was to investigate the impact of PTCSC3 on S100A4 expression and its role in cancer development.
S100A4 abundance was analyzed by qPCR in unaffected and tumor tissue from n=73 PTC patients. The expression of PTCSC3 and S100A4 was studied in BCPAP and TPC-1 cell lines with forced expression of PTCSC3 by quantitative PCR (qPCR). Expression of S100A4 target genes (VEGF and MMP-9) was studied in the BCPAP cell lines with forced expression of PTCSC3 by qPCR, reverse transcriptase PCR and Western blot. The impact of PTCSC3 on BCPAP motility and invasiveness was analyzed by the Transwell and Matrigel assays, respectively.
This was a laboratory-based study using cells from clinical samples and thyroid cancer cell lines.
Evidence for a link between the expression of PTCSC3 and thyroid carcinogenesis.
Expression data from PTC cell lines pinpointed S100A4 as the most significantly downregulated gene in the presence of PTCSC3. S100A4 was upregulated in tumor tissue (p=9.33x10(-7)) while PTCSC3 was strongly downregulated (p=2.2x10(-16)). S100A4 transcription was moderately correlated with PTCSC3 expression in unaffected thyroid tissue (r=0.429, p=0.0001), and strongly in unaffected tissue of patients with the risk allele of rs944289 (r=0.685, p=7.88x10(-5)). S100A4, VEGF and MMP-9 were suppressed in the presence of PTCSC3 (p=0.0051, p=0.0090 and p=0.0037, respectively). PTC cells expressing PTCSC3 showed reduction in motility and invasiveness (p=4.52x10(-5) and p=1.0x10(-4), respectively).
PTCSC3 downregulates S100A4 leading to a reduction in cell motility and invasiveness. We propose that PTCSC3 impacts PTC predisposition and carcinogenesis through the S100A4 pathway.
No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) displays strong but so far largely uncharacterized heritability. Here we studied genetic predisposition in a family with six affected individuals. We genotyped all available family members and conducted whole exome sequencing of blood DNA from two affected individuals. Haplotype analysis and other genetic criteria narrowed our list of candidates to a germline variant in the serine/arginine repetitive matrix 2 gene (SRRM2). This heterozygous variant, c.1037C > T (Ser346Phe or S346F; rs149019598) cosegregated with PTC in the family. It was not found in 138 other PTC families. It was found in 7/1,170 sporadic PTC cases and in 0/1,404 controls (p = 0.004). The encoded protein SRRM2 (also called SRm300) is part of the RNA splicing machinery. To evaluate the possibility that the S346F missense mutation affects alternative splicing, we compared RNA-Seq data in leukocytes from three mutation carriers and three controls. Significant differences in alternative splicing were identified for 1,642 exons, of which a subset of 7 exons was verified experimentally. The results confirmed a higher ratio of inclusion of exons in mutation carriers. These data suggest that the S346F mutation in SRRM2 predisposes to PTC by affecting alternative splicing of unidentified downstream target genes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: METHODS: We analyzed blood and tumor samples from 32 patients with colorectal or endometrial cancer who participated in Lynch syndrome screening studies in Ohio and were found to have tumors with MMR deficiency (based on microsatellite instability and/or absence of MMR proteins in immunohistochemical analysis, without hypermethylation of MLH1), but no germline mutations in MMR genes. Tumor DNA was sequenced for MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, EPCAM, POLE, and POLD1 with ColoSeq and mutation frequencies were established.
No preview · Article · Dec 2014 · Gastroenterology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A genome-wide association study of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) pinpointed two independent SNPs (rs944289 and rs965513) located in regions containing no annotated genes (14q13.3 and 9q22.33, respectively). Here, we describe a unique, long, intergenic, noncoding RNA gene (lincRNA) named Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Susceptibility Candidate 3 (PTCSC3) located 3.2 kb downstream of rs944289 at 14q.13.3 and the expression of which is strictly thyroid specific. By quantitative PCR, PTCSC3 expression was strongly down-regulated (P = 2.84 × 10(-14)) in thyroid tumor tissue of 46 PTC patients and the risk allele (T) was associated with the strongest suppression (genotype [TT] (n = 21) vs. [CT] (n = 19), P = 0.004). In adjacent unaffected thyroid tissue, the genotype [TT] was associated with up-regulation of PTCSC3 ([TT] (n = 21) vs. [CT] (n = 19), P = 0.034). The SNP rs944289 was located in a binding site for the CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBP) α and β. The risk allele destroyed the binding site in silico. Both C/EBPα and C/EBPβ activated the PTCSC3 promoter in reporter assays (P = 0.0009 and P = 0.0014, respectively) and the risk allele reduced the activation compared with the nonrisk allele (C) (P = 0.026 and P = 0.048, respectively). Restoration of PTCSC3 expression in PTC cell line cells (TPC-1 and BCPAP) inhibited cell growth (P = 0.002 and P = 0.019, respectively) and affected the expression of genes involved in DNA replication, recombination and repair, cellular movement, tumor morphology, and cell death. Our data suggest that SNP rs944289 predisposes to PTC through a previously uncharacterized, long intergenic noncoding RNA gene (PTCSC3) that has the characteristics of a tumor suppressor.
Full-text · Article · May 2012 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Germline mutations in PMS2 are associated with Lynch syndrome (LS), the most common known cause of hereditary colorectal cancer. Mutation detection in PMS2 has been difficult due to the presence of several pseudogenes, but a custom-designed long-range PCR strategy now allows adequate mutation detection. Many mutations are unique. However, some mutations are observed repeatedly across individuals not known to be related due to the mutation being either recurrent, arising multiple times de novo at hot spots for mutations, or of founder origin, having occurred once in an ancestor. Previously, we observed 36 distinct mutations in a sample of 61 independently ascertained Caucasian probands of mixed European background with PMS2 mutations. Eleven of these mutations were detected in more than one individual not known to be related and of these, six were detected more than twice. These six mutations accounted for 31 (51%) ostensibly unrelated probands. Here, we performed genotyping and haplotype analysis in four mutations observed in multiple probands and found two (c.137G>T and exon 10 deletion) to be founder mutations and one (c.903G>T) a probable founder. One (c.1A>G) could not be evaluated for founder mutation status. We discuss possible explanations for the frequent occurrence of founder mutations in PMS2.
No preview · Article · May 2012 · Clinical Genetics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in the mismatch repair genes cause Lynch syndrome (LS), conferring high risk of colorectal, endometrial and some other cancers. After the same splice site mutation in the MLH1 gene (c.589-2A>G) had been observed in four ostensibly unrelated American families with typical LS cancers, its occurrence in comprehensive series of LS cases (Mayo Clinic, Germany and Italy) was determined. It occurred in 10 out of 995 LS mutation carriers (1.0%) diagnosed in the Mayo Clinic diagnostic laboratory. It did not occur among 1,803 cases tested for MLH1 mutations by the German HNPCC consortium, while it occurred in three probands and an additional five family members diagnosed in Italy. In the U.S., the splice site mutation occurs on a large (∼4.8 Mb) shared haplotype that also harbors the variant c.2146G>A, which predicts a missense change in codon 716 referred to here as V716M. In Italy, it occurs on a different, shorter shared haplotype (∼2.2 Mb) that does not carry V716M. The V716M variant was found to be present by itself in the U.S., German and Italian populations with individuals sharing a common haplotype of 280 kb, allowing us to calculate that the variant arose around 5,600 years ago (225 generations; 95% confidence interval 183-272). The splice site mutation in America arose or was introduced some 450 years ago (18 generations; 95% confidence interval 14-23); it accounts for 1.0% all LS in the Unites States and can be readily screened for.
Full-text · Article · May 2012 · International Journal of Cancer
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Expression of conjugative transfer and virulence functions of the Enterococcus faecalis antibiotic resistance plasmid pCF10 is regulated by the interaction of the pheromone receptor protein PrgX with two DNA binding
operator sites (XBS1 and XBS2) upstream from the transcription start site of the prgQ operon (encoding the pCF10 transfer machinery) and by posttranscriptional mechanisms. Occupancy of both binding sites by
PrgX dimers results in repression of the prgQ promoter. Structural and genetic studies suggest that the peptide pheromone cCF10 functions by binding to PrgX and altering
its oligomerization state, resulting in reduced occupancy of XBSs and increased prgQ transcription. The DNA binding activity of PrgX has additional indirect regulatory effects on prgQ transcript levels related to the position of the convergently transcribed prgX operon. This has complicated interpretation of previous analyses of the control of prgQ expression by PrgX. We report here the results of in vivo and in vitro experiments examining the direct effects of PrgX on transcription from the prgQ promoter, as well as quantitative correlation between the concentrations of XBSs, PrgX protein, and prgQ promoter activity in vivo. The results of electrophoretic mobility shift assays and quantitative analysis of prgQ transcription in vitro and in vivo support the predicted roles of the PrgX DNA binding sites in prgQ transcription regulation. The results also suggest the existence of other factors that impede PrgX repression or enhance
its antagonism by cCF10 in vivo.
Preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Journal of bacteriology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The family risk ratio for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is among the highest of all cancers. Collectively, familial cases (fPTC) and sporadic cases (sPTC) are not known to show molecular differences. However, one study reported that telomeres were markedly shorter and the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene was amplified and up-regulated in germline DNA from patients with fPTC compared with sPTC.
The aim of this study was to evaluate telomere length and TERT gene amplification and expression in blood samples of fPTC and sPTC patients in a genetically distinct population from the previous study.
In 42 fPTC and 65 sPTC patients, quantitative real-time PCR was employed to measure the relative telomere length (RTL) and TERT gene copy number and RNA level. To validate the results using alternative methods, we further studied a subset of the original cohort consisting of randomly chosen fPTC (n = 10) and sPTC (n = 14) patients and controls (n = 21) by assessing both telomere length by flow fluorescent in situ hybridization and TERT gene expression by quantitative real-time PCR.
RTL and TERT gene copy number did not differ between fPTC and sPTC (P = 0.957 and P = 0.998, respectively). The mean RTL and TERT gene expression were not significantly different among the groups of the validation series (P = 0.169 and P = 0.718, respectively).
Our data show no difference between familial and sporadic PTC with respect to telomere length, TERT copy number, or expression in our cohort. Further investigations in additional cohorts of patients are desirable.
No preview · Article · Sep 2011 · The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Expression of the netrin-1 dependence receptor UNC5C is reduced in many colorectal tumors; mice with the UNC5C mutations have increased progression of intestinal tumors. We investigated whether specific variants in UNC5C increase risk of colorectal cancer (CRC).
We analyzed the sequence of UNC5C in blood samples from 1801 patients with CRC and 4152 controls from 3 cohorts (France, United States, and Finland). Almost all cases from France and the United States had familial CRC; of the Finnish cases, 92 of 984 were familial. We analyzed whether CRC segregates with the UNC5C variant A628K in 3 families with histories of CRC. We also performed haplotype analysis to determine the origin of this variant.
Of 817 patients with familial CRC, 14 had 1 of 4 different, unreported missense variants in UNC5C. The variants p.Asp353Asn (encodes D353N), p.Arg603Cys (encodes R603C), and p.Gln630Glu (encodes Q630E) did not occur significantly more often in cases than controls. The variant p.Ala628Lys (A628K) was detected in 3 families in the French cohort (odds ratio, 8.8; Wald's 95% confidence interval, 1.47-52.93; P = .03) and in 2 families in the US cohort (odds ratio, 1.9; P = .6) but was not detected in the Finnish cohort; UNC5C A628K segregated with CRC in families. Three families with A628K had a 109-kilobase identical haplotype that spanned most of UNC5C, indicating recent origin of this variant in white subjects (14 generations; 95% confidence interval, 6-36 generations). Transfection of HEK293T cells with UNC5C-A628K significantly reduced apoptosis compared with wild-type UNC5C, measured in an assay of active caspase-3.
Inherited mutations in UNC5C prevent apoptosis and increase risk of CRC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The genetic component of colorectal cancer (CRC) predisposition has been only partially explained. We recently suggested that a subtle decrease in the expression of one allele of the TGFBR1 gene was a heritable quantitative trait predisposing to CRC. Here, we refined the measurements of allele-specific expression (ASE) of TGFBR1 in a population-based series of CRC patients and controls. Five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 3'-untranslated region of the gene were genotyped and used for ASE determination by pyrosequencing. After eliminating non-informative samples and samples with RNA of insufficient quality 109 cases and 125 controls were studied. Allelic ratios ranged between 0.74 and 1.69 without evidence of bimodality or cutoff points for 'ASE' versus 'non-ASE'. Treating ASE as a continuous variable, cases had non-significantly different values than controls (P = 0.081 when comparing means by permutation test). However, cases had significantly higher ASE values when comparing medians by permutation test (P = 0.0027) and when using Wilcoxon test (P = 0.0094). We conclude that with the present-day technology, ASE differences between individuals and between cases and controls are too subtle to be used to assess CRC risk. More advanced technology is expected to resolve this issue as well as the low informativity caused by the limited heterozygosity of transcribed SNPs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: S-box (SAM-I) riboswitches are a widespread class of riboswitches involved in the regulation of sulfur metabolism in Gram-positive bacteria. We report here the 3.0-Å crystal structure of the aptamer domain of the Bacillus subtilis yitJ S-box (SAM-I) riboswitch bound to S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM). The RNA folds into two sets of helical stacks spatially arranged by tertiary interactions including a K-turn and a pseudoknot at a four-way junction. The tertiary structure is further stabilized by metal coordination, extensive ribose zipper interactions, and SAM-mediated tertiary interactions. Despite structural differences in the peripheral regions, the SAM-binding core of the B. subtilis yitJ riboswitch is virtually superimposable with the previously determined Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis yitJ riboswitch structure, suggesting that a highly conserved ligand-recognition mechanism is utilized by all S-box riboswitches. SHAPE (selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension) chemical probing analysis further revealed that the alternative base-pairing element in the expression platform controls the conformational switching process. In the absence of SAM, the apo yitJ aptamer domain folds predominantly into a pre-binding conformation that resembles, but is not identical with, the SAM-bound state. We propose that SAM enters the ligand-binding site through the "J1/2-J3/4" gate and "locks" down the SAM-bound conformation through an induced-fit mechanism. Temperature-dependent SHAPE revealed that the tertiary interaction-stabilized SAM-binding core is extremely stable, likely due to the cooperative RNA folding behavior. Mutational studies revealed that certain modifications in the SAM-binding region result in loss of SAM binding and constitutive termination, which suggests that these mutations lock the RNA into a form that resembles the SAM-bound form in the absence of SAM.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2010 · Journal of Molecular Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: InfB-encoded translation initiation factor IF2 contains a non-conserved N-terminal domain and two conserved domains (G and C) constituted by three (G1, G2 and G3) and two (C1 and C2) sub-domains. Here, we show that: (i) Bacillus stearothermophilus IF2 complements in vivo an Escherichia coli infB null mutation and (ii) the N-domain of B. stearothermophilus IF2, like that of E. coli IF2, provides a strong yet dispensable interaction with 30 S and 50 S subunits in spite of the lack of any size, sequence or structural homology between the N-domains of the two factors. Furthermore, the nature of the B. stearothermophilus IF2 sites involved in establishing the functional interactions with the ribosome was investigated by generating deletion, random and site-directed mutations within sub-domains G2 or G3 of a molecule carrying an H301Y substitution in switch II of the G2 module, which impairs the ribosome-dependent GTPase activity of IF2. By selecting suppressors of the dominant-lethal phenotype caused by the H301Y substitution, three independent mutants impaired in ribosome binding were identified; namely, S387P (in G2) and G420E and E424K (in G3). The functional properties of these mutants and those of the deletion mutants are compatible with the premise that IF2 interacts with 30 S and 50 S subunits via G3 and G2 modules, respectively. However, beyond this generalization, because the mutation in G2 resulted in a functional alteration of G3 and vice versa, our results indicate the existence of extensive "cross-talking" between these two modules, highlighting a harmonic conformational cooperation between G2 and G3 required for a functional interaction between IF2 and the two ribosomal subunits. It is noteworthy that the E424K mutant, which completely lacks GTPase activity, displays IF2 wild-type capacity in supporting initiation of dipeptide formation.
No preview · Article · Nov 2009 · Journal of Molecular Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, germline allele-specific expression (ASE) of the gene encoding for transforming growth factor-beta type I receptor (TGFBR1) has been proposed to be a major risk factor for cancer predisposition in the colon. Germline ASE results in a lowered expression of one of the TGFBR1 alleles (>1.5-fold), and was shown to occur in approximately 20% of informative familial and sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) cases. In the present study, using the highly quantitative pyrosequencing technique, we estimated the frequency of ASE in TGFBR1 in a cohort of affected individuals from familial clusters of advanced colon neoplasias (cancers and adenomas with high-grade dysplasia), and also from a cohort of individuals with sporadic CRCs. Cases were considered positive for the presence of ASE if demonstrating an allelic expression ratio <0.67 or >1.5. Using RNA derived from lymphoblastoid cell lines, we find that of 46 informative Caucasian advanced colon neoplasia cases with a family history, only 2 individuals display a modest ASE, with allelic ratios of 1.65 and 1.73, respectively. Given that ASE of TGFBR1, if present, would likely be more pronounced in the colon compared with other tissues, we additionally determined the allele ratios of TGFBR1 in the RNA derived from normal-appearing colonic mucosa of sporadic CRC cases. We, however, found no evidence of ASE in any of 44 informative sporadic cases analyzed. Taken together, we find that germline ASE of TGFBR1, as assayed in lymphoblastoid and colon epithelial cells of colon cancer patients, is a relatively rare event.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Riboswitches are regulatory systems in which changes in structural elements in the 5′ region of the nascent RNA transcript
(the “leader region”) control expression of the downstream coding sequence in response to a regulatory signal in the absence
of a trans-acting protein factor. The S-box riboswitch, found primarily in low-G+C gram-positive bacteria, is the paradigm for riboswitches
that sense S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). Genes in the S-box family are involved in methionine metabolism, and their expression is induced
in response to starvation for methionine. S-box genes exhibit conserved primary sequence and secondary structural elements
in their leader regions. We previously demonstrated that SAM binds directly to S-box leader RNA, causing a structural rearrangement
that results in premature termination of transcription at S-box leader region terminators. S-box genes have a variety of physiological
roles, and natural variability in S-box structure and regulatory response could provide additional insight into the role of
conserved S-box leader elements in SAM-directed transcription termination. In the current study, in vivo and in vitro assays
were employed to analyze the differential regulation of S-box genes in response to SAM. A wide range of responses to SAM were
observed for the 11 S-box-regulated transcriptional units in Bacillus subtilis, demonstrating that S-box riboswitches can be calibrated to different physiological requirements.
Preview · Article · Mar 2008 · Journal of bacteriology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Translational initiation factor 2 (IF2) is a guanine nucleotide-binding protein that can bind guanosine 3',5'-(bis) diphosphate (ppGpp), an alarmone involved in stringent response in bacteria. In cells growing under optimal conditions, the GTP concentration is very high, and that of ppGpp very low. However, under stress conditions, the GTP concentration may decline by as much as 50%, and that of ppGpp can attain levels comparable to those of GTP. Here we show that IF2 binds ppGpp at the same nucleotide-binding site and with similar affinity as GTP. Thus, GTP and the alarmone ppGpp can be considered two alternative physiologically relevant IF2 ligands. ppGpp interferes with IF2-dependent initiation complex formation, severely inhibits initiation dipeptide formation, and blocks the initiation step of translation. Our data suggest that IF2 has the properties of a cellular metabolic sensor and regulator that oscillates between an active GTP-bound form under conditions allowing active protein syntheses and an inactive ppGpp-bound form when shortage of nutrients would be detrimental, if not accompanied by slackening of this synthesis.
Full-text · Article · Oct 2006 · Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The functional properties of the two natural forms of Escherichia coli translation initiation factor IF2 (IF2alpha and IF2beta) and of an N-terminal deletion mutant of the factor (IF2DeltaN) lacking the first 294 residues, corresponding to the entire N-terminal domain, were analysed comparatively. The results revealed that IF2alpha and IF2beta display almost indistinguishable properties, whereas IF2DeltaN, although fully active in all steps of the translation initiation pathway, displays functional activities having properties and requirements distinctly different from those of the intact molecule. Indeed, binding of IF2DeltaN to the 30 S subunit, IF2DeltaN-dependent stimulation of fMet-tRNA binding to the ribosome and of initiation dipeptide formation strongly depend upon the presence of IF1 and GTP, unlike with IF2alpha and IF2beta. The present results indicate that, using two separate active sites, IF2 establishes two interactions with the 30 S ribosomal subunit which have different properties and functions. The first site, located in the N domain of IF2, is responsible for a high-affinity interaction which "anchors" the factor to the subunit while the second site, mainly located in the beta-barrel module homologous to domain II of EF-G and EF-Tu, is responsible for the functional ("core") interaction of IF2 leading to the decoding of fMet-tRNA in the 30 S subunit P-site. The first interaction is functionally dispensable, sensitive to ionic-strength variations and essentially insensitive to the nature of the guanosine nucleotide ligand and to the presence of IF1, unlike the second interaction which strongly depends upon the presence of IF1 and GTP.
No preview · Article · Oct 2006 · Journal of Molecular Biology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genes in the S-box family are regulated by binding of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) to the 5′ region of the mRNA of the regulated gene. SAM binding was previously shown to promote
a rearrangement of the RNA structure that results in premature termination of transcription in vitro and repression of expression
of the downstream coding sequence. The S-box RNA element therefore acts as a SAM-binding riboswitch in vitro. In an effort
to identify factors other than SAM that could be involved in the S-box regulatory mechanism in vivo, we searched for trans-acting mutations in Bacillus subtilis that act to disrupt repression of S-box gene expression during growth under conditions where SAM pools are elevated. We identified
a single mutant that proved to have one nucleotide substitution in the metK gene, encoding SAM synthetase. This mutation, designated metK10, resulted in a 15-fold decrease in SAM synthetase activity and a 4-fold decrease in SAM concentration in vivo. The metK10 mutation specifically affected S-box gene expression, and the increase in expression under repressing conditions was dependent
on the presence of a functional transcriptional antiterminator element. The observation that the mutation identified in this
search affects SAM production supports the model that the S-box RNAs directly monitor SAM in vivo, without a requirement for
Preview · Article · Jun 2006 · Journal of Bacteriology