[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The addition of a pair of magnetic field gradient pulses had initially provided the measurement of spin motion with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. In the adaptation of DW-NMR techniques to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the taxonomy of mathematical models is divided in two categories: model matching and spectral methods. In this review, the methods are summarized starting from early diffusion weighted (DW) NMR models followed up with their adaptation to DW MRI. Finally, a newly introduced Fourier analysis based unifying theory, so-called Complete Fourier Direct MRI, is included to explain the mechanisms of existing methods.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2012 · International Journal of Imaging Systems and Technology
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Small mammals, namely mice and rats, play an important role in biomedical research. Imaging, in conjunction with accurate therapeutic agent delivery, has tremendous value in small animal research since it enables serial, non-destructive testing of animals and facilitates the study of biomarkers of disease progression. The small size of organs in mice lends some difficulty to accurate biopsies and therapeutic agent delivery. Image guidance with the use of robotic devices should enable more accurate and repeatable targeting for biopsies and delivery of therapeutic agents, as well as the ability to acquire tissue from a pre-specified location based on image anatomy. This paper presents our work in integrating a robotic needle guide device, specialized stereotaxic mouse holder, and magnetic resonance imaging, with a long-term goal of performing accurate and repeatable targeting in anesthetized mice studies.
No preview · Article · Mar 2010 · Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Combat medics have a vital role in the protection of wounded soldiers in the battlespace. However, their duties expose them to great risks. Furthermore, these medics are a limited resource and must be carefully tasked in order to provide maximum benefit to their units. For these reasons, we are applying the American GNC Corporation's (AGNC) Coremicro(R) Robotic System for autonomous evaluation of battlefield casualties. These robots are intended to navigate to a casualty, determine his/her overall health status, and perform limited diagnostic imaging in order to assess the presence of injuries that would prevent or complicate extraction. In this paper, we describe development work on some of the key components of the proposed robotic system, namely the overall concept of operations (ConOps) and initial testing of infrared and ultrasound imaging cameras. When fully deployed, this system will act as a medical force multiplier, enabling improved care of wounded soldiers and protecting the health and safety of military medical personnel.
No preview · Article · Sep 2009 · Conference proceedings: ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Blast-related traumatic brain injury (bTBI) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been of particular relevance to the military and civilian health care sectors since the onset of the Global War on Terror, and TBI has been called the "signature injury" of this war. Currently there are many questions about the fundamental nature, diagnosis, and long-term consequences of bTBI and its relationship to PTSD. This workshop was organized to consider these questions and focus on how brain imaging techniques may be used to enhance current diagnosis, research, and treatment of bTBI. The general conclusion was that although the study of blast physics in non-biological systems is mature, few data are presently available on key topics such as blast exposure in combat scenarios, the pathological characteristics of human bTBI, and imaging signatures of bTBI. Addressing these gaps is critical to the success of bTBI research. Foremost among our recommendations is that human autopsy and pathoanatomical data from bTBI patients need to be obtained and disseminated to the military and civilian research communities, and advanced neuroimaging used in studies of acute, subacute, and chronic cases, to determine whether there is a distinct pathoanatomical signature that correlates with long-term functional impairment, including PTSD. These data are also critical for the development of animal models to illuminate fundamental mechanisms of bTBI and provide leads for new treatment approaches. Brain imaging will need to play an increasingly important role as gaps in the scientific knowledge of bTBI and PTSD are addressed through increased coordination, cooperation, and data sharing among the academic and military biomedical research communities.
Full-text · Article · Jul 2009 · Journal of neurotrauma
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Healthcare challenges for the military are becoming increasingly complex and the solution to these challenges lies in effective collaboration between industry, government, and academia. Creating and maintaining such collaboration will require political, management, technical, and financial support. This article summarizes a discussion held during the National Forum on the Future of the Defense Health Information System which focused on the best methods for achieving this collaboration and any particular unique roadblocks facing this effort.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The current climate of rapid technological evolution is reflected in newer and better methods to modulate and direct radiation beams for cancer therapy. This Vision 20/20 paper focuses on part of this evolution, locating and targeting moving tumors. The two processes are somewhat independent and in principle different implementations of the locating and targeting processes can be interchanged. Advanced localization and targeting methods have an impact on treatment planning and also present new challenges for quality assurance (QA), that of verifying real-time delivery. Some methods to locate and target moving tumors with radiation beams are currently FDA approved for clinical use-and this availability and implementation will increase with time. Extensions of current capabilities will be the integration of higher order dimensionality, such as rotation and deformation in addition to translation, into the estimate of the patient pose and real-time reoptimization and adaption of delivery to the dynamically changing anatomy of cancer patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Respiratory motion is a significant and challenging problem for radiation medicine. Without adequate compensation for respiratory motion, it is impossible to deliver highly conformal doses to tumors in the thorax and abdomen. The CyberKnife frameless stereotactic radiosurgery system with Synchrony provides respiratory motion adaptation by monitoring skin motion and dynamically steering the beam to follow the moving tumor. This study quantitatively evaluated this beam steering technology using optical tracking of both the linear accelerator and a ball-cube target. Respiratory motion of the target was simulated using a robotic motion platform and movement patterns recorded from previous CyberKnife patients. Our results show that Synchrony respiratory tracking can achieve sub-millimeter precision when following a moving object.
Preview · Article · Jan 2008 · Technology in cancer research & treatment
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PET (Positron Emission Tomography) scanning has become a dominant force in oncology care because of its ability to identify regions of abnormal function. The current generation of PET scanners is focused on whole-body imaging, and does not address aspects that might be required by surgeons or other practitioners interested in the function of particular body parts. We are therefore developing and testing a new class of hand-operated molecular imaging scanners designed for use with physical examinations and intraoperative visualization. These devices integrate several technological advances, including (1) nanotechnology-based quantum photodetectors for high performance at low light levels, (2) continuous position tracking of the detectors so that they form a larger 'virtual detector', and (3) novel reconstruction algorithms that do not depend on a circular or ring geometry. The first incarnations of this device will be in the form of a glove with finger-mounted detectors or in a "sash" of detectors that can be draped over the patient. Potential applications include image-guided biopsy, surgical resection of tumors, assessment of inflammatory conditions, and early cancer detection. Our first prototype is in development now along with a clinical protocol for pilot testing.
No preview · Article · Mar 2007 · Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We are currently developing a PET/CT based navigation system for guidance of biopsies and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of early stage hepatic tumors. For these procedures, combined PET/CT data can potentially improve current interventions. The diagnostic efficacy of biopsies can potentially be improved by accurately targeting the region within the tumor that exhibits the highest metabolic activity. For RFA procedures the system can potentially enable treatment of early stage tumors, targeting tumors before structural abnormalities are clearly visible on CT. In both cases target definition is based on the metabolic data (PET), and navigation is based on the spatial data (CT), making the system highly dependent upon accurate spatial alignment between these data sets. In our institute all clinical data sets include three image volumes: one CT, and two PET volumes, with and without CT-based attenuation correction. This paper studies the effect of the CT-based attenuation correction on the registration process. From comparing the pairs of registrations from five data sets we observe that the point motion magnitude difference between registrations is on the same scale as the point motion magnitude in each one of the registrations, and that visual inspection cannot identify this discrepancy. We conclude that using non-rigid registration to align the PET and CT data sets is too variable, and most likely does not provide sufficient accuracy for interventional procedures.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2007 · Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer is the most common type of cancer (other than skin cancer) among men in the United States. Although prostate cancer is one of the few cancers that grow so slowly that it may never threaten the lives of some patients, it can be lethal once metastasized. Indium-111 capromab pendetide (ProstaScint®, Cytogen Corporation, Princeton, NJ) imaging is indicated for staging and recurrence detection of the disease, and is particularly useful to determine whether or not the disease has spread to distant metastatic sites. However, the interpretation of 111 In-capromab pendetide is challenging without correlated structural information mostly because the radiopharmaceutical demonstrates nonspecific uptake in the normal vasculature, bowel, bone marrow, and the prostate gland. We developed an improved method of imaging and localizing 111 In-Capromab pendetide using a SPECT/CT imaging system. The specific goals included: i) development and application of a novel iterative SPECT reconstruction algorithm that utilizes a priori information from coregistered CT; and ii) assessment of clinical impact of adding SPECT/CT for prostate cancer imaging with capromab pendetide utilizing the standard and novel reconstruction techniques.
No preview · Article · Sep 2006 · Technology in cancer research & treatment
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dynamically compensating for target motion during radiotherapy will increase treatment accuracy. A laboratory system for real-time target tracking with a dynamic MLC has been developed. In this study, the geometric accuracy limits of this DMLC target tracking system were evaluated.
A motion simulator was programmed to follow patient-derived tumor motion paths, parallel to the leaf motion direction. A target attached to the simulator was optically tracked, and the leaf positions adjusted to continually align the DMLC beam aperture to the target. Analysis of the tracking accuracy was based on video images of the target and beam alignment. The system response time was determined and the tracking error measured. Response time-corrected tracking accuracy was also calculated to investigate the accuracy limits of an improved system.
The response time of the system is 160 +/- 2 ms. The geometric precision for tracking patient motion is 0.6 to 1.1 mm (1 sigma) for the 3 patient datasets tested, with tracking errors relative to the original patient motion of 35, 40, and 100%.
A DMLC target tracking system has been developed that can account for detected motion parallel to the leaf motion direction. The tracking error has a negligible systematic component. Reducing the response time will further increase the overall system accuracy.
No preview · Article · Sep 2006 · International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dynamic or 4D images (in which a section of the body is repeatedly imaged in order to capture physiological motion) are becoming increasingly important in medicine. These images are especially critical to the field of image-guided therapy, because they enable treatment planning that reflects the realistic motion of the therapy target. Although it is possible to acquire static images and deform them based on generalized assumptions of normal motion, such an approach does not account for variability in the individual patient. To enable the most effective treatments, it is necessary to be able to image each patient and characterize their unique respiratory motion, but software specifically designed around the needs of 4D imaging is not widely available. We have constructed an open source application that allows a user to manipulate and analyze 4D image data. This interface can load DICOM images into memory, reorder/rebin them if necessary, and then apply deformable registration methods to derive the respiratory motion. The interface allows output and display of the deformation field, display of images with the deformation field as an overlay, and tables and graphs of motion versus time. The registration is based on the open source Insight Toolkit (ITK) and the interface is constructed using the open source GUI tool FLTK, which will make it easy to distribute and extend this software in the future.
No preview · Article · Mar 2006 · Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nuclear medicine tracers using 111In as a radiolabel are increasing in their use, especially in the domain of oncologic imaging. In these applications, it often is critical to have the capability of quantifying radionuclide uptake and being able to relate it to the biological properties of the tumor. However, images from single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can be degraded by photon attenuation, photon scattering, and collimator blurring; without compensation for these effects, image quality can be degraded, and accurate and precise quantification is impossible. Although attenuation correction for SPECT is becoming more common, most implementations can only model single energy radionuclides such as 99mTc and 123I. Thus, attenuation correction for 111In is challenging because it emits two photons (171 and 245 keV) at nearly equal rates (90.2% and 94% emission probabilities). In this paper, we present a method of calculating a single "effective" attenuation coefficient for the dual-energy emissions of 111In, and that can be used to correct for photon attenuation in radionuclide images acquired with this radionuclide. Using this methodology, we can derive an effective linear attenuation coefficient Micro(eff) and an effective photon energy E(eff) based on the emission probabilities and linear attenuation coefficients of the 111In photons. This approach allows us to treat the emissions from 111In as a single photon with an effective energy of 210 keV. We obtained emission projection data from a tank filled with a uniform solution of 111In. The projection data were reconstructed using an iterative maximum-likelihood algorithm with no attenuation correction, and with attenuation correction assuming photon energies of 171, 245, and 210 keV (the derived E(eff)). The reconstructed tomographic images demonstrate that the use of no attenuation correction, or correction assuming photon energies of 171 or 245 keV introduces inaccuracies into the reconstructed radioactivity distribution when compared against the effective energy method. In summary, this work provides both a theoretical framework and experimental methodology of attenuation correction for the dual-energy emissions from 111In. Although these results are specific to 111In, the foundation could easily be extended to other multiple-energy isotopes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 4D images (3 spatial dimensions plus time) using CT or MRI will play a key role in radiation medicine as techniques for respiratory motion compensation become more widely available. Advance knowledge of the motion of a tumor and its surrounding anatomy will allow the creation of highly conformal dose distributions in organs such as the lung, liver, and pancreas. However, many of the current investigations into 4D imaging rely on synchronizing the image acquisition with an external respiratory signal such as skin motion, tidal flow, or lung volume, which typically requires specialized hardware and modifications to the scanner. We propose a novel method for 4D image acquisition that does not require any specific gating equipment and is based solely on open source image registration algorithms. Specifically, we use the Insight Toolkit (ITK) to compute the normalized mutual information (NMI) between images taken at different times and use that value as an index of respiratory phase. This method has the advantages of (1) being able to be implemented without any hardware modification to the scanner, and (2) basing the respiratory phase on changes in internal anatomy rather than external signal. We have demonstrated the capabilities of this method with CT fluoroscopy data acquired from a swine model.
No preview · Article · Jan 2006 · Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: (111)In-Capromab pendetide imaging is indicated for postprostatectomy patients at risk for residual or recurrent disease. However, this study is complicated by relatively long times for tumor uptake and background washout that require imaging to be performed several days after radiopharmaceutical administration. In addition, (111)In-capromab pendetide demonstrates uptake in normal structures that produce images that are interpreted best using correlation with anatomic imaging. Finally, the visual quality of radionuclide imaging can be improved with corrections for photon attenuation and for the geometric response of the radionuclide collimator. Therefore, we have evaluated the advantages of using a commercially available dual-modality SPECT/CT system. In this article, we evaluate a novel iterative reconstruction algorithm using the SPECT/CT data obtained from phantoms and (111)In-capromab pendetide patient studies.
Phantom data acquired with the dual-head SPECT camera were reconstructed using both filtered backprojection (FBP) and an iterative maximum-likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) algorithm incorporating corrections for (a) attenuation coefficient at the effective energy of the radionuclide (either (99m)Tc or (111)In) and (b) collimator response based on experimentally measured depth-dependent spatial resolution of the camera. The collimator response model used the coregistered CT image to estimate the source-target distances produced by the patient-contouring logic of the SPECT camera. Spatial resolution was measured using SPECT images of 2 line sources and uniformity from a uniform cylindric tank. Clinical (111)In-capromab pendetide SPECT/CT data were acquired according to the radiopharmaceutical manufacturer's protocol. Region-of-interest (ROI) analysis of a transverse slice at the level of the sacral base produced mean, median, maximum, and minimum counts per pixel for bone marrow and surrounding soft-tissue ROIs. Ratios of the mean capromab pendetide uptake within marrow to uptake within soft tissue were compared for images reconstructed with FBP versus that obtained from the MLEM method with photon attenuation and collimator response corrections.
The source-target distances reconstructed from the patient-specific CT image agreed well with the corresponding values recorded manually from the camera display unit. This information was incorporated into the iterative reconstruction algorithms and improved the quality of SPECT images from phantoms and patients versus SPECT images reconstructed without the depth-dependent collimator response model. Qualitatively, SPECT images reconstructed with corrections for photon attenuation and collimator response showed less background activity and improved target contrast compared with those images reconstructed with FBP. The target-to-background ratio (marrow uptake-to-soft-tissue uptake) was significantly better using MLEM reconstruction than with FBP when mean uptake values were measured.
A priori anatomic data can be used to enhance the quality of the SPECT image when reconstructed using iterative techniques (e.g., MLEM) that use the CT data to produce a patient-specific attenuation map and a collimator response model based on the body contour produced during the SPECT acquisition.
Full-text · Article · Jun 2005 · Journal of Nuclear Medicine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tracking organ motion due to respiration is important for precision
treatments in interventional radiology and radiation oncology, among
other areas. In interventional radiology, the ability to track and
compensate for organ motion could lead to more precise biopsies for
applications such as lung cancer screening. In radiation oncology,
image-guided treatment of tumors is becoming technically possible, and
the management of organ motion then becomes a major issue. This paper
will review the state-of-the-art in respiratory motion and present two
related clinical applications. Respiratory motion is an important topic
for future work in image-guided surgery and medical robotics. Issues
include how organs move due to respiration, how much they move, how the
motion can be compensated for, and what clinical applications can
benefit from respiratory motion compensation. Technology that can be
applied for this purpose is now becoming available, and as that
technology evolves, the subject will become an increasingly interesting
and clinically valuable topic of research.
No preview · Article · Apr 2005 · Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An effective treatment method for organs that move with respiration (such as the lungs, pancreas, and liver) is a major goal of radiation medicine. In order to treat such tumors, we need (1) real-time knowledge of the current location of the tumor, and (2) the ability to adapt the radiation delivery system to follow this constantly changing location. In this study, we used electromagnetic tracking in a swine model to address the first challenge, and to determine if movement of a marker attached to the skin could accurately predict movement of an internal marker embedded in an organ. Under approved animal research protocols, an electromagnetically tracked needle was inserted into a swine liver and an electromagnetically tracked guidewire was taped to the abdominal skin of the animal. The Aurora (Northern Digital Inc., Waterloo, Canada) electromagnetic tracking system was then used to monitor the position of both of these sensors every 40 msec. Position readouts from the sensors were then tested to see if any of the movements showed correlation. The strongest correlations were observed between external anterior-posterior motion and internal inferior-superior motion, with many other axes exhibiting only weak correlation. We also used these data to build a predictive model of internal motion by taking segments from the data and using them to derive a general functional relationship between the internal needle and the external guidewire. For the axis with the strongest correlation, this model enabled us to predict internal organ motion to within 1 mm.
No preview · Article · Apr 2005 · Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dual-modality imaging is an in vivo diagnostic technique that obtains structural and functional information directly from patient studies in a way that cannot be achieved with separate imaging systems alone. Dual-modality imaging systems are configured by combining computed tomography (CT) with radionuclide imaging (using positron emission tomography (PET) or single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)) on a single gantry which allows both functional and structural imaging to be performed during a single imaging session without having the patient leave the imaging system. A SPECT/CT system developed at UCSF is being used in a study to determine if dual-modality imaging offers advantages for assessment of patients with prostate cancer using (111)In-ProstaScint, a radiolabeled antibody for the prostate-specific membrane antigen. (111)In-ProstaScint images are reconstructed using an iterative maximum-likelihood expectation-maximization (ML-EM) algorithm with correction for photon attenuation using a patient-specific map of attenuation coefficients derived from CT. The ML-EM algorithm accounts for the dual-photon nature of the 111In-labeled radionuclide, and incorporates correction for the geometric response of the radionuclide collimator. The radionuclide image then can be coregistered and overlaid in color on a grayscale CT image for improved localization of the functional information from SPECT. Radionuclide images obtained with SPECT/CT and reconstructed using ML-EM with correction for photon attenuation and collimator response improve image quality in comparison to conventional radionuclide images obtained with filtered backprojection reconstruction. These results illustrate the potential advantages of dual-modality imaging for improving the quality and the localization of radionuclide uptake for staging disease, planning treatment, and monitoring therapeutic response in patients with cancer.
Full-text · Article · Jan 2003 · Technology in cancer research & treatment
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dual-modality imaging is a technique in which computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging is combined with positron emission tomography or single-photon emission CT to acquire structural and functional images with an integated system. The data are acquired in a single procedure; the patient remains on the scanner table while undergoing both x-ray and radionuclide studies to facilitate correlation between the structural and functional images. The resulting data can aid in localization, enabling more specific diagnosis than can be obtained with a conventional imaging study. In addition, the anatomic information can be used to compensate the correlated radionuclide data for physical perturbations such as photon attenuation, scatter radiation, and partial volume errors. Thus, dual-modality imaging provides a priori information that can improve both the visual quality and the quantitative accuracy of the radionuclide images. Dual-modality imaging systems are also being developed for biologic research involving small animals. Small-animal dual-modality systems offer advantages for measurements that currently are performed invasively with autoradiography and tissue sampling. By acquiring data noninvasively, dual-modality imaging permits serial studies in a single animal, enables measurements to be performed with fewer animals, and improves the statistical quality of the data.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2002 · Academic Radiology