[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Artemether-lumefantrine is a first-line regimen for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Previous studies have reported changes in the pharmacokinetics and clinical outcomes following treatment with artemether-lumefantrine in pregnant populations, however results are inconclusive. We conducted a study in rural Uganda to compare the pharmacokinetics of artemether-lumefantrine, as well as treatment responses, between 30 pregnant women and 30 non-pregnant adults with uncomplicated
malaria. All participants were HIV-uninfected and treated with a six-dose regimen of artemether-lumefantrine and monitored clinically for 42 days. The pharmacokinetics of artemether, its metabolite, dihydroartemisinin, and lumefantrine were evaluated for 21 days following treatment. We found no significant differences in the overall pharmacokinetics of artemether, dihydroartemisinin, or lumefantrine in a direct comparison of pregnant women to non-pregnant adults, except for a statistically significant but small difference in the terminal elimination half-life of both dihydroartemisinin and lumefantrine. There were seven PCR-confirmed reinfections (5 pregnant and 2 non-pregnant participants). The observation of a shorter terminal half-life for lumefantrine may have contributed to a higher frequency of reinfection or a shorter post-treatment prophylactic period in pregnant women versus non-pregnant adults. While the comparable overall pharmacokinetic exposure is reassuring, studies are needed to further optimize antimalarial efficacy in pregnant women, particularly in high transmission settings and in the era of emerging drug resistance.
Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anti-malarial chemoprevention with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA/PQ) is a promising tool for malaria control, but its efficacy in children may be limited by inadequate drug exposure.
Children were enrolled in a non directly-observed trial of DHA/PQ chemoprevention in a high transmission setting in Uganda. Children were randomized at 6 months of age to no chemoprevention (n = 89) or monthly DHA/PQ (n = 87) and followed through 24 months of age, with pharmacokinetic sampling performed at variable times following monthly dosing of DHA/PQ. A previously published pharmacokinetic model was used to estimate piperaquine (PQ) exposure in each child, and associations between PQ exposure and the protective efficacy (PE) of DHA/PQ were explored.
The incidence of malaria was 6.83 and 3.09 episodes per person year at risk in the no chemoprevention and DHA/PQ arms, respectively (PE 54 %, 95 % CI 39–66 %, P < 0.001). Among children randomized to DHA/PQ, 493 pharmacokinetic samples were collected. Despite nearly 100 % reported adherence to study drug administration at home, there was wide variability in PQ exposure, and children were stratified into three groups based on average PQ exposure during the intervention that was determined by model generated percentiles (low, n = 40; medium, n = 37, and high, n = 10). Gender and socioeconomic factors were not significantly associated with PQ exposure. In multivariate models, the PE of DHA/PQ was 31 % in the low PQ exposure group (95 % CI 6–49 %, P = 0.02), 67 % in the medium PQ exposure group (95 % CI 54–76 %, P < 0.001), and 97 % in the high PQ exposure group (95 % CI 89–99 %, P < 0.001).
The protective efficacy of DHA/PQ chemoprevention in young children was strongly associated with higher drug exposure; in children with the highest PQ exposure, monthly DHA/PQ chemoprevention was nearly 100 % protective against malaria. Strategies to ensure good adherence to monthly dosing and optimize drug exposure are critical to maximize the efficacy of this promising malaria control strategy.
Trial Registration: Current Controlled Trials Identifier NCT00948896
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coadministration of nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) and artemether-lumefantrine is reported to result in variable
changes in lumefantrine exposure. We conducted an intensive pharmacokinetic study with 11 HIV-infected adults who were receiving
artemether-lumefantrine plus nevirapine-based ART, and we compared the results with those for 16 HIV-negative adult historical
controls. Exposure to artemether and lumefantrine was significantly lower and dihydroartemisinin exposure was unchanged in
subjects receiving nevirapine-based ART, compared with controls. Nevirapine exposure was unchanged before and after artemether-lumefantrine
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This secondary analysis explored changes in protein-unbound concentrations of lopinavir and amprenavir when co-administered in HIV-infected subjects. Total and unbound pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated and compared between subjects receiving each agent alone, and co-administration. When co-administered, unbound and total concentrations decrease. Co-administration significantly increased lopinavir unbound clearance, while significant changes in fraction unbound (fu) were not detected. For amprenavir, significant increases in fu and unbound clearance occurred with co-administration. This demonstrates the complex nature of drug-drug interactions between highly protein-bound, CYP-metabolized drugs, and the need to measure unbound concentrations in disease states like hepatitis C, where such agents are co-administered.
No preview · Article · Jul 2015 · JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. Metabolic effects following combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) vary by regimen type. Changes in metabolic effects were assessed following cART in the ACTG A5257 study, and correlated with plasma ritonavir trough concentrations (C24). Methods. Treatment-naïve adult subjects were randomized to ritonavir boosted atazanavir or darunavir, or raltegravir based cART. Changes in lipids and other metabolic outcomes over time were estimated. Differences between arms were estimated with 97.5% confidence intervals and compared using pairwise Student's T-tests. Associations between ritonavir C24 and lipid changes at week-48 were evaluated via linear regression. Results. Analyses included 1797 subjects with baseline fasting data. Baseline lipid profiles and metabolic syndrome rates (∼21%) were similar across arms. Comparable increases occurred in total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL-cholesterol with the boosted protease inhibitors (PI); each PI had greater increases relative to raltegravir (all P≤0.001 at week-96). Metabolic syndrome incident rates by week-96 (∼22%) were not different across arms. Ritonavir C24 were not different by arm (P=0.89), (median 69 ng/mL and 74 ng/mL in the atazanavir and darunavir arms respectively) and were not associated with changes in lipid measures (all P>0.1). Conclusions. Raltegravir produced the most favorable lipid profile. Metabolic syndrome rates were high at baseline and increased to the same degree in all arms. Ritonavir C24 was not different in the PI arms and had no relationship with the modest but comparable increases in lipids observed with either atazanavir or darunavir. The long-term clinical significance of the lipid changes noted with the PIs relative to raltegravir deserves further evaluation.
Preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Clinical Infectious Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malnutrition may impact the pharmacokinetics (PKs) of antiretroviral medications and virologic responses in HIV-infected children. The authors therefore evaluated the PK of nevirapine (NVP), efavirenz (EFV) and lopinavir (LPV) in associations with nutritional status in a cohort of HIV-infected Ugandan children.
Sparse dried blood spot samples from Ugandan children were used to estimate plasma concentrations. Historical PK data from children from 3 resource-rich countries (RRC) were utilized to develop the PK models.
Concentrations in 330 dried blood spot from 163 Ugandan children aged 0.7-7 years were analyzed in reference to plasma PK data (1189 samples) from 204 children from RRC aged 0.5-12 years. Among Ugandan children, 48% was malnourished (underweight, thin or stunted). Compared to RRC, Ugandan children exhibited reduced bioavailability of EFV and LPV; 11% (P = 0.045) and 18% (P = 0.008), respectively. In contrast, NVP bioavailability was 46% higher in Ugandan children (P < 0.001) with a trend toward greater bioavailability when malnourished. Children receiving LPV, EFV or NVP had comparable risk of virologic failure. Among children on NVP, low height and weight for age Z scores were associated with reduced risk of virologic failure (P = 0.034, P = 0.068, respectively).
Ugandan children demonstrated lower EFV and LPV and higher NVP exposure compared to children in RRC, perhaps reflecting the consequence of malnutrition on bioavailability. In children receiving NVP, the relation between exposure, malnutrition and outcome turned out to be marginally significant. Further investigations are warranted using more intensive PK measurements and adequate adherence assessments, to further assess causes of virologic failure in Ugandan children.
No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Determination of piperaquine (PQ) in pediatric plasma requires a method with a small sample volume.
We report a sensitive LC-MS/MS method for quantitation of PQ with only 25 µl human plasma. Using a deuterated internal standard (PQ-d6), an analytical PFP column, APCI(+) as the ion source and MRM (535/288 for PQ and 541/294 for the IS) for detection, the method has a linear calibration range of 1.5-250 ng/ml with a runtime of 3.0 min per sample. The method was applied to plasma samples from children.
The developed LC-MS/MS method is suitable for pediatric studies with small volume plasma samples collected via capillary tubes. One limitation was the performance of PFP columns varied among different brands.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives
Pregnancy results in physiological changes altering the pharmacokinetics of drugs metabolized by cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). The urinary ratio of 6-β hydroxycortisol to cortisol (6βHF : F) is a marker of CYP3A4 induction. We sought to evaluate its change in antiretroviral (ARV)-treated HIV-1-infected women and to relate this change to ARV pharmacokinetics.Methods
Women receiving various ARVs had pharmacokinetic evaluations during the third trimester of pregnancy (> 30 weeks) and postpartum with determination of 6βHF : F carried out on the same days. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare the ratio antepartum to postpartum. The relationship between the change in ratio and the change in pharmacokinetics was analysed using Kendall's tau.Results6βHF : F ratios were available for 107 women antepartum, with 54 having postpartum values. The ratio was higher antepartum (P = 0.033) (median comparison 1.35; 95% confidence interval 1.01, 1.81). For 71 women taking a protease inhibitor (PI), the antepartum vs. postpartum 6βHF : F comparison was marginally significant (P = 0.058). When the change in the 6βHF : F ratio was related to the change in the dose-adjusted ARV area under the plasma concentration vs. time curve (AUC) between antepartum and postpartum, the 35 subjects in the lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) arms demonstrated an inverse relationship (P = 0.125), albeit this correlation did not reach statistical significance.ConclusionsA 35% increase in the urinary 6βHF : F ratio was measured during late pregnancy compared with postpartum, indicating that CYP3A induction occurs during pregnancy. The trend towards an inverse relationship between the change in the 6βHF : F ratio and the change in the LPV AUC antepartum vs. postpartum suggests that CYP3A induction may be one mechanism behind altered LPV exposure during pregnancy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis is recommended for HIV-exposed infants until breastfeeding ends and HIV infection has been excluded. Extending prophylaxis with a focus on preventing malaria may be beneficial in high transmission areas. We investigated three regimens for the prevention of malaria in young HIV-exposed children. Design: An open-label, randomized controlled trial. Setting: Tororo, Uganda, a rural area with intense, year-round, malaria transmission. Participants: Two hundred infants aged 4–5 months enrolled and 186 randomized after cessation of breastfeeding and confirmed to be HIV uninfected (median 10 months of age). Intervention: No chemoprevention, monthly sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, daily trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or monthly dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine given from randomization to 24 months of age. Main outcome measures: The primary outcome was the incidence of malaria during the intervention period. Secondary outcomes included the incidence of hospitalization, diarrhoeal illness, or respiratory tract infection; prevalence of anaemia and asymptomatic parasitemia; measures of safety; and incidence of malaria over 1 year after the intervention was stopped. Results: During the intervention, the incidence of malaria in the no chemoprevention group was 6.28 episodes per person-year at risk. Protective efficacy was 69% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 53–80, P < 0.001] for dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine, 49% (95% CI 23–66, P = 0.001) for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and 9% for sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (95% CI −35 to 38, P = 0.65). There were no significant differences in any secondary outcomes, with the exception of a lower prevalence of asymptomatic parasitemia in the dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine arm. Conclusion: Monthly chemoprevention with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine was well tolerated and associated with a significant reduction in malaria in young HIV-exposed children.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
We evaluated the pharmacokinetics (PK) of raltegravir in HIV-infected women during pregnancy and postpartum.
International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials 1026s is an ongoing prospective study of antiretroviral PK during pregnancy (NCT00042289). Women receiving 400 mg raltegravir twice daily in combination antiretroviral therapy had intensive steady-state 12-hour PK profiles performed during pregnancy and at 6- to 12-week postpartum. Targets were trough concentration above 0.035 μg/mL, the estimated 10th percentile in nonpregnant historical controls.
Median raltegravir area under the curve was 6.6 μg·h/mL for second trimester (n = 16), 5.4 μg·h/mL for third trimester (n = 41), and 11.6 μg·h/mL postpartum (n = 38) (P = 0.03 postpartum vs second trimester, P = 0.001 pp vs third trimester). Trough concentrations were above the target in 69%, 80%, and 79% of second trimester, third trimester, and postpartum subjects, respectively, with wide variability (<0.010-0.917 μg/mL), and no significant difference between third trimester and postpartum trough concentrations was detected. The median ratio of cord blood/maternal raltegravir concentrations was 1.5. HIV RNA levels were <400 copies per milliliter in 92% of women at delivery. Adverse events included elevated liver transaminases in 1 woman and vomiting in 1. All infants with known status are HIV uninfected.
Median raltegravir area under the curve was reduced by approximately 50% during pregnancy; trough concentrations were frequently below target both during late pregnancy and postpartum. Raltegravir readily crossed the placenta. High rates of viral suppression at delivery and the lack of a clear relationship between raltegravir concentration and virologic effect in nonpregnant adults suggest that despite the decreased exposure during pregnancy, a higher dose is not necessary.
No preview · Article · Aug 2014 · JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is an urgent need for new antituberculosis (anti-TB) drugs, including agents that are safe and effective with concomitant antiretrovirals (ARV) and first-line TB drugs. PA-824 is a novel antituberculosis nitroimidazole in late-phase clinical development. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A, which can be induced or inhibited by ARV and antituberculosis drugs, is a minor (similar to 20%) metabolic pathway for PA-824. In a phase I clinical trial, we characterized interactions between PA-824 and efavirenz (arm 1), lopinavir/ritonavir (arm 2), and rifampin (arm 3) in healthy, HIV-uninfected volunteers without TB disease. Participants in arms 1 and 2 were randomized to receive drugs via sequence 1 (PA-824 alone, washout, ARV, and ARV plus PA-824) or sequence 2 (ARV, ARV with PA-824, washout, and PA-824 alone). In arm 3, participants received PA-824 and then rifampin and then both. Pharmacokinetic sampling occurred at the end of each dosing period. Fifty-two individuals participated. Compared to PA-824 alone, plasma PA-824 values (based on geometric mean ratios) for maximum concentration (C-max), area under the concentration- time curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC(0-24)), and trough concentration (C-min) were reduced 28%, 35%, and 46% with efavirenz, 13%, 17%, and 21% with lopinavir-ritonavir (lopinavir/r) and 53%, 66%, and 85% with rifampin, respectively. Medications were well tolerated. In conclusion, lopinavir/r had minimal effect on PA-824 exposures, supporting PA-824 use with lopinavir/r without dose adjustment. PA-824 exposures, though, were reduced more than expected when given with efavirenz or rifampin. The clinical implications of these reductions will depend upon data from current clinical trials defining PA-824 concentration-effect relationships.
Preview · Article · Aug 2014 · Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Chemoprevention offers a promising strategy for prevention of malaria in African children. However, the optimal chemoprevention drug and dosing strategy is unclear in areas of year-round transmission and resistance to many antimalarial drugs. To compare three available regimens, we conducted an open-label randomized controlled trial of chemoprevention in Ugandan children.
Methods and findings:
This study was conducted between June 28, 2010, and September 25, 2013. 400 infants were enrolled and 393 randomized at 6 mo of age to no chemoprevention, monthly sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), daily trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TS), or monthly dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP). Study drugs were administered at home without supervision. Piperaquine (PQ) levels were used as a measure of compliance in the DP arm. Participants were given insecticide-treated bednets, and caregivers were encouraged to bring their child to a study clinic whenever they were ill. Chemoprevention was stopped at 24 mo of age, and participants followed-up an additional year. Primary outcome was the incidence of malaria during the intervention period. During the intervention, the incidence of malaria in the no chemoprevention arm was 6.95 episodes per person-year at risk. Protective efficacy was 58% (95% CI, 45%-67%, p<0.001) for DP, 28% (95% CI, 7%-44%, p = 0.01) for TS, and 7% for SP (95% CI, -19% to 28%, p = 0.57). PQ levels were below the detection limit 52% of the time when malaria was diagnosed in the DP arm, suggesting non-adherence. There were no differences between the study arms in the incidence of serious adverse events during the intervention and the incidence of malaria during the 1-y period after the intervention was stopped.
For preventing malaria in children living in an area of high transmission intensity, monthly DP was the most efficacious and safe, although adherence may pose a problem. Monthly SP and daily TS may not be appropriate in areas with high transmission intensity and frequent resistance to antifolates.
www.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00948896 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To support the development of a dynamic in vitro human pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic simulation model for biofilm-mediated infections and study stability of meropenem, an LC-MS/MS method for the determination of meropenem in Luria Bertani (LB) media was developed and validated in an API2000 LC-MS/MS system. A partial validation was also performed in M9 media. Sample aliquots of 100μL (or 25μL for M9 media) were mixed with the internal standard (IS) ceftazidime and filtered. The filtrate was directly injected onto a C8 column eluted with ammonium formate (10mM, pH 4) and acetonitrile (0.1% formic acid) in a gradient mode. ESI(+) and MRM with ion pair m/z 384→68 for meropenem and m/z 547→468 for the IS were used for quantification. The calibration curve concentration range was 50 to 25,000ng/mL. The recovery was over 98%. In LB media, significant signal suppression was observed throughout the time period of detection when compared with mobile phase solvents, but the matrix effect was compensated well with the IS. In M9 media, much less signal suppression was observed. The method is simple, fast, and reliable. Using the method, stability of meropenem in LB and M9 media were tested. No significant degradation was observed for at least 8h in both LB media (37°C) and M9 media (30°C), but more than 15% degradation was observed overnight (∼20h). The method was transferred to an API5000 LC-MS/MS system using meropenem-d6 as the IS.
Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A method for quantification of fludarabine (FDB) and clofarabine (CFB) in human plasma was developed with an API5000 LC-MS/MS system. FDB and CFB were extracted from EDTA plasma samples by protein precipitation with trichloroacetic acid. Briefly, 50μL plasma sample was mixed with 25μL internal standard (50ng/mL aqueous 2-Cl-adensosine) and 25μL 20% trichloroacetic acid, centrifuged at 25,000×g (20,000rpm) for 3min, and then transfered to an autosampler vial. The extracted sample was injected onto an Eclipse extend C18 column (2.1mm×150mm, 5μm) and eluted with 1mM NH4OH (pH 9.6) - acetonitrile in a gradient mode. Electrospray ionization in positive mode (ESI(+)) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) were used, and ion pairs 286/134 for FDB, 304/170 for CFB and 302/134 for the internal standard were selected for quantification. The retention times were typically 3.72min for FDB, 4.34min for the internal standard, 4.79min for CFB. Total run time was 10min per sample. Calibration range was 0.5-80ng/mL for CFB and 2-800ng/mL for FDB. The method was applied to a clinical pharmacokinetic study in pediatric patients.
No preview · Article · May 2014 · Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pregnancy and food insecurity may impact antiretroviral (ART) pharmacokinetics (PK), adherence and response. We sought to quantify and characterize the PK of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) and efavirenz (EFV) by pregnancy and nutritional status among HIV-infected women in Tororo, Uganda. In 2011, 62/225 ante-partum/post-partum single dried blood spot samples DBS and 43 post-partum hair samples for LPV/r were derived from 116 women, 51/194 ante-/post-partum DBS and 53 post-partum hair samples for EFV from 105 women. 80% of Ugandan participants were severely food insecure, 26% lost weight ante-partum, and median BMI post-partum was only 20.2 kg/m(2) . Rich PK-data of normally nourished (pregnant) women and healthy Ugandans established prior information. Overall, drug exposure was reduced (LPV -33%, EFV -15%, ritonavir -17%) compared to well-nourished controls [p < 0.001], attributable to decreased bioavailability. Pregnancy increased LPV/r clearance 68% [p < 0.001], whereas EFV clearance remained unchanged. Hair concentrations correlated with plasma-exposure [p < 0.001], explaining 29% PK-variability. In conclusion, pregnancy and food insecurity were associated with lower ART exposures in this cohort of predominantly underweight women, compared to well-nourished women. Much variability in plasma-exposure was quantified using hair concentrations. Addressing malnutrition as well as ART-PK in this setting should be a priority.
Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology